The cultural norms influence how people behave by providing rules and regulations on what to do and how to behave. When you are unsure of what you are supposed to do or what is expected of you, you typically use the standardized conventions of your culture to guide your behavior. In fact, that is the cardinal rule of much of your behavior: when in doubt, play it sure and follow the rules (Fisher, 1987). Moreover, compliance is the extent to which individual’s behavior coincides with the set rules and regulations.
Oozier et al. (1998) cited that the level of implicate may range from disregarding every aspect of the recommendations to following the total therapeutic plan. He also added that there are many reasons why some people comply and others do not and if you identify non-compliance, it is important to find out why and take steps to assist an individual to comply. Institutions such as universities promulgate rules and regulations to maintain order and regulate the social conduct of the students.
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The university, as an academic environment must have harmony in its operation and it is expected to mold young individuals and help them grow holistically. The teacher or school official then employs disciplinary measures to correct the behavior of students (Claude ; Summary, 2007). One of the important functions of a teacher is to motivate his students to develop an attitude of personal responsibility for their behavior in the school, home, and community (Crow ; Crow, 1965). Rules and regulations are laws made by humans that regulate social conduct in a formally prescribed manner (Oozier, ERP, Blabs; Wilkinson, 1998).
These pertain to such matters as school attendance, preparation of study assignment, proper conduct in and outside the school, and the like. School people should not ignore a student’s infraction of school rules. Misbehaver may be recognized and corrected. A teacher or other school- related official must administer a punishment that the student recognizes as suitable and just. Punishment, as that term is usually used, is rarely a treatment approach that health care professionals would want to consider or use (Bernie& Forced, 1976).
The major effect of punishment is that it establishes aversive conditions that are avoided by any behavior of “doing something else”; it might even be the behavior Of “holding still. Whinier (1970 in Bernie & Forced, 1976), states that an aversive stimulus is any stimulus that an organism will escape from, avoid or terminate. Skinner (1953 in Bernie & Forced, 1976), states that punishment does not create a negative probability that a particular response will be made; it creates a negative probability that an incompatible behavior will occur.
Therefore, the attitude of the adult should be objective and calm. According to Crow & Crow (1965), school people need to keep in mind that their purpose in administering disciplinary procedures is not so much to knish a single non-conforming act, as it is to help a young person to develop the habit of self-discipline. Hence, teachers and counselors should not only recognize a student’s behavior as undesirable but also attempt to discover the underlying cause or causes for the misbehaver and to help improve the situation or condition that is basic to the young person’s lack of self-control.
Rules and regulations guide an individual to develop his social conduct. It provides a standard of what is expected to an intellectually developed human being (Oozier et al. , 1998). Some students visualize rules as something that emits their freedom; and some finds it unnecessary, but rules should be complied with. Bandeau (1971 in Decker & Nathan, 1985) stated that people are capable of self-regulatory process whereby they evaluate their own behavior and provide their own reinforcements. This allows a person to control his own action, rather than being controlled by external force.
Students shall, at all times, observe the laws Of the land and rules and regulations of the university. Deans or various unit Heads may, after due consultation in the form of deliberation with the faculty and staff, promulgate ales on conduct and discipline for peculiar application to each respective unit (University Handbook, Revised 201 1 Students’ rights and responsibilities. The 1990 University Code of West Vistas State University provides certain provisions regarding students’ rights and responsibilities.
Some of these rights are: the students has the right to receive quality education in line with national goals, educational objectives and standards of the University; they are entitled to advisement and guidance to enable him to understand himself, make intelligent decisions and to select from the alternatives in line tit his potentials; students have the right to participate in the formulation of policies of the University affecting them; they have the right to enjoyment of the constitutional guarantees of free speech and press, the right to express and pursue his opinions on any subject, provided that such expressions do not violate the right of others; student have the right to establish, join and participate in organizations and societies not contrary to the law; students have the right to avail of all student services- medical, dental, libraries, etc. As well as of reasonable protection with in university premises; students also eve the right to be informed of the rules and regulations affecting them; have the right to participate in curricular and co-curricular activities subject to existing University rules and regulations. Statement of the Problem This study aims to determine the compliance of school rules and regulations of selected first year and second year Social Science students of West Vistas State university – Himalayan City Extension. To be specific, it seeks to answer the following questions: 1. What are the ways that students practice in following the school rules and regulations? 2.
