This guide will focus on the following seven topics: 1 . The expected team activities within each of the project management process phases (initiating, planning, executing, and closing) 2. The recommended procedures for supporting successful information system project outcomes in areas of scope management, time management, and cost management (the triple constraint) 3. The recommend procedures for supporting successful information system project outcomes in area of quality management 4.
The outcomes in the area of risk management. 5. The explanation of the “best practices” for the project manager 6. The explanation of the “best practices” for project team members 7. The recommended practices for supporting successful information yester project operations in the areas of team communications with clients and team communication with each other. Initiation When starting a systems analysis design project, the first stage in the project is the initiation stage.
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The main purpose of this stage is to “perform several activities to assess the size, scope, and complexity of the project and to establish procedures to support subsequent activities” (Hoofer, George, & Avalanche, 2013). Throughout the initiation stage, four steps must be completed for a successful project including: acquiring a team, establishing a relationship with the client, developing a business ease, and finally delivering a project charter agreement.
Activity I Description I Acquiring a team I * Look for developers with a background similar to your current project * Look for people who have worked on the same team * Make sure everyone you hire is a team player I Establishing a relationship with the client I Clearly communicate all the project plans * Extend your knowledge to your client * Be honest and be yourself I Developing a business case I * Show the client what you have in mind for their project * Ask if this satisfies the needs of the client Glee ten client an estimate Educate Ana time Trade
ASK IT ten client NAS any questions I Delivering a project characterizing I * Have the charter, a legal contract, ready to sign * Include start and completion dates and key assumptions * Explain the final cost, time, scope, and quality * Ask if the client has any questions * Both parties sign the charter to make it a legal agreement Planning The planning phase is the most critical phase throughout the entire project.
If planning is not done effectively, then the project is doomed from the start. “Project planning involves defining clear, discrete activities and the work needed to complete ACH activity within a single project (Hoofer, et al. 2013). The four main focuses of the planning stage are: describing the project scope, dividing the project into tasks, developing a schedule, and setting a baseline project plan.
Activity I Description I Describing the project scope I * Determine the depth of the project * Describe the problems and opportunities of the project * Identify in terms that can be quantified the results that are expected * Define the measurement of success * Define what constitutes completion of the project I Dividing the project into tasks I Make sure each developer does not have more than they can handle * Ensure that each developer is working with their strengths * Make sure each assigned task can be completed by the time frame given * Have multiple developers work in groups on the parts that require massive time and resources I Developing a schedule I Ensure that each developer knows exactly when they should have their individual parts completed * See that the schedule is practical and have extra time allotted in case of an unforeseen problem * Watch the schedule closely to ensure that the project will be done on or before the due date I Setting a baseline project plan I This is the deliverable portion of the planning stage * Estimate the projects tasks and resources required * The baseline estimates will be used as a guide in the next phase, project execution * As new information is gathered, the baseline project will be continually updated I Execution The third phase in the project management process is execution. The execution phase is responsible for putting the Baseline Project Plan into action. “Within the context of the OSDL, project execution occurs primarily during the analysis, design, and implementation phases” (Hoofer, et al. 2013).
There are five main activities ring project execution that the project manager is responsible for overseeing: executing the Baseline Project Plan, monitoring project process against the Baseline Project Plan, managing changes to the Baseline Project Plan, maintaining the project workbook, and communicating the project status. Activity I Description I Executing the Baseline Project Plan I * Assign resources * Train new team members * Keep project on schedule * Ensure quality of deliverables I Monitoring project process I * Monitoring can lead to changes in the plan * May have to adjust resources, budget, etc. * Use Giant charts to show progress *
Evaluation of each team member I Managing changes I Reasons to initiate change * Slipped completion date for an activity * Bungled activity that must be redone lamentation AT a new actual TTY Tanat Decodes event later In ten project Unforeseen change in personnel (sickness, resignation)When a change delays completion of an activity the project manager may either a) devise a way to get back on schedule or b) revise the plan I Maintaining the project workbook I Provides documentation of all project events * Explains why decisions were made I * Project manager is responsible for Communicating project status immunization project status to all stakeholders * Two types of information are usually discussed: a) work results – outcomes of activities and b) project plan – formal document used to execute I Slowdown The project slowdown phase, quite simply, is Just bringing the project to an end. “A project is not complete until it is closed and it is at slowdown that projects are deemed a success or failure” (Hoofer, et al. 2013). There are two ways in which a project may end: natural termination or unnatural termination. A natural termination takes place when all of the project requirements have been met. When a reject is stopped prior to completion then it is considered to have an unnatural termination. Regardless of the project termination outcome, several activities, must be performed: closing down the project, conduction post project reviews, and closing the customer contract” (Hoofer, et al. 2013). Activity I Description I Closing down the project I * Possible Job and assignment changes members * Access team members’ performance * Notify all stakeholders that project is complete * Finalize all documentation I Conducting post project reviews I Conduct reviews with management and customers * Determine strengths and nakedness of project deliverables I Closing the customer contract I * Insure all contractual terms have been met; typically in writing I The Quadruple Constraints Upon the completion of the management reports, it is imperative for the Project team to consider and anticipate possible setbacks or constraints.
The quadruple constraints are composed of the traditional triple constraints of scope management, time management and cost management added with quality management. The team can utilize various tools and/or practices to reach successful outcomes for each of these constraints. Scope management is perhaps the most important function for the project manager. It is imperative for project managers to analyze and process the scope of the new information system. Planning is perhaps the most crucial utility that a project manager can and should perform. Project managers can utilize tools to provide for help in the area of support for successful outcomes for the system project.
