Public Relations Assignment

Public Relations Assignment Words: 2856

This tells us that we cannot talk about public relations without reference to publics. A public is any group whose members have a common interest or common values in a particular situation. According to Wrong (1993), public relations publics or audiences can be divided into four categories which include: 1 . Functional Publics: They are those publics which enable the organization to perform its chosen tasks. 2. Enabling Publics: These are publics which permit the organization to function within the framework of the society to which it belongs. . Diffused Publics: Within this group are media organizations, pressure roofs and local residents. 4. Normative Publics: This term refers to trade associations and professional bodies, but it could also include political parties. Among the four categorization, the functional publics are usually closest to the organization and may exhibit the highest level of interaction. Gut and Marsh (2000) categorized public relations publics as follows: Traditional publics refer to groups with which your organization has ongoing, long term relationships.

Non-traditional publics these are groups that usually are not familiar with your organization; that is your organization has not had an ongoing, long ERM relationship with them. Non-traditional publics immerses either due to changes in your organization, the society or those publics themselves. Latent, aware, and active publics A latent public is one which, by evolving developments, common grounds of relationship is opening up between it and your organization, but whose members are yet to realize or explore it.

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Intervening publics Any public that helps you to send a message to another public is known as intervening public. Primary’ and secondary publics You could also divide public relations publics into primary and secondary publics depending on the extent to which they effect your organization’s pursuit of its goals. Internal and External Publics Internal publics exist within your organization while external publics are outside. Domestic and International publics Domestic publics are those within your country. International public exist beyond your country’s borders.

Origins of public relations The phrase “public relations” was invented in the twentieth century, the practice of public relations had been since the dawn of recorded history. Edward Barneys, the three main elements of public relations are practically as old as society: informing people, persuading people, or integrating people tit people. Box Populous, Box Die – the voice of the people is the voice of God Eves Publican – public affairs Congregation Propaganda Fide – In the 17th century, the Catholic Church established this w/c means the congregation for the propagation of faith.

This was the origin of propaganda, a means at this time for spreading church doctrine. Trends Leading To the Development of Modern Public Relations Five social trends that have aided the development of modern public relations as outlined by Gut and Marsh The Growth of Institutions Expansion of Democracy Technological Improvements in Communication The Growth of Advocacy The Search for Consensus Pioneers of Public Relations Ivy Letterer Lee (1877-1934) – the most famous of the early public relations practitioners. Lee’s major clients were John D. Rockefeller and the Pennsylvania Railroad.

Ivy Lee was however not a saint. Some authors believe that he did always apply the standards of truth and accuracy to his work. He was also believed to have secretly worked for Hitler. Edward L. Barneys (1891-1995) – He coined the famous public relations term ‘public relations counsel’ in his first book by the title ‘Crystallizing Public Opinion’ published in 1923. Barneys later published two other public relations kooks propaganda in 1928 and Public Relations in 1952. A year later, Doris {Barneys’ wife} and I coined the phrase ‘counsel on public relations’. What is a Model?

Models are often used as a basis for understanding communication. Generally speaking, a model is a representation of something. It is a small scale or miniature representation of something that serves as a guide in constructing the full scale version of that thing. According to Berks, Woolen and Woolen (1981 ), communication models ‘help us to see the components of communication from a perspective that allows for analysis and . Understanding Of the complexities Of the process. The RACE Model John Marathon’s RACE model which he created in 1963 Research – Research is the discovery stage of a problem-solving process.

Action – Blind decision-making in public relations can have unsaved consequences. Communication – This is the execution stage of the public relations process. Evaluation – Evaluation asks the question ‘how effective have our strategies been’? The Hunt- Grunting Models of Public Relations These models were developed by professors Hunt and James Grunting. The models include: The Press Gentry / Publicity Model In this model, the focus of public relations effort is on getting favorable overage or publicity from the media. It is a one-way communication with propaganda (one-sided argument) as its purpose.

The model projects an approach that thrives on falsehood, thus accuracy, ethics and truth are not seen as essential. According to Gut and Marsh (2000), a study in 1989 had revealed that this was the most practiced model of public relations with p. T. Barnum as one of the prominent figures in the practice of the model. The Public Information Model This model equally adopts a one-way approach of dissemination of information. However, unlike the press gentry/publicity model, it assassinates truthful and accurate information.