What are their experiences in following the school rules and regulations? 3. What are the problems students face in following the rules and regulations? 4. What are the interventions applied by the students in solving the problems in following the school rules and regulations? Conceptual Framework The concept of this phenomenological study is to determine the ways that the selected first year and second year Social Science students practice and their experiences in following the school rules and regulations. This study is also to find out the problems faced, and the interventions applied by the said dents in solving the problems in following the rules and regulations.
For better understanding and full grasp of the study, a paradigm showing the schematic relationships of the key variables included and reflected in this study is shown in figure 1. Research Paradigm COMPLIANCE OF SCHOOL RULES AND REGULATIONS PRACTICES PROBLEMS EXPERIENCES INTERVENTIONS Figure 1 . Relationship of Certain Factors to the Compliance of School Rules and Regulations of Selected First Year and Second Year Social Science Students of West Vistas State University ? Himalayan City Extension (WAVES – HCI). Scope and Limitations of the Study This study was conducted to determine the compliance of school rules and regulations of selected first year and second year Social Science students of West Vistas State University – Himalayan City Extension.
It sets forth the following limits: Subjects of the study will be the first year and second year Social Science students of West Vistas State university – Himalayan City Extension. Hence, six participants were chosen in this study: three from the first year and also three from the second year Social Science students. To determine the compliance of school rules and regulations, in-depth interview will be conducted. In this study, rules and regulations pertain to the guidelines set by the West Vistas State University Student Handbook. Significance of the Study The result of the study will be of benefit to the school administration, Office of Students Affair (OSHA), teachers and students.
Administration. The upshot of this study will be utilized by the academe administration. Through the information generated, they could gain better insight on how students comply with school rules and regulations. Office of Student Affair. Results of this study can assist the OSHA in planning and implementing the school rules and regulations. It will aid them in facilitating the students to abide with the policies and maintain the order inside the campus. Teachers. As major facilitators of learning, this study will also benefit to the teachers. The information generated can help them ascertain the compliance of students with the school rules and regulations.
It will help them determine how a typical student behaves inside the school premise. The results will also enable them to generate and formulate new strategies on how to enforce the rules and regulations. Students. As learners, this study will provide essential information and understanding to the students that will enable them to perform and behave according to the rules and regulations that have been imposed. Definition of Terms The following terms are conceptually and/or operationally defined for better understanding of the study. Compliance. It is the extent to which an individual, organization, group, or population acts in accordance with a specific public policy.
According to Webster American Dictionary, 1 999 compliance is the condition of being too ready to give into others. In this study, compliance refers to the students responsiveness, obedience and ability to follow university rules and regulations. Rules and Regulations. A statement, law or regulation that is meant to guide or control the way a person acts or does something (Webster American Dictionary, 1 999). Rules and regulations are laws made by humans that regulate social conduct in a formally prescribed manner (Oozier, ERP, Blabs& Wilkinson, 1998). These pertain to such matters as school attendance, preparation of study assignment, proper conduct in and outside the school, and the like.
In this study, rules and regulations refer to command imposed at West Vistas State university – Himalayan City Extension to maintain orderliness ND discipline inside the school premises or the set of standards of West Vistas State University – Himalayan City Extension that should be followed or practiced by students as member of the institution, particularly those included in the WIVES_J Student Handbook (2006). Chapter 2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE This chapter manifests the review of related literature and related studies deeply obtained and scrutinized from books, journals, research papers and internet resources relevant to the study on compliance of school rules and regulations based on WAVES student handbook and other scopes of the said implicate. Students’ rights and responsibilities. The 1990 University Code of West Vistas State University provides certain provisions regarding students’ rights and responsibilities.
