Perspectives of the Limited War and the Emerging Threat of Terrorism in South Asia Assignment

Perspectives of the Limited War and the Emerging Threat of Terrorism in South Asia Assignment Words: 9991

PERSPECTIVES OF THE LIMITED WAR AND THE EMERGING THREAT OF TERRORISM IN SOUTH ASIA 1. 21st Century has witnessed terrorism as an emerging threat to world peace and security. Precipitated by the events of September 11th and its aftermath, the phenomenon transcends borders and impacts various regions of the world with varying intensities. Terrorism has various forms and manifestations; its spectrum is broad and deep running from religious/ideological extremism, sectarian intolerance, sub-national militant, regional geo-strategic/political dynamics and transnational/international trends. . Some of these trends can be linked to post 9/11 environment, while others are anchored in the past historical events . Pakistan has itself been a victim of terrorism since long, which is also perpetrated by foreign elements and their local facilitators. Terrorism continues to grow in the region and poses a potent threat to internal security of Pakistan. While external threat is discernable and Pakistan Army is fully trained and equipped to respond to it, internal security threat is intangible without clearly drawn line and boundaries and hence difficult to respond. 3.

Foregoing in view, analyze terrorism as a facet of internal threat to the security of Pakistan, in the backdrop of our experience in combating terrorism. Also assess capability of law enforcing agencies (LEA), identify role of Pakistan Army and propose response to cope with the internal security threat spectrum. [pic] Introduction 4. The calculus of conflict today has changed the facets of war. A war that has no frontiers and many theatres, and virtually the enemy being confronted is too disparate & diffuse, to be defeated in a climatic battle we are in another long war i. . the GWOT (Global War On Terrorism). Today the uni polar world witnesses the specter of catastrophic terrorism, whose ending concern is destruction. It’s daunting equally for great and small nations. The state actors are using terror to maintain their grip on power & non actors are using terror to disrupt a politico socio and economic order. in regions vested to their interests These interests, are formented to produce effects beyond the immediate physical damage of the cause and thus having a long term psychological repercussions on the particular targeted audience.

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The fear created by the terrorists may be intended to cause the people to over exaggerate the strength of terrorists and incidental impact of the cause to provoke governments over reaction, to discourage dissent or simply to intimidate and thereby enforce compliance to their demands. But factors too contribute to the initiation of terrorism. In the broader sense the Political systems based on centralization, paternalistic leaders unwilling to give up any powers, corruption and repression all contribute to the inability of much of the elements to keep pace with the rest of the world and resort to terrorist motives (Economist, 2002).

Reasons that cultivated elements, with few outlets for reform, little chance for progress and offered spiritual, if not worldly, emancipation, little wonder many of the disenchanted turn to terrorism. 5. Two decades ago the terrorists attended to frame their activity in political and ideological terms, in recent times our increasing members view their activities in religious categories too… and the west accounts the crescent melded into the cauldron of extreme Islamic beliefs as one of the catalyst ground for this turmoil.

Because it believes that Islamic extremist groups seem to be another avenue for challenging the status quo. Whereas the initial factors and nursing, nurturing and fostering of the cause rests within the west itself. Aim 6. To Analyze terrorism as a facet of internal threat to the security of Pakistan, in the backdrop of own experience in combating terrorism duly assessing capabilities of (LEA’s), identifying role of Pakistan Army in the ambit of proposing response to cope with the internal security threat spectrum. Combating a War of Technological Age 7.

The great Prussian philosopher and student of war Karl von Clauswitz once observed that “Every age has its own kind of war, its own limiting conditions and its own peculiar pre-conceptions” 8. Today we realize that Clauswitz was right, our age has indeed generated to “own kind of war’ and the melding of dangerous aims make the ongoing war on terrorism truly the first global war of information & technological age. In this war the intentions of enemy are clear but capabilities are very much shrouded. Pakistan on the Threshold 9. Pakistan in purview has been combating all these causes in the global war on terrorism.

It has shared causalities and sacrifices, victories and defeats, advances and set backs and suffered to the utmost in civic peace. Today, as we fight the war on terrorism we need to continue to mobilize for what will be a long fight in combating terrorism in this informatics age. We should not fight it as a single dimension war, and thereby neglecting the long term causes and the consequences 10. In this war we are facing multifarious threats, to the internal security of Pakistan some from state actors and other from non actors (external and internal).

The intensity is increased. Today the security has to be conceived out of military terms and needs to be seen in the matrix of internal security. Major catalysts like law and order, economy political instability ethnic, sectarian difference might lead the country to be addressed as a polarized nation. 11. Although external and ideological dimensions of threat are being handled aptly by the government with appropriate responses It is the internal dimension of National security that presents a daunting challenge.

The militancy of religion and ethnic groups with increasing incidents of clashes amongst various factions is not only affecting the national economy but also resulting in loss of the faith of the common citizen in the government. It is evident that if the on going state of terrorist activities is not checked with prudence, sense of purpose, and bent of conflict resolution, the threat to our security from within will also increase with the inherent risk. Conflict Resolution 12.

Undoubtedly conflict resolution is a relatively new field, but it does have a proven track record of ideas and projects that could be used in other aspects of our attempts to reduce support for terrorism, capacity building and cooperative problem solving that conflict resolution practitioners and theorists have been working on for more than a generation. We must address the areas where we in the conflict resolution have a contribution to make. Taking into account the example of Northern Ireland, it is possible to sharply reduce terrorist violence through long-term peace building and onflict resolution and reducing the threat to internal and external security being confronted by us. But a complex threat like terrorism cannot be understood without comprehending its basic genealogy with a broad perspective. Broad Perspective of Genesis of Terrorism 13. In order to analyse the threat and understand its impacts it is deemed appropriate to focus a cursory overview of history where we find rich instances of terrorism in the annals through the ages.

In 50 BC, Julius Caesar encouraged taking hostages to ensure the obedience of conquered tribes, the Zealots in Israel (100 A. D. ) fought Roman occupation with hit-and-run tactics in public places, the Assassins in Iraq (1100 A. D. ) fought the Christian Crusaders with suicide tactics and the Thuggees in India (1300 A. D. ) kidnapped travelers for sacrifice to their Goddess of Terror, Kali are a few well-known examples of terrorists of varying categories belonging to ancient medieval eras[1]. 14. It was in the 19th century that terrorism of the present day form cast its shadow.

