Course Code:Civic Welfare Training Service Program 2 Pre-Requisite:Civic Welfare Training Service Program 1 Course Description Civic Welfare Training Service Program 2 (CWTSP 2) is a three (3) unit non-academic course for students who have taken Civic Welfare Training Service Program 1.
It requires the actual involvement of students in civic/community projects and activities designed to encourage the youth to contribute in the improvement of the general welfare and the quality of life for the local community and its various institutional components, more particularly, in terms of “improving health, education, environment, entrepreneurship, safety, recreation and moral of the citizenry (see RA No. 9163, Section 3,d). ” Objective At the end of the course, the students should be able to render community service contributory to the development and welfare and the preservation of peace and order of the members of the community.
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Course Outline I. The Ministry of Service II. Responsiveness in the Youth III. Mobilization: Strengthening Social Responsibility in the Youth Teaching Strategies and Methodology Lectures, class discussions, group sharing, for a, field exposures and consultations are strategies to be considered in the course. Requirements 1. Attendance and participation in classroom activities. 2. Assignments, requirements and reports. 3. Lectures and discussions. 4. Project implementation (includes proposal, implementation, monitoring, evaluation, documentation/written report and oral presentation). . Midterm and final examinations. Grading System A. Midterm Grade 1. Class Standing20% Attendance10% Recitation5% Assignments/Requirements5% 2. Quizzes30%30% 3. Exposure/Immersion10% Participation5% Reaction Paper5% 4. Midterm Exam40%40% ____ 100% B. Pre-final Grade 1. Class Standing20% Attendance10% Recitation5% Assignments/Requirements5% 2. Quizzes20%20% 3. Project20% Formulation5% Implementation10% Written Report5% 4. Final Exam40%40% ____ 100% C. Final Grade Midterm Grade + Pre-final Grade / 2 = Final Grade Introduction
The Civic Welfare Training Service Program (CWTSP) is a program component of the National Service Training Program (NSTP) under the Republic Act 9163 known as the National Service Training Program Act of 2001 which refers to “programs of activities contributory to the general welfare and betterment of life for the members of the community or the enhancement of its facilities, especially those devoted to improving health, education, environment, entrepreneurship, safety, recreation and moral of the citizenry (Section 3, d). The Civic Welfare Training Service Program II (CWTSP II) is a second semester course which consists of projects and activities designed to encourage the students to contribute in the improvement of the general welfare and the quality of life for the local community and its various institutional components, more particularly in terms of “improving health, education, environment, entrepreneurship, safety, recreation and moral of the citizenry (Section 3, d. ). ” It includes lectures, ommunity immersions/exposures and civic community project/s implementation. The students are given the opportunity to do actual civic/community service under the supervision of the teacher- facilitator. Through the different projects planned, implemented and evaluated by the students themselves, they are expected to become civic/community minded and socially responsible. Colegio de San Juan de Letran recognizes a fertile ground and a greater manpower for civic/community service involvement in the CWTSP.
It is therefore the goal of the Colegio through the CWTSP to form the students to become civic/community conscious, responsive and be involved in civic welfare activities in the light of the Dominican spirituality towards the concretization and actualization of the Colegio’s thrust of forming the students to become “builders and leaders of communities. ” MODULE 1 The Commitment to Service Introduction The Colegio’s CWS Program is viewed as a continuation of Christ’s ministry to the poor. It finds its model in the ministry of Christ of bringing the Good News to the people.
It is embracing discipleship with Christ whose teachings are founded on the love of God and the love of neighbor. At the end of the lesson, the students are expected to: 1. Understand the concept of community organizing, service and volunteerism. 2. Identify values needed to confront situations that appear hopeless. Activity 1 – Sharing 1. Divide the class into groups of 5-10 members. 2. Facilitate group sharing of reactions (5-10 minutes) on social issues read from the newspapers, heard from radio reports and seen in television shows.
