Despite this urgency, a significant number of cases Of students’ lack of engagement in school such as cutting classes, tardiness, absenteeism and mediocre compliance of performance tasks and subject requirements continue to proliferate (Aaron , 2009). In addition, students’ poor engagement does not just lead them to superficial knowledge acquisition Of lessons but also to deviant behaviors such as gangsters (Hammer&Pianta, 2007; Engle & Contact, 2008; Frederick et al. 2011 According to Dry. Violated A.
Along, Baggage South District Public School Supervisor, National Achievement Test scores among elementary students were low due to poor student engagement in school. Cutting classes among these students were rampant which resulted to loss of learning motivation and incidence of drop outs increased. Further, she said that students were usually forced to help their parents in livelihood activities to augment family income. Therefore, it is in this context that the researcher got interested to conduct this research in order to determine whether family involvement predicts detent engagement in Baggage, Dave Oriental.
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As both parental involvement and student engagement are common factors in successful relationships in a school community, looking at these variables, a number of studies have been done on student engagement and its different components as well as studies done on parental involvement. A research finding emphasizes that parental involvement in children’s learning makes the greatest difference to student achievement (Harris and Goodwill, 2008). However, student motivation as an academic outcome of parental involvement has only recently been explored and investigated (Gonzales-
Detests, Willies and Dona-Holstein 2005), but there has been no specific research showing how this relationship is sign efficient. Hence, the researcher took interest to present some specific types to determine the relationship between these variables. It only shows that the present study can give specific contribution to the field of education and generates new knowledge in student engagement to change parent’s practices in school. Statement of the Problem The main thrust of this study was to determine the relationship between parental involvement and student engagement in Baggage, Dave Oriental.
Specifically, it sought to answer the following questions: 1. What is the extent of the parental involvement in terms of: 1. 1 Parenting 1. 2 Communicating 1. 3 Volunteering 1. 4 Learning at Home 1. 5 Decision-making 1. 6 Collaborating? 2. What is the level of student engagement in terms of: 2. 1 Academic Challenge 2. 2 Student-Faculty Interactions 2. 3 Active and Collaborative Learning 2. 4 Enriching Educational Experiences 2. 5 Supportive Campus Environment 3. Is there a significant relationship between parental involvement and student engagement? . Which domain of the parental involvement best predicts student engagement? Hypothesis This study tested the following hypothesis: 1 . There is no significant relationship between parental involvement and student engagement. 2. No domain of Parental involvement significantly predicts student engagement. Review of Related Literature This section presents various views, arguments, theories and finding’s research and publications which are relevant in establishing the essence of this study.
The first part of the review discusses parental involvement which includes parenting, communicating, volunteering, decision-making indoctrinating. The second part presents student engagement which includes academic challenge, student/faculty interactions, active and collaborative learning, enriching educational experiences and supportive educational experiences. Parental Involvement Increased involvement of parents and families often cited as one of the most important ways to improve public schools.
A variety of studies confirm that parent involvement makes an enormous impact on students’ attitude, attendance, and academic achievement (Anderson & Mine, 2007). Although some working and single parents may be unable to contribute to schools cause of work commitments and time constraints (Bausch, 201 1; Castro et al. , 2012; Xx, 2012), educators are discovering many additional ways that parents can help students and their schools (Edwards & Altered, 2008).
TO effect change, parents must find time to participate in their children’s education (Votary-Doral et al. , 2012) while schools must provide the supports necessary for them to involved (Weiss, 2010). Children whose parents are involved generally have higher grades and test scores (Mac Grower, 2010) as well as more positive attitudes and behaviors (Xx, 2012). And schools infinite from parental involvement in that there are long-term improvements in academic achievement, more successful school programs and more effective schools (Weiss, 2010; Castro et al. 2012). Some researchers examined the effects parents’ involvement on school engagement. (Votary-Doral et al. , 2012) found that parents’ behavioral involvement enhances students because it fosters students’ motivation and engagement in school. Though many studies have identified a relationship between adolescents’ family experiences and their levels of engagement, these studies have most generally concentrated n demographic characteristics of the family, such as its socioeconomic status (Xx, 201 2; Votary-Dread et al. , 2012).