In India, one act of terrorism in 19th century was the assassination of Lord Mayo, the Viceroy of India, in the Andaman Islands, in 1872. The Russian revolutionaries extensively used terrorism in 1878-81 and again in the twentieth century, by radical nationalist groups in Ireland, Macedonia and Armenia, and by anarchist in France, Italy, Spain and the USA, particularly in the 1890s. , The inferno of the World War – I was actually triggered off by a Bosnian terrorist who assassinated the Archduke of Austria in 1914.

The 1920s and 1930s saw the emergence of yet another form of terrorism that is terror perpetrated by Hitler’s brown shirts and Mussolini’s black shirts that used murder, violence and intimidation to achieve political power minding the Jewish holocaust, The seeds of contemporary terrorism were unwittingly sown during the Second World War. It was thereafter a matter of time before violence and terrorism, as forms of political struggle, spread in various parts of the world. 15. Terrorism is probably the most defined word –there are over 109 definitions for it.

That should indicate what a misunderstood word it is.. Therefore Governments, LEA’s and judicial corridors find it difficult to comprehend and implement subsequently translating to their own choice. Pakistan’s Internal Security Threat Concerns 16. Our concern centers on the idea that terrorism cannot be isolated from its surroundings; it is at once a form of conflict in itself and, at the same time, a manifestation of a larger set of social and cultural failures. The first embraces those tactical measures, too often brutal and indiscriminate, characteristic of terrorist attacks.

The second encompasses the vast range of psychological, social, religious, political and economic causes and goals at the heart of terrorist views of the world. The two cannot be separated; each largely defines the other, both for the terrorists and us who are struggling to deal with them. It is in hopes of understanding the threatening linkages between the two and affecting us that this essay has been written. 17. The analytical focus is mainly on the negative impacts on economic situation and the factors which configure a strong and resilient economy. Pakistan is confronted with dilemma of unstable economy in the wake of terrorism.

Weak economy, high inflation, high rate of population growth, low literacy level and non consistent policies are permanent irritants. Especially, for the last two decades and in the aftermath of 9/11 tragedy, the major challenges are in the form of deteriorating law and order situation, religious extremism, weaponisation and economic degeneration. There is a dire need to attend to the future threats to Pakistan’s economy due to emerging dimensions of terrorism and address this menace so that we can stand as a stable country, trouble free and respected in the world.

Our Experience Efforts in Combating Terrorism 18. Pakistan being the only Islamic nuclear state and beholder of a geo strategic importance was confronted with such situation, it offered its full support in fight against terrorism[2]. Steps taken by Pakistan to counter terrorism are in two different categories. Steps taken before and after September 11 are as following:- [pic] a. Steps Undertaken Prior to September 11 a. Enactment of Anti-Terrorism Act in 1997 which was later amended in August 2001.

Under this Act, special courts have been established for speedy trial of those involved in terrorist activities. [3] a. Signing of extradition treaties with twenty-seven countries. Pursuant to the treaties, Pakistan is cooperating actively in tracking down and nabbing terrorists and other criminals. b. Sharing of relevant information with other countries in the fight against terrorism. c. Crack down on extremist elements banning and monitoring of suspected organizations. [4] h. Steps Undertaken Post 9/11 incident

Pakistan, despite the anticipated economic costs to itself, decided to play the role of a frontline state in the fight against terrorism and took following measures in addition to steps taken prior to September 11:- 1) Financing of Terrorism [5] Administrative orders were been issued by the State Bank of Pakistan (SBP) to all commercial banks to freeze accounts of the organizations suspected of involvement in terrorist activities as per the lists received from the UN Security Council, Asian Development Bank (ADB) and from United States Embassy in Pakistan. 2) Judicial Measures[6]

The Anti-Terrorism Act of 1997 was adopted with the aim of preventing terrorist acts, sectarian violence and in order to ensure speedy trials of those involved in heinous offences. In August 2001, the Act was further amended to enlarge its scope. Under the amended Act, terrorism is a punishable offence and abetting terrorism, including membership of terrorist groups and recruitment and support for such groups, is an offence. 3) Arms Control[7] The Government took taken a number of arms control measures in order to eliminate the Kalashnikov culture with a ban on display of weapons in public.

Ban on imposed on the issuance of arms licenses and in an arms recovery campaign During the amnesty period, 87,000 weapons were surrendered voluntarily, while 38,990 weapons were recovered during post amnesty period. 4) Sectarian Violence[8] The Anti-Terrorism Act of 1997 as amended in August 2001 with steps against sectarian violence by imposing a ban on all religious militant organizations, collection of funds, and action against sectarian activities. Strict enforcement of law against provocative religious writings. 5) Information / Intelligence Sharing [9]

Pakistan has been actively cooperating with the international community, especially the United States, in the field of information and intelligence sharing to combat terrorism. A number of suspected terrorists have been deported to the concerned countries. 6) Security at Frontiers[10] Regular troops have been deployed along the Pakistan-Afghanistan border and air surveillance is being carried out to prevent the entry into Pakistan of any terrorist from Afghanistan, and strict action against those responsible of jeopardizing civil peace, as presently in Swat and District Hangu. 7) Immigration[11]

Entry of foreigners is being strictly regulated. 8) Support for International Coalition[12] The cooperation includes information sharing, use of air space and provision of logistical facilities. Pakistan has also deployed thousands of regular troops in addition to the paramilitary forces to seal its 2450 km long border with Afghanistan. Impact on Pakistan’s Economy in the Backdrop of Our Role 19. Pakistan’s coalition with US in the war against terrorism has brought the Pakistan’s economy both losses and benefits. Its economy has suffered losses due to declining exports and flow of foreign investment.