Some of these rights are: the students has the right to receive quality education in line with national goals, educational objectives and standards of the university; they are entitled to advisement and guidance to enable him to understand himself, make intelligent decisions and to select from the alternatives in line with his potentials; students have the right to participate in the formulation of policies of the University effecting them; they have the right to enjoyment of the constitutional guarantees of free speech and press, the right to express and pursue his opinions on any subject, provided that such expressions do not violate the right of others; student have the right to establish, join and participate in organizations and societies not contrary to the law; students have the right to avail of all student services- medical, dental, libraries, etc. , as well as of reasonable protection with in University premises; students also have the right to be informed of the rules and regulations affecting them; have the eight to participate in curricular and co-curricular activities subject to existing University rules and regulations; and are entitled to respect as persons with human dignity; full physical, social, moral and intellectual development and humane and healthful conditions of learning.
Correspondingly, along with rights and privileges are duties and responsibilities, like: (1 ) abide by the University rules and regulations; (2) know the history and philosophy of the University and the official University songs; (3) help the University campus and buildings clean; (4) uphold the good name of the University by practicing arsenal discipline, honesty, patience, fortitude, emotional stability, self- control and positive attitudes and values; (5) strive to live an upright, virtuous and productive life; (6) exert his utmost to develop his potentials for service, particularly by undergoing an education suited to his abilities, in order that he may become an asset to himself and society; (7) respect the customs and traditions of the Filipino people, the duly constituted authorities, the laws of the land, and the principles of democracy; (8) participate actively in civic affairs and in the promotion of the general welfare; (9) exercise his rights spoonbill with due regard for the rights of others; (10) respect and cooperate with teachers, fellow students and school authorities in the attainment and preservation of peace and order in the University and society, and; (1 1) help in the observance of individual and social rights, the strengthening of freedom, and the fostering of cooperation among nations in pursuit of progress, prosperity and world peace (U university Student Handbook, Revised 2011 Rights of Students.
Subject to the limitations prescribed by law, University policies and regulations, every student of WAVES: 1) has the right to receive quality education in line with national goals, educational objectives and standards of the University; (2) is entitled to advisement and guidance to enable him to understand himself, make intelligent decisions and to select from the alternatives in line with his potentials; (3) shall have the right to participate in the formulation of policies of the University affecting her/him; (4) shall have the right to enjoyment of the constitutional guarantees of free speech and press, the right to express and pursue his opinions on any subject, provided that such expressions shall not Sirius the normal operations of the University; (5) shall have the right to establish, join and participate in organizations and societies not contrary to the law; (6) shall have the right to avail of all student services- medical, dental, libraries, etc. As well as of reasonable protection with in University premises; (7) shall have the right to be informed of the rules and regulations affecting her/him; (8) shall have the right to participate in curricular and curricular activities subject to existing University rules and regulations; (9) shall be entitled to respect as persons with human dignity; full physical, social, moral ND intellectual development and humane and healthful conditions of learning; (10) in the tertiary’ and higher level, shall enjoy academic freedom; (11) shall have the right to seek redress of grievances against any wrong or injustice committed against him by any member of the university community in accordance with the defined channels of authority; (12) shall not be subject to disciplinary action without due process; (13) shall have the right to access his records for purposes of determining his academic performance; (14) shall have the right to pursue his course of study therein up to graduation except n cases of academic deficiency or violation of disciplinary regulations; (15) shall be entitled to expeditious issuance of certificates, diplomas, transcript of records, grades, and transfer credentials; (16) shall have the right to free expression and information and to publish school newspaper or other similar publications in accordance with Article 137; (17) shall be free from any form of unreasonable search and seizure; except when made at the point of ingress or egress by authorized personnel of the University. Articles, illegal or violate of University rules and regulations, discovered by duly authorized response shall subject the student administrative discipline.
Searches can be made by duly authorized personnel even without search warrant when the student is committing or has just committed a crime or any serious infraction of I-Sincerity rules and regulations, and; (18) shall the right to peaceful assembly subject to the regulation of the University and existing laws. Students shall, at all times, observe the laws of the land and rules and rules on conduct and discipline for peculiar application to each respective unit. Each college or unit may adopt a uniform to be approved by the Board f Regents (University Handbook, Revised 2011). Policy on University ID is itemized and part of the school rules and regulations as a whole.