Continue the sharing with the following guide questions: a. When I see something that needs to be changed, why don’t I act? b. How do any of these responses fit your reactions? Choose one. What ways could you devise to challenge the statement? • I’m afraid of what might happen. • I really don’t know enough about the situation. • I’m afraid that people won’t like me, especially my friends or colleagues or people I think are more important than I am. • I don’t think anyone really sees the situation in the same way that I do. I really don’t have the right to make changes. • I really don’t deserve for things to be better. • I really don’t know what to do. • I’m too busy with more important matters. • It’s too big and I’m only one person. • It’s not my job. 3. A group report is required after the activity. Part I. Understanding Community Organizing Strategy Topic Discussion Community Organizing: The Rationale Let us for a moment consider and discuss the following in order to grasp the reasons behind community organizing. 1. The Environment: A System of Oppression and Exploitation
When any part the social system becomes aware that its interests are either threatened or not being fairly served by those in authority/control, the (coercive) power of those on authority begins to be questioned or challenge, the social system is composed of other subsystems and component. The underdevelopment of society, especially those at the bottom of the economic stratum, has been primarily so as the result as the “pyramidal” structure with society’s elites at the topmost. Though they are fewer in number compare to the whole population, they control the bulk of society’s wealth.
They have the access to resources and are thus able ton mass more wealth at the expense of the majority poor. Due to the unsustainable nature of development interventions, the situation of the majority poor are getting worse. This leads to vicious circle of poverty (Figure 1). The unfortunate situation is that the poor are perpetually entangled in ignorance, most of them interpreting their oppressed situation as fate. Figure 1. A Vicious Circle (Source: People First: Guide to Self Reliant & Participatory Rural Development, Stan Burkey, 1993) Figure 2. More Vicious Circles Source: People First: Guide to Self Reliant & Participatory Rural Development, Stan Burkey, 1993) 2. The Clientele System: Culture of Silence As a result of that “culture of silence”, the majority wallow in vicious and mire vicious circles of poverty. The root causes of poverty are oppression, injustice, ignorance and calculated lack of opportunities. Poverty, in turn pervades the culture of silence, which is both an adoption and reactions of the poor to their significantly marginal position in a class society that is mainly individualistic and exploitive (capitalist).
The major characteristics of this culture are strong feeling of marginality, helplessness, dependency, inferiority complex (cultural hegemony) and worse of all, fear (intimidation). There is, as a consequence, low participation in community activities. This may also be referred to as the “culture of poverty” which is distinguished by the following characteristics: • Marked “present-time/hand-to-mouth” orientation. • Low participation in community decision-making, planning, implementation and feed back activities. • Apathy and indifference in socio-cultural and political affairs. High dependency attitudes 3. The Change Agent System: A Liberative Community Organizer Given the above scenario on the prevailing culture and condition, most people may express no interest in the work of change agents. To overcome this inertia, therefore, change agents are needed to stimulate people’s interests in their individual and community situations. Community organizes start by prodding and putting pressure on the system to begin addressing the societal injustice. By making dissatisfaction known pervasive (spreading), the status quo will be agitated and set in motion for the betterment.
The community organizer as a change agent, is a realist who is always searching, experimenting, employing various techniques because people are so different individually and because situations change from time to time. Although the community organizer plays an active role – persuading, arguing, suggesting, challenging, motivating, analyzing, agitating, and facilitating, he/she does not take over the decision – making right from the clients (people). The community organizer must know where to draw the dividing line between being catalyst (which he/she is) and not being manipulator (which he/she is not).
In short, the community organizer is a “change generator”, the primary converter of an enabling issue into a felt need. (Source: ASI CD Monograph, 1998) Topic Discussion Community Organizing: Definition Community Organizing (CO), as commonly used has already joined the “wagon of over-used” words both in the academic and non-academic circles. Every agency or organization has its own interpretation of things around its own interpretation of things around it and therefore it must be no surprise that CO, like other terms, has different definitions depending on who, where and for what.
It is popularly used among development practitioners, social workers, health workers, agriculturists, forest workers, teacher and even students. There are those who use CO to promote en environmental protection while there are those who use environmental protection promotes community organizing. Some say that CO is building organizations, other say it is just one of the aims of CO. some practitioners say that tantamount to doing community development. Community organizing is not just physically gathering and organizing people so that they can collectively participate in solving problems.