The negative impact of war on the economy will take a time to reverse, however, the positive side of the war showed the resumed aid, credit flow, loan rescheduling and greater market access being offered to Pakistan. Analytically the impacts causing damage to the internal security in the backdrop of our role in fighting terrorism are far reaching, we will take them one by one as fol:- a. Negative AspectsAs present turmoil in, multinational companies, big buying houses, international NGO’s and shipping lines scaled down their perations, which had an immediate negative impact on the economy of Pakistan. However, emergence of Pakistan as a front state ally in war against terrorism minimized these effects to a great extent. The immediate impact which lasted for a year or so after 9/11 was more pronounced in the following fields:- (1)Aviation[13]The closing of operations by the foreign airlines was attributed to the overall recession in the aviation industry worldwide forcing global airlines to cut their expenses. The CAA only lost revenue. 2)Insurance[14]According to the government officials, the war risk insurance on all imports and exports to and from the country, whether by air or sea, had registered an increase of 82%, due to terrorist attacks in the country. This resulted in expensive insurance premiums war risk charges particularly for such vital covers as Marine, property (3)Exports. [15]The increased premiums by the insurance companies, freight rates by the shippers and the suspension of operations by foreign airlines, had started to take a toll on exports. 4)Tourism Industry[16]Pakistan became almost out of the tourism arena. (5)SeafoodUSA is one of the major destinations of the Pakistani seafood. Since the terror attacks, the seafood exports had come to a standstill. (6)Foreign Investments [17] Worsening law and order situation nullified to a great extent, the efforts of the government to attract foreign investments. This was another set back for the growing economy of Pakistan. (7)Inflation[18]Inflationary pressures across the globe.

Consistent with the global trend, most of the rise in headline inflation in Pakistan came in food prices and higher global oil prices. (8)Industrial Base [19]Pakistan’s industrial sector accounts for about 24% of GDP. Other major industries include cement, fertilizer, edible oil, sugar, steel, tobacco, chemicals, machinery, and food processing. However, the growth of the industrial base has been seriously damaged. (9)Assistance from International NGOs[20] NGO’s assistance has ceased and affected the domestic economy. l0)Sports Industry Cancellation of New Zealand Cricket team’s tour of Pakistan and refusal of England to play in cities like Karachi and Peshawar are the most glaring examples. This not only affected the economy to an extent but also tarnished the image of the country in the world. (11)Bomb Blasts Bomb blasts and strikes have a serious drain on our economy. According to statistics, one day’s strike in Karachi costs a loss of around one billion rupees revenue to the government exchequer.

Such tools have been used very successfully by the terrorists to retard the economic activity in the country. In July 2008 the stock market is on the lowest ebb and is being bailed out by the Government Infrastructure Aval within the Country to Deal with Terrorism 20. At present no dedicated infrastructure is aval in the country to meet threat of Terrorism. Moreover what ever infrastructure is held has no clear div of responsibilities. A dormant crises mgmt cell exists to manage crises at national level with vast purview. Capabilities of Law Enforcing Agencies (LEA’s) to Fight Terrorism 21.

Infrastructure aval with PoliceNo formal org and trg facilities are aval with Police to handle / neutralize the threat within the country. Mostly Police relies on basic knowledge held with few indls. The same is being transfer to new inductees on case to case basis. Nec asst where req is asked from BDU. Rudimentary knowledge and eqpt is being used to neutralize IED threat and subsequent investigation in case an incident has taken place. Police HQ Sind has 5x bomb disposal vehicles and they are manning a response centre on twenty four hour bases in three shifts.

Mostly they are employed on VVIP / VIP coverage. Some of the eqpt held is explosives detector, mine detector, bomb indicator, EOD suit, bomb blanket, bomb container, bomb suppression. Recently two months trg by US instructors in Islamabad was conducted as a crash programme in view of the collaboration b / w the two countries. The bomb disposal wing is being headed by a retired SM AE Iqbal from Ordnance Corps from last three yrs. Reviewing Our Capabilities 22. Terrorism’s relationship to war is closer to war crimes than legitimate military operations: Brian Jenkins (Jenkins in Kegley, 1990, p. 9) defines Six basic terrorist tactics which comprise 95 percent of all terrorist incidents: bombings, assassinations, armed assaults, kidnappings, barricade and these acts are usually carried out by a small handful of operatives who are supported by an organization that is usually comprised of less than 100 active participants. Although the terrorists may have support from sympathizers to their cause, particularly if they claim to represent an ethno-national group, it is still regarded as relatively minor political activity and not reflective of mass political movements that are capable of hanges at the systemic levels. In the context of above cited activities, it is imperative to review the capabilities of our LEA’s and adapt ion of tech response options to meet the threat in order to effectively deal with acts of terrorism, good intelligence and policing are essential. 23. Our approach therefore, should be primarily to activate the intelligence agencies and effective policing to deal with it. We have a number of examples of countries like the UK, Germany, Italy and Israel where a much higher level of real terrorism is being handled by the police forces.

The basic elements of the situation should be protection of public and maintenance of law and order. These are primarily police responsibilities and should be undertaken by them, irrespective of the fact whether they operate at their own or under the army in grave situations:- Adoption of Focusing Methodology 24. It is believed that current national policy for dealing with domestic terrorism lacks coherent focus. Crisis response cooperation and joint action amongst Intelligence Agencies, Law Enforcing Agencies (Police and Civil Armed Forces), and the military need to be improved..

Additionally, reshaping national strategy on domestic terrorism, more clearly articulating the military’s statutory authority or limitations in domestic situations, and providing critical and focused assistance to those functions would clearly enhance the capabilities of crisis response forces to deter or interdict a possible terrorist incident. In the backdrop of our capabilities lets asses our responsibilities and evaluate if they match with our capabilities. Responsibilities of LEA’s (Police/Civil Armed Forces) 25.

Further more it will not be out of place to learn about the responsibilities the LEA’s hold to counter the threat, a brief view will enable us comparatively that how far our LEA’s are capable of carrying out their responsibilities, in the GWOT. Which include preserving life or minimizing risk. Preventing a threatened act being carried out, Locating, accessing, rendering safe, recovering, and disposing of a terrorist device. The rescuing, decontaminating, transporting, treating victims and preventing secondary casualties. Releasing emergency public information. estoring essential services and mitigating suffering. apprehending perpetrators. Tech Response Options & LEA 26. Traditional means of developing law enforcement technologies are simply inadequate to deal with today’s strategic realities, and the war on global terrorism should top our list of concerns. 27. Developing technologies that leap ahead of the terrorists requires vision and strategy and a good strategy requires hard choices. It begins by establishing criteria for selecting the most crucial technological investments. Reaching for “Breakthrough” Technologies for LEA’s 8. Terrorist grouts have limited resources and limited means; thus they are quick to refine their methods, improving on time-tested techniques, or improvise, seeking out new ways to strike or new targets to attack. In response law enforcement officials update their investigatory techniques or implement new security measures. 29. There are six fields that meet these standards and should be adopted. They are:- a. System integration technologies. b. Biometrics. c. Non-lethal weapons d. Data mining and link analysis technologies. e. Nanotechnology. f. Directed-energy weapons.