Based on University Handbook (Revised 2011), the school ID card is a very important document. This is issued to all students and should be validated every semester. Proper care of the ID card is expected. The NO ID NO ENTRY policy is observed on campus. Furthermore, school uniform is given emphasized. Some of it are: (1) students are required to be in prescribed college/institute school uniform while on campus from Mondays to Thursdays and on major examination says; (2) on uniform and non-uniform days, the ID should be worn with ID holder, with student’s photo visibly displayed, and; (3) male students shall not wear long hair and fashion accessories (University Student Handbook, Revised 2011).
Moreover, a WAVES student pledges to abide by the rules and regulations of WAVES (University Student Handbook, Revised 2011). According to Mood (2008), whilst there is a considerable literature on regulatory theory and practice, the nature of compliance (and in particular how better compliance can be achieved) remains a relatively under-developed topic. Many assume hat after drafting the regulations, compliance will automatically ensue. Socio- legal scholars indicate that not only is the assumption erroneous and not substantiated empirically, but that compliance is not necessarily a logical consequence of regulatory efforts. Securing better compliance is in itself a difficult task.
The purpose Of this Report is to review the literature on the topic of compliance. Providing a coherent explanation of legal compliance remains difficult in any area of law enforcement. Academics, particularly socio-legal scholars have long sought to explain this dilemma relevant to the enforcement of the criminal law. Compliance is never and can never be 100% given the uncertainties and resource implications associated with detection and proof, whether or not proceedings ensue. In the context of regulation it becomes even more problematic to understand the numerous factors that in combination lead to the enhanced compliance of those being regulated.
Socio-legal scholars have long known that compliance with regulation, its effect and the enforcement mechanisms associated with it, are a distinctive form to be distinguished from the treatment of crimes per SE (Mood, 2008). Moreover, the literature points to the existence of varying definitions of the term and that defining compliance can be viewed from the perspective of those being regulated or the regulatory agency. The concept of compliance has been expressed in the regulatory domain in a number of ways, and the literature identifies a number of themes important to assessing the determinants of compliance including the motivations for and interpretations of compliance behaviors.
Further it points to recent trends in identifying the ‘motors’ driving compliance and links these to the tools available to foster ore effective regulatory compliance and enforcement strategies. The idea of compliance is used by socio-legal scholars in particular, to account for fluidity in the regulatory process and the variety in its application in different domains. “Compliance” is a term used in understanding regulatory effectiveness. However, what amounts to regulatory compliance is rarely defined. Standard dictionary definitions and a good deal of the literature make tacit assumptions regarding compliance behavior. It remains a relatively unrefined concept (Mood, 2008).
A standard dictionary definition of compliance conjures notions of uniformity – “the act or an instance of complying; obedience to a request or command” (Concise ODD, 1990 quoted by Hutted, 1 997, p. 3). Many studies make the tacit assumption that compliance equates to complying with legal rules and no more. This does little to enhance an understanding of compliance practice or behavior in regulatory contexts. This idea is mirrored in much of the policy literature with ‘compliance’ being defined with a degree of circularity, as a mechanism used to secure compliance with the law e. G. Inspection or enforcement. Hence compliance is aligned with the behavior f those being regulated. Equating compliance, however, with adherence to the law raises a number of issues. For example who is to determine whether compliance has occurred?
Is this a subjective issue (and so one with which only the regulated community or the regulator is primarily concerned), or is it a question to be addressed by reference to more objective standards? Although “a relatively unrefined concept” (Hutted, 1 997, p. 4) the academic and policy literatures provide indicators of many of the underlying themes. Some scholarly sources adopt a tacit understanding of what is meant. Compliance is sufficiently malleable a term to encompass a range of activities and aspects of regulation including the act of enforcement of the law, the process of securing the underlying aims and objectives of regulations and the negotiation of regulatory outcomes.
In comparison to the expansive literature on regulation, its treatment as a discrete topic remained less well developed (the work of Carson (1970) and Cranston (1979) being notable exceptions) until the 1 ass’s, when a body of predominantly empirical literature focusing on the nature of compliance emerged (Did Mentor, 1 986; Friedman (De. ), 1 990; Hawkins, 1984 Router, 1988 and 1997). Compliance as efficient regulation. Compliance has been seen as an exercise in the efficient allocation of resources such that regulators concentrate resources effectively and target appropriately the worst offenders whilst simultaneously encouraging offenders to internalize the benefits of being ‘good’. (School, AAA, p. 388).