Accessing and utilizing various tools in the various tools of scope management will benefit the project manager and team in success implementations of a new project, The first tool for successful scope management is to describe the cope, possible alternatives and feasibility for the project (Hoofer, J. A. , George, J. F. , Avalanche, J. S. , p. 2013). The project manager should analyze concerns as what is to be achieved, how to measure success, the definition of completing the project and in essence, want must De cone to meet ten adjectives AT ten new project. Deeding ten goals and achievements is an imperative tool and step to ensure proper implementation and success in the new project.
Upon completion of this step and/or tool, the next step is to address the actions and tasks needed for the project. The second tool is to divide the project into separate but attainable tasks. There are two different tools that can aid in the second tool. One aid, a work breakdown structure, defines the tasks and sequences of the project. This tool will ensure that there is a smooth transition between the multiple tasks (Kahn, 2006). Another useful tool is a Giant chart. This chart provides a graphical representation of the project which shows on a horizontal bar the tasks with the appropriate length of time to complete the tasks (Hoofer, J. A. , George, J. F. , Avalanche, J. S. , p. 2013).
After determining and signing the necessary tasks, the project manager and team must the focus on the resources available for the project. A third tool is to estimate and develop a resource plan. This tool plans and distributes the resources effectively. A common tool for this tool is the Constructive Cost Model (COMBO). This method uses parameters from previous projects with various levels of complexity (Hoofer, J. A. , George, J. F. , Avalanche,J. S. , p. 2013). Upon determining the resources and distributing the resource accordingly, it is imperative to establish a schedule. The fourth tool of scope management is developing a preliminary schedule.
This tool will aid on the tasks and resources available to determine the estimates for tasks to be completed. A network diagram is a useful aid that has depictions of tasks and their interrelationships. This diagram is similar in composure and structure as to the Giant diagram (Hoofer, J. A. , George,J. F. , Avalanche,J. S. , p. 2013). When the schedule is completed, there is a need for the project manager and team to establish a communication plan. A fifth tool in scope management is creating a communication plan. The goal and objective of the communication plan is to outline communication room the project manager, the project team and customer.
The plan also details how and when both written and oral reports are drafted and submitted. The importance of open and free communication can aid in the success of a new project. Two-way communication from the project team and customer will ensure that the goals and design of the new project are on track and being attained. The completing of the communication plan will lead to the determination of the project standards and procedures. A sixth tool that can be utilized in aiding success is determining the project standards and procedures. The project manager will determine numerous avenues of deliveries that are produced by the project team. One useful aid is the standard OSDL.
In using the OSDL, the team will determine what modifications and methods will be needed to attain the project goals. Setting clear standards and developing precise standards will diminish future problems in confusion and complexity among current and new staff members of the project team (Hoofer, J. A. , George, J. F. , Avalanche, J. S. , p. 2013). After determining the project standards and procedures, it is of great importance to identify and assess risks for the project in the scope management. A seventh tool to aid is identifying and assessing risks that are associated with the new project. One goal is to determine consequences of such risks.
Risks can come from new technology, government regulation, and the possibility of user’s resisting new change. I nee tool AT Intelligent Ana agelessly rolls Is a continuous tool Tanat must be performed repeatedly during the new project. Repeating this tool will minimize setbacks of unexpected change or resource scarcity that will hinder or trouble a new project implementation and creation. Developing a project scope statement is completed at the end of scope management. The statement clearly defines what work is to be performed and what the project will deliver. The statement is designed predominately for the customer (Hoofer, J. A. , George,J. F. , Avalanche, J. S. , p. 2013).
The statement aids in ensuring that there is a clear understanding of what the customer expects and what the project team responsibilities are to deliver the new project. At the end of the scope project, a Baseline Project Plan must be developed. This is basically an estimate of the tasks and resources associated with such tasks. The Baseline Project Plan is a guide that will aid in the execution phase of the project. The Baseline Project Plan is continuously updated through-out development and execution of the new project (Hoofer, J. A. , George, J. F. , Avalanche, J. S. , p. 2013). This plan will also aid in the time management of the project. Time management is another important constraint that the project manager and project team must consider to ensure a successful implementation of the project.
Network diagramming is an important technique that controls resources. The network diagram demonstrates critical paths to ensure resources are consumed and utilized effectively and efficiently. Another tool to aid in time management is calculating the expected time orations of tasks. This has been proven to be an error-prone area for time management. The Program Evaluation Review Technique (PERT) is a useful aid and technique that uses optimistic, pessimistic and realistic time estimates to determine and calculate time for expected tasks associated with the project. In addition, a Giant chart can aid in time management with the scheduling of tasks (Hoofer, J. A. , George, J. F. , Avalanche, J. S. , p. 2013).
It is imperative that the time management constraint is success so that the cost management constraint is not compromised. Cost management is imperative in any new project. During this time, it is important to determine what revenues and expenses will be associated with the new project. Performing a cost-benefit analysis will aid management and the project team in determining the financial risks and expenses and revenues are not carefully evaluated and analyzed. Financial hardship can have severe and devastating impact on any organization resulting in uncompleted and unaccepted projects to closure of the company. A fourth and equally important constraint is quality management.
Open communication will aid in quality management to ensure the desired project and software is being delivered to the customer. In addition, during the close down period, it is important to perform numerous tests and analysis to ensure the project meets the demands. The conducting of post project reviews is important in quality to management to ensure the customer is satisfied.