Re-Organization of Intelligence Agencies 30. Intelligence remains the first line of defence and the critical element in combating terrorism . Reorganization can be found in at least eight domains or processes: breaking down outdated barriers, fostering individual initiative, bolstering and opening analysis, improving intercourse between analysis and collection, strengthening counterintelligence, promoting research collaboration and better use of technological innovation, establishing metrics for measuring progress, and improving international intelligence sharing and cooperation.

Security Consciousness 31. The physical and procedural security measures needs to be enhanced by corresponding with cost effectiveness of the measures. In view of the aforesaid, the most viable and apparent response option is to declare police the fourth service of the armed forces under the umbrella of Chairman Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee. Secretary Interior should be given a new designation with ex-officio status of secretary and the Police Service of Pakistan (PSP) should be headed by a senior police officer in uniform with a special grade.

The proposed arrangement will also ensure de-politicization of police and pave the way for reform. Anti-Terrorism Laws 32. After finalizing an acceptable and agreeable definition, international anti-terrorism conventions and agreements should be revised so as to make them more adequate, to change national judicial systems, Infrastructure aval with Army 33. In addition to conventional military seasoned and traine brute force, the only technical unit aval to deal with the pre and post blast evaluation threat is 630 BD unit. Msn, of 630 BDU is to dispose off UXB / IEDs Capable of op 10 x BD dets.

It can render advice on dev in bombs, fuzes, IEDs and their disposal techs and carryout Tech sweep duties throughout the cty to cover the mov & visits of VVIP/VIPs. Measures at Armed Forces Level 34. Role of ArmyIn a domestic crisis involving terrorism, Army is called upon to assist in several different ways ranging from actual interdiction of the terrorists to provision of specialized equipment for use by law enforcement agencies in the crisis. Here we would like to explain the military concerns. Coming to the initial analytical out put of Army in practical handling of the situation .

As a first step there is a dire need to publish directives establishing policy and assigning responsibility for providing military assistance to civil authorities including specific policy for assistance to civil law enforcement officials in emergencies involving terrorism. Concerns before Employing Army 35. a. Legality b. Lethality c. Risk d. Cost e. Appropriateness f. Effect on Primary Role Technical Assistance 36. Military technical assistance to law enforcement authorities may take many different forms, including provisioning of equipment, facilities, or personnel.

A further test of the need for assistance is if civilian expertise and capabilities are not available or sufficient to counter the threat, the unique capabilities of the Army are critical to defeating the threat. Priorities for Technical Assistance 37. Protect human life or prevent injuries, including injury to the military personnel involved. Prevent the use of terrorist devices. Mitigate the consequences in the event of the use of terrorist device. and Protect property. Technical Advice and Assessment 38.

Providing expert advice on all matters pertaining to the search, location, identification, seizure, render safe/disarm/disable procedures, handling and /or transport of a suspected terrorist device. Participate in the questioning of suspects by law enforcement personnel. Provide and operate specialized equipment or vehicles. Requests for Tactical Assistance 39. The decision to employ active military forces against a target inside Pakistan, especially if it involves citizens, remains a sensitive and complicated issue with numerous potential political and legal ramifications.

Employing a military tactical force in response to a domestic law enforcement emergency concerning terrorism beyond the handling capabilities of Law Enforcing Agencies could take place in two situations. Armed conflict-like situations threatening government. Threat endangering public safety at mass level. Awareness/Changing the Mindset 40. Because of our traditional mindset, our soldiers and junior leaders lack awareness. Necessary policy guidelines are required to be issued on awareness parameters.

We have to develop our officer corps and other ranks in such a fashion that they look like and act like thinking soldiers. Then they can meet the multifarious challenges of internal security in 21st century. Leadership Training 41. This is particularly applicable to our soldiers, non commissioned officers, junior commissioned officers and young officers. We have to ensure development of such junior leaders who besides being professionally competent are capable of using initiative and can operate under highly decentralized environments. Intelligence Coordination and Dissemination of Information 2. Despite having a plethora of intelligence agencies there is lack of coordination (required under present circumstances). All agencies work in tight compartments and tend to keep their secrets with themselves. Present circumstances demand that intelligence be disseminated to the concerned people within minimum possible time. It is suggested that garrison level apparatus be developed to perform this task. To this effect a coordination cell at garrison headquarter be established to coordinate intelligence and speedy dissemination of information. Internal Defence Role 43.

In the back drop of any threat to law and order situation in the country, civil disturbances ethnic and sectarian riots, Pakistan Army has a clearly defined task/role to prevent and stop further expansion of such activities. When called upon by a political authority, in any untoward and critical situation Pakistan Army assists and brings normalcy in the country[21]. Counter Insurgency and Security Operations 44. Army is successfully involved in security operations in a waziratan and Balochistan. Army once employed in aid of civil power is responsible for the stabilization of particular situation.

The power/authority delegated to army in aid of civil power is quite significant and may have to vary according to a particular situation or incident. If these implications are not analyzed in true perspective than at times army may be under powered to tackle a certain situation. Some constitutional clauses concerning army in aid of civil power are given below. Constitutional Clauses on the Issue 45. a. Article 245 This article deals with the employment of armed forces in four major clauses as under[22]:- (1) Clause (1)

Deployment of troops abroad/against external aggression and in aid of civil power. (2) Clause (2)Armed Forces acting in aid of civil power. (3) Clause (3) Martial imposition of. (4) Clause (4) Court, suspension of. b. Article 245 (2) It supplements article 245 and cover various intricacies in more details. It adds following:- (1) Civil courts will not be suspended even if army is involved in aid of civil power. (2) When appropriately authorized Armed Forces can reach, apprehend interrogate and dispose cases. 3) Armed forces have to remain with in bounds of law and none of their actions should be contrary to this. (4) Armed forces once employed in aid of civil power will assist civilian government in normalizing the situation and will not supersede any civil authority. c. Article 147 In this article any provincial government can ask for the assistance of Armed forces with the permission of Federal government. In this case army remains in aid of civil power with no legal powers of arrest or detention. d. Code of Criminal Procedure 1898

Chapter IX of code of criminal procedure authorizes and spells out the armed forces to disperse unlawful assembly in the presence as well as absence of a Magistrate as under :- (1)Executive Magistrate or officer in charge of police station may dispose an unlawful assembly himself or with the help of Armed Forces. (2)When public security is endangered, military officer may disperse the assembly and may arrest and confine any person, when it becomes impracticable to communicate with Executive Magistrate. Code of Criminal Procedure (Amendment) Ordinance 1992[23] 46.