It is a model in which the public relations professional acts much like a typical journalist or news reporter ‘in residence’ in the organization and the information he or she disseminates is relatively objective. Indeed, the purpose of public information here is the dissemination of truthful information. The model was developed by Ivy Lee, an early expert in public relations. Gut and Marsh report that the 1989 study showed that this model was the second most practiced, but it ranked last in order of preference among practitioners.

The Two?Way Asymmetrical Model The trust of this model is scientific persuasion. It uses research as a way of influencing vital publics towards the organization’s point of view. The model also attempts to create mutual understanding between the organization and its publics. The essence of research here is to reveal how best to persuade the audience or public. According to Gut and Marsh, the 1989 study showed that it was the least practiced of the four models but it ranked first in order of preference among practitioners.

The Two-Way Symmetrical Model In this model, public relations communicators make every attempt for each did to understand the other’s point of view. The goal here is to achieve mutual understanding albeit in a deeper and more profound way that puts the two parties in a win-win situation. Melvin Sharper’s Behavioral Theory Model of Public Relations This model, created by old public relations workhorse Melvin L. Sharpe, attempts to take care of the defects in the four models of Hunt and Grunting. According to Sharpe, these models do not achieve all the elements of behavior necessary for effective public relations performance.

According to Sharpe, the behavioral principles that achieve harmonious public relationships and what they achieve are: Honesty for credibility Openness for consistency of actions for confidence Fairness for reciprocity Continuous communication to prevent alienation and build relationships Continuous image analysis for corrective adjustment in behavior or communication This model would be useful in helping management understand its role in achieving effective public relations and why good performance requires professional guidance.

Defining Public Relations The British Institute of Public relations (BIRR) defines public relations as ‘the deliberate planned and sustained effort to establish and maintain mutual understanding between an organization and its publics. ” ‘Sustained effort’ means that it is not enough to start the plan; it must be carried through to a logical end. The public Relations Society of America (APRS) says “public relations are concerned with or devoted to creating mutual understanding among groups and institutions. Another definition is that given Cutlet, Center and Broom, in their book Effective Public Relations which is considered the bible Of public relations in America. According to them, public relations are the “management function that identifies, establishes and maintains mutually beneficial relationships teen an organization and its publics upon whom its success depends. ” Frank Jiffies, a British author, in his book Public Relation, says “public relations consist of all forms of planned communication both inward and outward between an organization and its publics for the purpose of achieving objectives concerning mutual understanding. Mutual understanding is a very broad concept which every organization must seek to establish. ‘Inward and outward communication’ implies a two-way communication involving both the organization and its various publics. World Congress of National Public Relations Associations, held in Mexico in 978. It states ” Public Relations is the art and social science of analyzing trends, predicting their consequences, counseling organizational leaders as well as planning and implementing a program of action that will serve the interest of not only the organization but also that of its publics. Components of Public Relations According to the Public Relations Society of America, the components of public relations include the following: Counseling: Providing advice to management concerning policies, relationships, and communication with its various publics. Research: Determining attitudes and behaviors of publics through research in order to plan public relations strategies. Such research can be used to (1 ) generate mutual understanding or (2) influence and persuade publics. Media Relations: Working with the mass media in seeking publicity or responding to their interest in the organization.

Publicity: Disseminating planned messages through selected media to further the organization’s interest. Employee/Member Relations: Responding to concerns, informing, and motivating and organization’s employees or association or club members. Community Relations: Planned activity with a community to maintain an environment that benefits both the organization and the community. Public Affairs: Developing effective involvement in public policy and helping an organization adapt to public expectations. Governmental Affairs: Relating directly with legislature and regulatory agencies on behalf of the organization.

Lobbying can be part of the government affairs program. Issues management: Identifying and addressing issues of public concern that affect the organization. Financial Relations: Also known as Investor Relations or Shareholder Relations. It involves creating and maintaining investor confidence and building good relationships with the financial community. Industry Relations: Relating with other firms in the industry of an organization and with trade associations. Development/Fund-Raising: Demonstrating the need for and encouraging the public to support an organization, primarily through financial contributions.

Multicultural Relations/ Workplace Diversity: Relating with individuals and groups in various cultural settings. Special Events: Stimulating an interest in a person, product, or organization by means of a focused “happening”. They are activities designed to interact with publics and listen to them. Marketing Communications: Combination of activities designed to sell a reduce, service, or idea. These activities may include advertising, collateral materials, publicity, promotion, direct mail, trade shows, and special events.