CO is more a process of community-based decision-making involving the intervention of a change agent particularly regarding the exploitation of community-based resources. As Paulo Freire noted in his participatory approach research. “Man is being who exist in and with the world. To exist is thus a mode of life which is proper to the being who is capable of producing, of deciding, of creating and communicating himself. ” Let us now look at several definitions of community organizing. 1.
It is the process of bringing about and maintaining adjustment between the social welfare needs and resources in a geographical area or special field of service. This means that a community needs to be aware that their needs can be responded by what the community’s physical boundaries. Adjustment of these needs with the available resources will require: a) Identifying what resources are exploitable; b) Planning on how to tap, use and re-use them; c) Employing environmentally safe appropriate technology; and d) Promoting collective human action in the resource management/maintenance.
That is, in the essence, organizing the people for a common purpose/goal. 2. According to the Philippines Business for Social Progress (PBSP), “CO is a systematic, planned and liberating change process of transforming a complacent, deprived malfunctioning community into conscious, empowered, self-reliant and just humane entity and institution”. This means, the community as a social unit, needs to learn so that they become empowered to address problems confronting them. 3. CO is a process forged along people’s empowerment and the eventual formation of a self-reliant organization that will facilitate development in a sustainable manner.
Apart from the above definitions, I would like to re-visit the concern that has been expressed for sometime now on the misuse and abuse of the concept of CO. (Source: ASI CD Monograph, 1998) Topic Discussion The Concept of Community Organizing 1. Of Means and Ends (Process and Result) As a process, CO is a series of interrelated activities with the aim of unifying the people into an organization process, characterized by people’s participation in all aspect or stages of the organizing process. CO is a complex process that goes beyond the mere setting up of a formal organization.
It is a process which ultimately influences the patterns of relationships in the community through the development and maintenance of a normative system. Such norms are expected to affect the values, belief, attitudes and aspiration of the people in the community. As a radical approach in bringing development to the community. Being radical, CO employs coercion, advocacy and even threat to uproot the causes of social injustice in the development of the people. Although CO starts by addressing small and simple issues which the people can immediately act on or solve, its main focus is to dig into the root cause of the problems.
As a result of the organizing process, CO refers to the resulting entity, which is the legitimate and real organization of the people. It becomes the real manifestations of the people’s collective wills to be able to participate, voice out and be heard and also to act and decide as unified body (group). The resulting organization mirrors the people’s interests, sentiments and aspiration. Does the end always justify the means? There is, without a flaw, the perennial question about the ethical considerations of the irreverent* attitude and the unconventional methods that effective COs have employed in their practice.
But Alinsky resorted thus: Conscience is the virtue of observations and not of agent of action; in action, one does not always enjoy the luxury of a decision that is consistent both with one’s individual conscience and good of mankind; action is for mass salvation and not for individual’s personal salvation – particularly in the midst of society’s innate hypocrisy, its contradictions and apparent failure of almost every facet of our social and political life. 2. Of Power By giving power to the people we bring about “the future secured in the people’s hands”.
Power is the basic element in the community organizing process. People’s power in CO is not based on material wealth in status in society. A powerful people’s organization (PO) is, therefore, an important means to find redress for their grievances and act against those conditions that appear and dehumanize them. People’s empowerment is making the people more assertive and advocative to face and fight human rights violations and exploitations. It is a process involving the recognizing and building upon innate capacity.
It is not a program or activity but a process of enabling people, especially the weak, the poor, the unorganized, the illiterate, the oppressed to learn to surmount their powerlessness and to try to develop their God-given capacity to reach their in-born potential. Becoming vocal, they may be guaranteed basic freedom, opportunities and self-governance at the grassroots level. 3. Of Conflict (And Controversy) In CO, dissatisfaction or discontent (discontentment) is viewed as a positive ingredient that nourishes the enlightenment and development of a community.