This amendment was enforce during employment of army in Sind. According to this, Provincial government can ask for assistance of army to maintain law and order with permission of Federal government. Pakistan Penal Code 47. This part of law permits right of self defence to the personnel of Armed Forces employed in aid of civil power. Extracts from section 96 to 106 are as under:- a. Nothing is an offence which is done in the exercise of the right of private defence. b. Every person has a right to use force to protect himself or body of any other person, against any offence affecting the human body. . Force should be used to the extent required to avoid the danger. The Armed Forces (Emergency Duties) Act 1947 48. The Federal Government may, by notification in the official gazette, declare any specified service to be of vital importance provided that such notice shall remain enforce for one month in the first Threat Spectrum 49. The geo political and geo strategic importance of Pakistan makes it vulnerable to multiple directional threats. These threats could range from an aggression externally or a network of intrigue, sabotage and terrorism internally. These threats are discussed subsequently.

External Threat 50. Pakistan ‘s security environments have always been conditioned by a threat from India. Pakistan has always been a prominent and significant challenge to India’s dominant position in the region and has always demanded an equal and balance power play in the region. Afghanistan has also been a source of concern for the security of Pakistan but with the disintegration of former USSR and ongoing struggle in Afghanistan, it is not of a immediate concern to Pakistan. Since external threat is not with in scope of this paper therefore I am not going to discuss it in further details.

Internal Threat 51. Unfortunately Pakistan has always been experiencing weak political governments. The weaknesses in our political system has subjected Pakistan to multiple directional internal threats. Our weak political system has never been able to resolve satisfactorily the problem of national integration. The uneven distribution of economic resources, linguistic diversity, transnational distribution of ethnic groups like Balochies and Pathans, Muhajir settlements and Punjabi domination has always led to internal difference and agitations[24].

In the past these internal vulnerabilities provided opportunities to foreign powers to have their share of intrigue and agitation which resulted in the debacle of East Pakistan. In present times we have a distinct example of Sind slogan in front of us. 52. Internal threats have a wide range. They can evolve from civil disorders, ethnic and linguistic violence, sectarian riots/uprisings and various forms of natural calamities[25]. The role of army in identifying and safeguarding the country from these internal threats will be discussed in subsequent pages. Security Operations 3. The present day economic and political scenario prevailing in our country has undergone a considerable change since independence. There has been a constant deterioration in our internal security environments. Present day realities indicates a definite surge promoting religious sectarianism and ethnic divides. Involvement of foreign hand in our security dynamics therefore cannot be ruled out. In the words of Mr Ravi Rikhye, the chaos engulfing India is no accident, once India was partitioned then the process of disintegration began and will continue till reversed[26].

Envisaged Operation on Internal Security 54. The range of operations in which services of army could be required are listed below:- Sectarian Violence 55. Inter sectarian clashes is not a new phenomenon in Pakistan, but there is a marked ferocity and gravity involved in them recently. They are focused on targeting key persons of any sect so as to generate tension and escalate inter religious strife all around the country. In these circumstance army is the only choice left with civil authorities to eradicate this ever spreading menace of sectarian violence. Ethnic Divide 56.

Pakistan was only few years old when it was challenged by Bengali ethnicity expressed through Bengali language Movement or (Bhasha) of 1948 and 1952[27]. This was one of the reasons which ultimately led to the Debacle of East Pakistan. The ethnic divide is on the increase in Pakistan. and the bleak and disturbing example is the province of Sind and in particular Karachi. In Sind army was employed at large to normalize the situation and it was able to achieve controversial results. The other language based movements which have surfaced are enumerated below:- a. Sindhi language Movement (Sindhu Desh). . Balochi Language Movement. c. Pashto Language Movement/Pakhtoon issue d. Siriaki Language Movement. e. Jinnah Pur Slogan. Counter Insurgency Operations 57. A state of insurgency implies that the insurgents have a control of a sizeable area of the country and that it will almost inevitably be on the communist pattern, which can only be controlled by armed forces[28]. This operation is much more complicated as compared to civil disturbances or terrorist operations. It can take shape of Guerrilla Warfare or ambushes and attacks on military and police installations.

Pakistan army in the past has successfully participated in curtailing insurgency in Balochistan. Muharram Duties 58. Gilgit, Jhang, Multan, Quetta, Karachi and few other cities of our country have been the focus of sectarian riots and clashes during Muharram. Due to severity of this issue, it warrants employment of army. SECURITY OPERATIONS 59. DoctrinePakistan Army has to undertake wide variety of security operations as discussed earlier. So far we have been unable to formulate and design a doctrine/concept of operation associated with internal security operations.

Of course there are certain schemes and Standing Operating Procedures at formation levels, but there is definitely a demanding need to have a clear cut and wall articulated doctrine/concept of operation on the subject. Organisational Structure 60. Existing organisation of Headquarters and various units caters for almost all types of security operations. However there is need at National, Provincial and army level to have a joint organisation for better coordination, training and execution of relief and security operations. There is also a definite requirement for the provision of special equipment for the conduct of such operations.

Operational Aspects 61. Early Warning and Timely IntelligenceConducting internal security duties is an intricate and delicate task. In such environments it is extremely difficult to differentiate between friend and foe. Past experiences also indicate that faulty and delayed information has resulted in chaos and unnecessary risks, jeopardising the mission and endangering the lives of officers and men. Therefore there is a dire need for a dependable and accurate early warning and intelligence network. Reconnaissance 62. Pakistan Army has to under take security operations in diversified situation and areas.