For instance, (Edwards , 2008) found that students whose families had a higher SEES showed higher levels of school engagement, where engagement was measured by how enchantments liked school and how much time they spent on homework. While Mentored (2008), Hill and craft (2009) and Hill and Taylor (2010) found students’ performance was enhanced by behavioral and emotional engagement of students and was related to strong parent- student relationship, they ignored the links between parent- detent relationship and students’ school engagement(Xx, 2012; Castro et al. 2012). Piquant (2011 ) expanded upon the traditional kinds of involvement by identifying six types of involvement in schools such as parenting communicating, volunteering, learning at home, decision making, and collaborating with the community. The following indicators were taken from the revision of Maine’ 2011 ,based from Epstein six types of parental involvement (Phi Delta Kappa Center for Evaluation, Development and Research) Epstein. L. , Simon,B. S. , and Salinas, K. C. (1997). Involving parents in homework in the middle class. Parenting.
Research strongly supports the benefits of having parents involved in their child’s education (Votary-Doral et al. , 2012). Weiss, (2010) states that research also indicates that parents who are involved in their child’s academic life have a profound effect on the child’s ability to learn and help instill in them an appreciation for learning that can last a lifetime. Parenting can be better manifested when parents make themselves available during the difficult times of their students. This difficulty can be academic (Castro et al. , 201 2), personal (Edwards & Altered, 2008; Coolant et l. 2009) or other school-related problems (Hill & Craft, 2007; Hill & Taylor, 2008). In addition, parenting is better felt when there is constant communication between the teacher and the parents (Weiss, 201 0), exemplifying supportive behaviors and statements at home and before going to school (Coolant et al. , 2009; Hammer & Piñata, 2007) and being helpful in answering children’s assignments or projects (Castro et al. , 2012; Mac Grower, 2008). These parenting types have been linked theoretically and empirically to children’s social and emotional outcomes. Xx, 2012; Hammer & Piñata, 2007) mound that school children whose parents demonstrated authoritative parenting behaviors exhibited self-motivation in preschool and positive adjustment upon their entrance into elementary school. Conversely, children of authoritarian parents demonstrated inhibited participation and lacked initiative (Mac Grower, 2008; Coolant et al. , 2009). Permissively-parented children exhibited lower levels of self-reliance (Edwards & Altered, 2008) and achievement motivation (Hill & Craft, 2007; Hill & Taylor, 2008).
With respect to the indifferent/uninvolved parenting style, Castro et al. , (2012) proposed hat parenting sometimes yields the poorest outcomes among children. However, research on this construct is limited and has tended to focus on adolescent developmental outcomes (Xx, 201 2; Weiss, 2010; Coolant et al. , 2009). Recent empirical research, most of which has focused on minority and lower socio-economic status families, has supported the claim that reasonable parenting style is the most developmentally appropriate and supportive parenting style (Votary-Dread et al. , 201 2; Hammer & Piñata, 2007).
It is generally believed that authoritative parenting encompasses an optimal ix of both warmth and control such that children receive consistent messages not only about the expectations that their parents have for them but also the support and responsiveness they need in order to meet these expectations (Linebacker et al. , 2010; Castro et al. , 2012). This style of parenting is thought to promote social competence in preschool because it facilitates children’s early development of problem-solving and self-regulation skills necessary for social success (Edwards &Alldred, 2008; McGregor, 2008; Coolant et al. 2009). Communicating. Healthiest et al. , (2009) and Lambert, Abbott-Shim and Siebel (2013) argued that a healthy communication between teachers and parents and their children would lead to the establishment of mutual trust, expressed shared goal of the best interest of the child, the creation of a vehicle for open communication (Weiss, 2010; Hammer & Piñata, 2007; Harris & Goodwill, 2008), and the clarification of an attitude of collaboration and problem solving rather than blaming (Castro et al. , 2012; Lambert et al. , 2013).
Research emphasized that parent-child conversations in the home are more valuable, in terms of enhancing pupil achievement, than arenas’ involvement in school activities (Keyes, 2010). This does not mean that traditional activities, such as parents helping in the classroom and meeting with teachers at school have no value (Lambert et al. , 2013). There may be lots of indirect benefits of such contact, and in any case, such contact can be directly geared to encouraging and supporting parents (Xx, 2012; Healthiest et al. 2009) in talking with their children about their learning at home.