What Public Relations Is Not Checkup Envious (1997) identified some of these misconceptions, thus: 1. Public relations are not about lying and selling falsehood about your product and organization. 2. Public relations is not about bribery. 3. Public relations is based on moral principles and as such it is not ‘arranging’ pretty ladies for international visitors to government houses or to chief executives of companies, clients, board members, etc. 4. Public relations is to magic, enchantment or paranormal. 5. Public relations is not about organizing parties and other social events. 6.

Public relations is not about employing pretty ladies lacking in morals and principles to woo men into acting against their wishes. 7. Public relations is not about being a yes-boy or a bag carrier for your boss’ madam or relations. Areas of Work of Public Relations Practitioners Fundamentally, public relations practitioners perform the following functions: Writing and editing: Writing is a very vital skill in public relations. Mass Production: Practitioners of public relations engage in the writing of arioso messages for the purpose of communicating with both internal and external publics.

Media relations: The mass media in both print and electronic are the channels through which public relations practitioners communicate with the public. Research: Public relations problems are not solved by guess work. PR practitioners carry out formal research to obtain information that is vital to planning. Strategic planning: Public relations practitioners who operate at the top level participate in the formulation of organizational missions, policies and goals. Management and administration: public relations practitioners engage in management work.

Public relations are a distinct management function which helps to maintain mutual lines of communication between an organization and its publics. Corporate counseling: Public relations practitioners advise management on matters concerning their organizations’ relationships with their various publics. Organizing special events: The organization of events, such as trade fairs, trade exhibitions, press conferences, fashion shows, factory tours, special observances (e. G. Mothers’ day) Cams, etc is part of work public relations practitioners do.

Speaks Eng: To represent their organizations, PR practitioners do engage in peaking assignments of different kinds for different publics. Coaching: PR practitioners also engage in training and coaching top management staff on public speaking and press interviews. Crisis Communication: A very special type of work that PR practitioners do is helping their organizations to resolve crises whenever they occur. Public Relations and Related Concepts Publicity: This refers to any attempt designed to expose an organization, its services or product to the public through any public media.

Press Agency: Unlike a news agency, a press agency deals with staging seaworthy events that are designed to attract the attention of the public by publicizing them in the media. Lobbying: This is one of the most abused expressions in common usage. Merchandising: This deals with blending an acceptable appearance. It is part of promotion. Promotion: This involves molding or monopolizing opinion favorably to an organization to get it to support a worthy cause, e. G. The mounting of events or fund raising programs for motherless babies’ homes.

Personal Selling: these talks about a personal effort involving a person who is attempting to woo other people on behalf of a product, a group, an idea, etc, e. . Religious crusaders who go from door to door. There are two types of personal sellers namely: order-takers and order-getters. Human Relations: Human relations deals with an individual’s ability to develop and maintain a personality type as well as image that is capable of successful and spontaneous interpersonal relationship with other people. Human relations is relating well with others.

It talks about manners and character. Good human relations is the basis of good public relations. Persuasion: It is a fundamental assumption in public relations that effective public relations are persuasive, not intimidating or forcing. Persuasion is any mass communication effort designed to change public opinion, believe, attitudes as well as action. Communication: This is a process of sharing ideas with other people. In a professional sense, it is a means of sending information from one person to another. Public relations in all its forms embrace communication in one form or the other. Jobs in Public Relations The public Relations Society Of America outlined the following as the activities an average public relations personnel does. Information Service Part of building a company’s reputation is the role of supplying information to a variety of publics. Product Publicity Introduction of new products, and campaigns to put fresh life into the sale of established products, are important functions in what is broadly called marketing communications.

Investor Relations Also referred to as stockholder communications, investor relations is a means for providing information to individuals who own stock or have a special interest in the corporation. Financial Relations A parallel function to investor relations is to provide extensive information to the financial community including security analysts at brokerage houses, large banks and similar institutions, and to weigh the information and make judgments on a company’s financial strength and prospects.

Community Relations A company is a vital part of a community and as such has obligations to that community through various kinds of support including encouraging employees to do volunteer work, providing a grant to the local orchestra or art museum, donating needed equipment to local schools or hospitals and so on. Good community relations include efforts to improve the quality of life in the community. Employee Relations In any organization, there must be a good communication “flow” between management and employees and employees and management. Public Affairs

The actions of government on the local, state, and national level have major effects on how companies conduct their affairs. Special Events Management Public relations personnel are responsible for the planning and implementation of special events including sponsorship of the games, of civic or cultural events and festivals. Issues Management Issues management is the management process of determining how various public issues will affect a company. Trade Associations Trade associations are generally comprised of member companies that produce the same type of product or provide similar services.

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