It might be employed in urban or rural areas as per the demands of the time and situation. Information about the area of operations is therefore of paramount importance. The early reconnaissance carried out will come extremely handing once troops are faced with varying condition of terrain and areas. Command and Control 63. In aid of civil power army has to conduct operations in close harmony with civilian authorities. The command and control aspect in such environment takes significant place and has been a controversial issue since late.

There is a dire need to educate both agencies regarding their charter of duties and legal position. Co-ordination 64. There is an immediate need to have a close interaction of army and civil authorities, while conducting internal security operation. It has been observed that at line both the institution are working on the same issue but at tangent to each other, resulting in chaos and confusion and duplicate efforts without any fruitful results. Specialised Training 65. TacticsThe wide range of internal security operation demand specialised training. Although we will find adequate written material available on the ubject but our troops lack practical knowledge of such operation. Whenever our troops are employed on such duties they take fairly long time in comprehending the mechanics and intricacies of such operation which are quite different to their routine operation and tactics. Anti terrorist, counter insurgency and other such like operation demand high level of training and skill on troops under lacking these operations. Weapons & Equipment 66. Most of the weapons and equipment held by over units will remain cumbersome that vital information does not reach the users in time. Integration with Civil Authorities 67.

Close interaction with civil authorities will invariably a key feature in any relief operation. It is highly important for both army and civil department to understand and comprehend the working environment of each. There is a vital need for the quick and timely flow of information in all kinds of relief operations. Presently the aspect needs significant improvement and attention. Command Structure 68. There is a big void concerning command structure. Both civil and army authorities at times remain confuse and uncertain about status of command and resultantly it affects the performance and coordination between the both.

There is a need to have a clear understanding of command and control aspect because it will directly influence the performance of both army and civil in line of crises. Inter Army Cooperation 69. It has been observed in the past that at certain occasion when different arm and services are employed jointly there is lack of cohesion/harmony among then. For success of any such operation like any tactical cooperation it is mandatory to have a well knit and closely coordinated operation otherwise it will result in disjointed effort and ultimately failure. Legal Implications 0. Past experience of army in aid of civil power reveals some depressing facts. Army employed in security operation without adequate legal authority and powers has failed to per from its duties satisfactory. This has resulted in half finished tasks. There are instances when army has over exercised its legal powers and has gone out of realm of its tasks/duty. Similarly there is a dire need of coordination between army and Judiciary. At time persons apprehended by army with considerable effort are left from by civil authorities without any significant action against then.

There is also a void in laws related to employment of army without specifying the nature of duties resultantly army personnel are not clear regarding scope of their duties/tasks. Image and Prestige of Army 71. Whenever army is employed for security operation, the eventual role of army and its image should always be kept in perspective. Employment of army should not be a short term objective i. e. normalisation of situation or achievement of political gains rather it should go well beyond all this. Past experiences have indicated that wrong and untimely employment of army in internal security; operations have not produced the best results.

It is therefore suggested that before employment of army on internal security operation following must always be kept in view:- a. Effect of these operations on image of army and its ultimate role. a. These operations are not in live with some political or party gains. a. Operation must reach to the root cause of the agitation/strife and should not bring a temporary solution. a. Indepth study of the political steps taken to resolve the issue before army is employed. Civil and Military Interaction/Cooperation 72. Army is an institute/organisation which has matured over the years.

It has its own norm, working styles and values. Whenever army is employed in aid of civil power it is exposed to environments which are quite alien to its normal way on working and style. There is a dire need to supervise and monitor army’s employment in such operations. Following is suggested in this regard:- a. Close supervision and continuous monitoring of troops during their employment, to guard against any social evils like corruption, bribery, favoritism, mis use of authority which are quite common and normal in civil environments. a. Lectures and talks given by enior officers emphasizing the importance of task/duty, menace of corruption, display of dedication and positive attitude and significance of trust which people have in army. Planning 73. Timely and deliberate planning always pay high divided. Army should fully apprise itself on the nature, type and significance of operation it has to under take. Since army has to be employed on wide range of duties in security operation which are quite different from each other in nature and gravity therefore planning is to be done in with these. Following is suggested on this aspect:- a. Full acquaintance with the genesis of problem. a.

Establishment of liaison and close coordination with civil authorities. a. Latest information from all sources regarding intensity of strife/agitation to decide about the strength and different methods of dealing with it. Training 74. Continuous and organized training is key for successful accomplishment of any task/assignment. Due to diverse and wide range of security Operations, the scope of training for army increases manifold. The tasks assigned to troops during internal security operations are quite different to those of conventional warfare and therefore it demands through, well planned and meticulous training for every one.

The training for internal security, operation must encompass both physical and mental attributes required for their unconventional mean of warfare. Theoretical Training 75. In this part maximum effort should be directed on imparting theoretical knowledge to troops covering every security operation. Emphasis should be laid on unconventional means of operation. Some portion of theoretical training must also include mental conditioning of troops to conduct operation against their country mates, emphasizing on the fact that these person are involved in anti state activities and are threat to sovereignty and integrity of the country.

Field Training 76. Mastery and expertise in any field can not be achieved without religious and rigorous field/practical training. After basic and theoretical training troops must be exposed to field training preferably security operation include wide range there troops should be physically trained in variety operations in pre employment periods. Following areas/aspects will need special attention during this training:- a. Fighting in urban areas paying special attention in fighting in built up area. b. Cordoning and search operation. . Action against ambushes and raids. d. Handling and dispersion of small and large scale mobs. e. Establishing of road block, picquets and check points. f. Proficiency in use of Close Quarter Battle weapons. g. Apprehension and interrogation techniques. h. Gathering of timely and accurate information. Requirement of Additional Equipment/Transport 77. Army has been equipped keeping in view its primary role. Army though adequately placed and equipped for its traditional, tasks, faces considerable problems when employed in security operations.

