Introduction: – Organizational Behavior (OB) is the study and application of knowledge about how people, individuals, and groups act in organizations. It does this by taking a system approach. That is, it interprets people-organization relationships in terms of the whole person, whole group, whole organization, and whole social system. Its purpose is to build better relationships by achieving human objectives, organizational objectives, and social objectives Elements of Organizational Behavior:- The organization’s base rests on management’s philosophy, values, vision and goals.
This in turn drives the organizational culture which is composed of the formal organization, informal organization, and the social environment. The culture determines the type of leadership, communication, and group dynamics within the organization. The workers perceive this as the quality of work life which directs their degree of motivation. The final outcome is performance, individual satisfaction, and personal growth and development. All these elements combine to build the model or framework that the organization operates from. Models of Organizational Behavior:-
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There are four major models or frameworks that organizations operate out of, Autocratic, Custodial, Supportive, and Collegial (Cunningham, Eberle, 1990; Davis,1967): Autocratic — The basis of this model is power with a managerial orientation of authority. The employees in turn are oriented towards obedience and dependence on the boss. The employee need that is met is subsistence. The performance result is minimal. Custodial — The basis of this model is economic resources with a managerial orientation of money. The employees in turn are oriented towards security and benefits and dependence on the organization.
The employee need that is met is security. The performance result is passive cooperation. Supportive — The basis of this model is leadership with a managerial orientation of support. The employees in turn are oriented towards job performance and participation. The employee need that is met is status and recognition. The performance result is awakened drives. Collegial — The basis of this model is partnership with a managerial orientation of teamwork. The employees in turn are oriented towards responsible behavior and self-discipline. The employee need that is met is self-actualization. The performance result is moderate enthusiasm.
Although there are four separate models, almost no organization operates exclusively in one. There will usually be a predominate one, with one or more areas over-lapping in the other models. The first model, autocratic, has its roots in the industrial revolution. The managers of this type of organization operate mostly out of McGregor’s Theory X. The next three models begin to build on McGregor’s Theory Y. They have each evolved over a period of time and there is no one best model. In addition, the collegial model should not be thought as the last or best model, but the beginning of a new model or paradigm.
Importance of organizational behavior: – Organization Development (OD) is the systematic application of behavioral science knowledge at various levels, such as group, inter-group, organization, etc. , to bring about planned change (Newstrom, Davis, 1993). Their objective is a higher quality of work-life, productivity, adaptability, and effectiveness. It accomplishes this by changing attitudes, behaviors, values, strategies, procedures, and structures so that the organization can adapt to competitive actions, technological advances, and the fast pace of change within the environment. 1.
Humanistic Values: Positive beliefs about the potential of employees (McGregor’s Theory Y). 2. Systems Orientation: All parts of the organization, to include structure, technology, and people, must work together. 3. Experiential Learning: The learners’ experiences in the training environment should be the kind of human problems they encounter at work. The training should NOT be all theory and lecture. 4. Problem Solving: Problems are identified, data is gathered, corrective action is taken, progress is assessed, and adjustments in the problem solving process are made as needed. This process is known as Action Research. . Contingency Orientation: Actions are selected and adapted to fit the need. 6. Change Agent: Stimulate, facilitate, and coordinate change. 7. Levels of Interventions: Problems can occur at one or more level in the organization so the strategy will require one or more interventions. An organizational behavior system:- [pic] Figure – An organizational behavior system Elements of the system Philosophy- the philosophy of organizational behavior held by management cconsist of an integrated set of assumption and benefits about the way things are the purpose of these activities , and the way they should be.
The philosophies are some times explicit and occationally amplict, in the mindes of managers. Five major organizational behavior philosophies- autocratic, custodial, supportive, collegial, and system-and their implication are bdiscussed later in this assignment. Values:- Values can be defined as those things that are important to or valued by someone. That someone can be an individual or, collectively, an organization. One place where values are important is in relation to vision. Values are the embodiment of what an organization stands for, and should be the basis for the behavior of its members. Vision- ision represents a challenging portrait of what the organization and its members can be – a possible and desirable future. Leaders need to create exciting projections about where the organization should go and what major changes lie ahead. Mission:- mission defines the fundamental purpose of an organization or an enterprise succinctly describing why it existing and what it does to achieve its vision It sometimes used to set out a picture of the other organization in the future. Goals:- Goals are relatively concrete formulations of achievements the organization is aiming for within set periods of time, such as one to five years.
Goals setting is a complex process , for top managements goals need to be merged with those of employees who bring their their physiological , social and economic needs with them to an organization. Four key forces of organizational behavior:- A complex set of forces affects the nature of organization today. A wide array of issues and trends of these forces can be classified into four areas- . People . Structure . Technology .environment when people work together in an organization to accomplish an objective, some kind of structure of formal relationships is required.
People also use technology to help get thae job done, so people structure technology interact,. In addition these elements are influenced by the external environment, and they influence t. each of the four forces affecting organizational behavior , and some illustration of each , is considered briefly in the following sections. People:- People make up the internal social system of the organization. People are the living thinking feeling being who work in the organization to achieve their objectives. Structure:- Structure defines the formal relation ship and use of people in organizations.
Different jobs are required to accomplish all of organizations activities. There are managers and employees, accountatsand assemblers. These people have to be related in some structural way so that their work can be effectively coordinated. Technology:- Technology provides the resources with which people work and affects the tasks that they perform. The technology used has a significant influence on working relationship. Environment:- All organization s operate within an internal and an external environment. A single organization doesn’t exist alone.
It is part of a larger system the contains many other elements, such as government, the family and other organization. The nature of people With regard to people, there are six basic concepts: 1. individual difference 2. perception 3. a whole person 4. motivated behavior 5. desire for involvement 6. value of the person 1. Individual person:- people have much in common but each person in the world is also individually different. The idea of individual difference is supported by science. Individual difference requirethat a managers approach to employees be individual , not statistical.
This belief that each person is different from all others is typically called the law of individual difference. 2. perception:- people look at the world and see things differently. Even when presented with the same object, two people may view in two different ways their view of their objective environment is filtered by perception, which is the unique way in which each person sees organize and interprets things. 3. a whole person:- 4. motivated behavior:- 5. desire for involvement:- The nature of the organization :-
With regard to organizations, the three concepts are that they are social systems, they are formed on the basis of mutual interest, and they must treat employees ethically. Social system- The idea of a social system provides a frame work for analyzing organizational behavior issues. It helps make organizational behavior problems understandable and manageable Mutual interest:- Organization need people and people need organizations . organization have a human purpose. They are formed and maintained on the basis of some mutuality interest among their participants. Ethics: –
Ethics is the use of moral principles and values to affect the behavior of individuals and organizations with regard to choices between what is right and wrong. Limitations of organizational behavior:- 1. Behavioral Bias:- 2. The Law Of Diminishing Returns :- 3. Unethical Manipulation Of People:- Conclusion:- ———————– Organizational culture Formal organization Managements .philosophy. Values. Vision. Mission. Goals Motivation Quality of work life Leadership. Communication. group dynamics Informal organization Social environment Outcomes . Performance . Employee satisfaction .personal growth and development