It has been said that “Rules and standards tell people and companies how to behave, and public agencies and their employees control and of course react if people do not comply. The purpose is to make sure that people and companies behave in the way that as been politically defined as preferable. The ultimate goal throughout this process is: Compliance with the law without spending too many resources enforcing it?in other words efficiency. “(Nielsen,2006, p. 396). Many different perspectives have been adopted to explain compliance, in varying contexts and at various levels of abstraction (ranging from policy formulation to the carrying out of inspections) often without drawing a clear distinction of the concept or its defining essence.
At its broadest compliance encompasses much more than adherence to the law. Compliance has been fined in the academic literature as “a process of extended and endless negotiation” (Manning, 1988) and as “a complex process of defining responses to mandates that are often ambiguous” (Hutted, 1 997, p. 13). Farman and Yap (2005, p. 491 ) define the concept as, “the negotiated outcome of the regulatory encounter”. These definitions are neither tied to enforcement nor do they necessarily invoke the use of legal process or quantitative or qualitative compliance with the law (Router, 1997, p. 12). Compliance as a mode of enforcement – the compliance literature.
One central theme in the compliance literature distinguishes regulatory enforcement styles, primarily the punitive or coercive methods of enforcement from more co-operative forms. The notion of law enforcement tends to be context dependent and has a number of objectives. These may include deterring future infractions, (Rises, 1984) or effecting punishment by delivering retribution or communicating disapprobation (Hawkins, 1984). Further, these understandings distinguish the use of formal legal processes and sanctioning from the adoption of informal strategies. Recognizing compliance as an enforcement process has a long history deriving from empirical studies of the 1 ass’s. Common enforcement practices are identified in varying regulatory contexts e. G. enforcement by the Factories Inspectorate (Carson, 1970), or consumer protection (Cranston, 1979). Compliance in this sense is characterized by more than a use of legal action and is closely allied to the adoption of informal practices, such as persuasion rather than a use of punishment per SE. Empirical research emphasizes that rather than pursue formal and often deterrence-based approaches, informal negotiated processes are used by regulators in the field to repair damage and minimize further future contraventions. These strategies are not necessarily distinct but instead are seen as part of a ‘compliance continuum’ (Hawkins, 1991 , p. 428). By taking this approach researchers have been able to distinguish certain enforcement styles.
Research on regulatory enforcement tends to characterize enforcement styles as taking two main forms. These are the accommodative (Richardson, 1 983) or compliance strategy and that focused on sanctioning or deterrence (Hawkins, 1 984; Rises, 1984). According to Mandated (2008), we obey the law and those legally appointed for its enforcement for various reasons. When the police order us to stop or to move back, we almost always do as the police order. The police are armed. Moreover, even if we were armed as well, we are morally constrained not to initiate the use of force. None of that, however, explains why we are obligated to obey. Neither the officer’s gun nor our fear of it can explain it.
We may obey laws for fear of loss of reputation or out of a desire for order. They only explain the fact that we obeyed, not why obedience to a law is obligatory. While there might be a moral obligation to obey a particular law because of TTS moral content (e. G. , laws prohibiting murder) or because it solves a coordination problem (e. G. , laws requiring people to drive on the right side of the road and other rather benign rules that hardly anyone would quarrel with), the mere fact that a rule is law does not provide a moral reason for doing what the law requires. Establishing a law implies a demand for obedience, but does not prove why it must be obeyed (Mandated, 2008).
The Qualities of Good Laws. There can be laws that are bad (illegitimate, invalid or unjust), and there can be laws that are better. Hayes explains that he rule of law has eight characteristics (Frederica A Hayes, The Constitution of Liberty, London: Rutledge. 1960, off. ): laws that are non-retroactive, certain and known, equality before the law (I. E. , laws that are perfectly general, abstract, and permanent), an independent judiciary, a government subject to rules, a judicial system to control the legality of administrative acts and judicial decisions, and a Bill of Rights (Hayes is too aware of the weakness of naive sanitarium to list these rights).
According to Pennsylvania State University’s Student Guide to General University Policies and Rules (2012 ? 201 3), all members of the university community have other responsibilities and rights based upon the nature of the educational process and the requirements Of the search for truth and its free presentation.