It is recommended that army should be suitably equipped and strengthen before being employed on such tasks. Following areas need special attention:- a. Short Range Weapons Tanks, recoil less rifles, mortars, Rocket launcher etc. which are absolutely necessary in conventional battle, may not come very handy during internal security operation. Short range weapon with high rate of fire and lethality like machine pistols, sub machine give super rifles and machine gun are ideal for various security operations. These must be issued on priority to units participating in these operations. . Signal Equipment Army is in possession of reliable and effective signal equipment comprising of wire less sets and telephones. However there is a requirement of having handy and light weight communication equipment little Motorola etc. which are very important in conducting security operation. Moreover there is requirement of compatible signal equipment, which can work with police and civil departments. There is also a necessity of incorporating existing PATCOMS and PASCOMS with civil net work. a. Transport Additional transport provided to army in aid of civil power is inadequate.

Necessary steps must be taken to provide troops with sufficient transport which is compatible to tasks they have to conduct. a. Miscellaneous Equipment Certain other accessories and equipment which should be provided to troops employed in aid of civil power for their security and to enhance performance are listed below :- 1) Bullet Proof Jackets. 1) Rubber Bullets. 1) Tear Gas Guns. 1) Gas Masks. 1) Fire Protection dress. 1) Night Vision Device/Goggles (Other than those held). 1) Decoders and Interception Equipment. Provision of Intelligence 78.

Timely and accurate information and intelligence are vital for the success of internal security operation. Operation conducted in aid of civil power without sufficient intelligence may result into chaos and ultimately into failure. Concrete step in this regards are required to be taken before evolving army into these operation. Some steps which must be taken in this direction are recommended below:- a. Collaboration of intelligence agencies towards one direction. a. Integration of civil intelligence agencies into army network. a. Incorporating locals of the area into communication net work. . Establishment of an intelligence cell responsible for collection, analyzing and dissemination of intelligence information. Constitutional Clauses 79. This remains as one of the weakest links in employment of army in aid of civil power. Past experience also indicates gravely towards this shortcoming. Following is recommended in this regard:- a. Revaluation and rehashing of constitutional clauses already issued on the subject. a. Organising classes and cadres for both officers and man at unit/formation level for clear comprehension of legal bounds and authority. . The authority and legal power of officer employing in aid of civil power must be so that he can retain initiative and works independent of any political or social influences. a. Army officers must be given the authority to arrest, interrogate and detain and person for certain time to conclude the investigations. a. Status of command concerning specific operation in aid of civil power must be clearly defined to avoid any confusion, and misunderstanding between civil and military departments. Need for a Doctrine 80.

There is a wide range of likely tasks/duties which army might have to perform during relief and internal security operation. Various formations have issued/formulated Standing Operating Procedures and schemes covering both types of operation and there are certain General Staff Publication on the subject as well but they are incomplete and are not compatible with each other. There is clear dichotomy within schemes of different formation and General Staff Publications and therefore they create confusion and doubts and do not provide clear courses of action at the helm of requirement.

There is also a need to have written concept of civil/military employment for relief and internal security operation. It is therefore recommended to have detailed, comprehensive doctrine with a suitable organization to essentially cover all detail and intricacies concerning Relief and Internal Security Operation. Proposed Doctrine 81. a. General A proposed doctrine is suggested in succeeding paragraphs. It constitutes of certain parts which cover various important aspects and their responses in relief and security operation. b. Concept of Employment

The foremost and significant aspect in a doctrine is a concept of employment. The concept of employment of army in aid of civil power has to originate at National Level. It encompasses the role of army, para military forces and civil authorities in all eventualities i. e. when they are operating singly or jointly. c. Range of Operation It is very important to specify the range of operation in which army is likely to be called upon in aid of civil power. In this part of doctrine there should be detailed mention of circumstances, indicators and likely environments which army has to face in such eventualities.

Post experiences and history will assist in compilation of same in the doctrine. d. Tasks/Role of Army In this part of the doctrine a detailed enumeration of the tasks and roles to be performed by army are mentioned under relief and security operation. Besides these the list of specialized equipment, weapons and additional transport required is also mentioned. All these factors will assist the commanders in prior planning and coordination for successful accomplishment of a mission. e. Civil and Army Cooperation This is one of most sensitive and conspicuous aspect of operation in aid of civil power.

In any scenario relating to these operations army and civil departments have to work in close collaboration necessitating harmony and cohesion among them. In this part of the proposed doctrine followings areas of interest are highlighted which must be rigorously ensued for better understanding during pre employment and employment periods:- (1)Continuous liaison during pre employment period between army officers and their counter parts in civil department. (2)Status of command should be clearly, spelled out so that no one interferes in others domain. 3)Use of civil facilities by army. Necessary before coordination in this regard should be time lined. (4)Exchange of latest and accurate information and intelligence by both civil and military intelligence agencies. Legal Powers and Authority 82. History bears testimony that army operations in aid of civil power failed when army lacked requisite authority and power, to execute its operation as per its plan.. This part in proposed doctrine holds significant places and encompasses all facets of legal and judicial authority of army in various operations.

It includes following:- a. Army officer in charge of the operation and upto the rank of major holds equal authority as District Magistrate. a. Army officers can arrest, interrogate and detain a person upto the period demand necessary by him. a. Army will be fully incharge of the situation and can utilise all necessary force and authority when conducting security operation. a. Necessary amendments are incorporated in Army Regulation and Constitution of Pakistan for a, b and c. Training 83. This part of the proposed doctrine caters for following aspects of training:- a.

Detailed syllabi incorporated in schools of instructions. a. Officers are trained right from the start of the career by incorporating this syllabus in Young Officers and Junior Officer Leadership courses. a. Joint training with civil authorities as frequent as possible. a. Specialised training arranged at special service Group school at chirat. Miscellaneous 84. Certain other aspects which constitute part of the doctrine are enumerated below:- a. Specialised equipment to armed forces is provided before they embark on relief and security operation. . Adequate funds and allowances are allotted to army employed on these operations. a. Detailed procedures on the security of officers, men and their families especially when employed on security operation. Joint Headquarters 85. There is a requirement of establishing National Relief of Security Council at national level with members from both civil and army. This council should be headed by defence Minister and its member from civil should be Interior Minister, Head of Police and Secretary Defence.

From army, members should be COAS, and all PSO, Besides establishing National Relief Security Council at national level there is a requirement of being and PR sec in all provinces and one each for Northern area and Kashmir. . Provisional Relief and Security Council 86. PRSC will comprise of both civil and army members. It will be established at Provisional level and a corps each will be given responsibility in the province. With Corps those fmns, will be designated which have less operational commitments and can be conveniently spared for relief and security operation.

Members of PRSC will comprises of Chief Minister, IG police and other key appointments at Province level from army it will be Corps Commander with his discussed Commanders. Ranger and FC will also be included in the council. DG Rangers and IGFC will be members. At Army level a directorate the of Relief and Security Operation will be established to coordinate, training provision of equipment, funds civil related matters and financial matters will be established. Tasks/Roles 87. a. NRSC (1)Peace Time or Pre employment Period a) At least one session on quarterly basis in which all members will attend and review the state of affairs in their area of responsibility. (b)Up-to-date information and intelligence on likely flash points and sensitive issues from both civil and military departments. (c)Discussion on measures to improve the efficiency of all departments likely to be employed on relief and security operation. (d)Civil interaction and joint training. (e)Allocation of requisite funds and equipment. (2)During Employment Pd (a)Provision of latest and likely information/intelligence. b)Close monitoring of various operation under way and evaluating responses and effectiveness. (c)Giving decisions on reinforcements or withdrawal of forces from a particular scenario. (d)Sanctioning of new weapons, equipment and resources for troops employed on different operation. (e)Discussion on termination of operation. b. PRSC (1)Pre employment Period (a)Monthly conference or session to continuously monitor the situation. (b)Liaison between civil and army department . (c )Joint Training. (d)Allocation of funds. e)Procurement of weapons, equipment and other expedients. (2)During employment Period (a)Establishing an emergency cell. (b)Monitoring and coordinating all operation. (d)Provision of accurate, coordinated and timely information especially in security operation. (e)Coordination of reinforcement. (f)Decision regarding withdrawal or termination of operation in consultation with National Relief and Security Council. c. Relief and Security Operation Directorate 1) Turn over of formations earmarked for relief and security operation. ) Coordination with National and Provincial Relief and Security Council an all matters. 1) Release of funds and other assistance to involved formations. 1) Instruction on training aspects for relief and security operation. 2) Issue of periodical instructions and police on the subjected from army point of view. Response options to Cope with the Internal Security Threat 88. Combat Philosophy In order to successfully fight terrorism, the problem has to be understood in all its dimensions, both by those who are directly or indirectly charged to combat this menace and by the general public.

Any effort to combat terrorism in a localized fashion cannot yield results; the whole society must commit itself to wage a crusade against this scourge. There is a strong case for an all encompassing strategy, based on realistic and workable policy, duly backed up by adequate contingency planning and the will to execute counter-terrorist operations. Moreover, there is a definite need of a full time counter-terrorist organization staffed by highly competent manpower, to include the military, police, intelligence, psycho-analytical and media personnel. 9. ough a tough government stance is necessary, the decision makers must have built-in flexibility to suit various policy options, depending upon the nature of crisis. Factors affecting a decision may include a number of variables such as political pressures, humanitarian considerations, prevalent public mood and type of terrorist group, their strengths and weaknesses. 90. Terrorism has profited from two prime assets: the element of surprise and the benefit of offensive action. Counter-terrorist action has been traditionally reactive and defensive.

Howard Simpson supports the view point of a first strike capability against terrorist groups known to be planning an operation or resting in a safe haven. Ensuring such a capability pre-supposes aggressive intelligence operations, infiltration into terrorist organizations and enrolling dependable informers. At the same time all actions must be within the bounds of justice and fair play as envisioned in the constitution of the land of pure. Public and media being very aware, any excesses committed by regime may be construed as repression of civil liberties and hence can run counter-productive in the final analysis.

Recommendations to Implement Proposed Combat Philosophy Short Term Measures 91. This span up to a period of five years:- a. Annihilation of Terrorists There should be no bargaining with the terrorist. The government’s aim should be to surround, isolate and annihilate the terrorists. The terrorist should only be given the option to surrender and failing which, be killed. Government should not show any weakness, lest terrorist gain moral ascendancy in the eyes of general public. There should be well articulated policy on no negotiations and giving in to terrorists. . Formulation of Anti Terrorism Policy A number of terrorist groups are an extension of political groups which intend to undermine the government’s stance on the issue. Propagation of a tough policy would publicize the issue, thereby deterring few individuals/groups from acts of terrorism. c. Control of Media Voluntary self censorship and proportionality in the amount and quality of information propagated by the journalists in reporting can greatly assist the government in combating terrorism.

Failing which state must intervene by way of censorship and engaging the media for regulated propaganda. d. Intelligence Network Updated information on terrorist networks is the back bone of any preventive set up against terrorists. An efficient intelligence system will greatly reduce the need for more suppressive measures that tend to erode civil liberties which is precisely the goal of terrorist. A large number of intelligence agencies are working at cross purposes to each other. We do not have a nodal agency to coordinate the efforts to drive optimum benefit.

To achieve that overall optimum result, a central intelligence network headed by a chief intelligence officer would have to be created. e. Addressing Injustices (1)Simplifying the procedures for seeking the justices i. e. involvement of police in registration of cases and obtaining the medical reports. (2)Broadening the base of Judiciary by making district courts broad based and entertaining all sorts of cases. (3)Laying the maximum limits of six months for disposing off the cases and disposing off old cases on priority. f. Special Educational Classes in Colleges

Imparting requisite knowledge among our youth is of prime importance. Most of the young minds fall into the hands of terrorists out of sheer adventurism. This tendency can be curbed by imparting special education, holding seminars and conferences etc. g. Good Governance The effective utilization of existing resources, both at civil administration and military level would constitute good governance. The perception of neglect and underdevelopment bring frustration and a feeling of alienation among common people, which is exploited by any hostile state/ organization.

To bring normalcy, it may be made mandatory on the part of the civil administration, particularly at the district level, to pay a fixed number of visits every month in the field to feel the pulse of the population and redress the grievances. Medium Term Measures 92. These would cover the period from five year up to ten years:- a. Evolving a National Policy National consensus on such critical issues is necessary. National policy on countering terrorism needs to be formulated through national consensus. Getting feedback through electronic media is also a viable option.

Once formulated, the outcome of implementation would flow out at later stages. b. National Intelligence

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Perspectives of the Limited War and the Emerging Threat of Terrorism in South Asia Assignment. (2020, Oct 20). Retrieved June 15, 2021, from