This is because it motivates people to come together and discuss and determined to solve problems affecting them. CO sees confrontation as a necessary and useful tool in solving social injustice. Change is part of human life and conflict (or friction) indispensable in social change. To live is to change. Change and conflict are fraternal twins in societal change. One functional aspect of conflict is that it leads to a search for solutions. It is an instrumental for innovative change. It also helps to release the latent socio-psychological frustration. . Of Praxis (Theory and Practice/Reflection and Action) By a praxis here, it means that theory and practice o0f community organizing. In the day-to-day community improvement or organizing work, it is difficult to identify or separate the theory from the practice. Theory and practices should be so inter-woven and complementary, each testing and strengthening the other. It also refers to reflection and action (Figure 3). 5. Of Conscientization (Critical Awakening) Conscientization refers to the process in which men (humans) are not ecipients, but as knowing subjects, achieve deepening awareness both of the socio-cultural reality which shapes their lives and their capacity to transform that reality (Paulo Freire; 1972). Conscientization involves reflection and action occurring simultaneously in the process of organizing wherein critical reflection becomes form of action. Features of Conscientization; 1. It is people’s organized response because the system it contends (struggles with) is organized. 2. It mirrors and unmasks the different aspects (realities) of the system so that the people see them for what they are. . It changes attempts by elites to petrify (solidify) the culture of poverty and galvanize (electrifies) within people the spirit of critical awareness and mass protest. At the same time, it promotes the spirit of cooperation, unity and sincerity among the people to fight against the individualistic, competitive, exploitation and selfish characteristics of the elites. (Source: ASI CD Monograph, 1998) Topic Discussion Goals of Community Organizing Community organizing aims at achieving the following broad goals: 1. People’s Empowerment
CO helps the community to become better equipped with appropriate skills, ethics to assert and advocate for their rights, towards social equity, fairness and human dignity. 2. Building Organization The organizing process brings into being relatively permanent structures that can better serve the needs and aspirations of the community. A viable, self- reliant and grassroots-managed organization (PO) is one of the aims of CO. through formal or non-formal set-ups or structures, the community acquires the skills of community management. 3. Building Alliances
Community organizing aims to give the people, skills in intra and inter organizational management and processes through group linkages and networking among the various groups in the community. 4. Popular Democracy Popular democracy entails such attributes as consensus-building in decision-making, planning and participation in community projects. It gives rise to “one man one vote” system, freedom of speech and freedom of religion, among others. 5. Social Transformation CO seeks to change the life of a community and the whole society into a democratic, nationalistic, self-reliant and self-governing entity.
An entity to address the needs of individual members as well as community-based concerns such as environmental degradation. 6. Development of Local Leaders It aims to identify local leaders and equip them with the necessary skills to better serve their people. (Source: ASI CD Monograph, 1998) Topic Discussion The Guiding Principles of Community Organizing CO like other concepts, has set of principles to guide the practice. It is people’s organized response because the system it contends (struggles with) is organized: Go to the people. Live among them. Learn from them. Plan with them.
Work with them. Start with what they know. Build on what they have. Teach by showing. Learn by doing. Not by showcase, but a pattern. Not odds and ends, but a system. Not piecemeal, but an integrated approach. Not to conform, but to transform. Not relief, but release. Go to the people and live among the people. Learn the culture of the people and try to integrate into the culture. Learn, plan and work with the people. The people are highly knowledgeable about the local situation so the community organizer must avail of this opportunity. Start from where the people are in their development.
There must be a proportionate blend between top-down and bottom-up technologies in order to tap the indigenous resources in the community. Teach by learning first from the people. The community organizer must realize that local or indigenous knowledge is not inferior to Western or scientific knowledge. Respecting the people’s knowledge will encourage them to learn other skills to complement what they already know. Integrative and holistic approach. The community organizing must focus on the interdependency and the interrelatedness of the factors needed to transform the situation of the people for the better.
Cumulative and continuous. CO is not one time great even but grows gradually without break until specific problems are addressed and phased-out. (Source: ASI CD Monograph, 1998) Topic Discussion Basic Community Organizing Process 1. Entry to the Community The decision to enter a community and establish a helping/working relationship with the people should be based on the following: a. clarity of purpose of the relationship between the agency/community organizer and the people in the community through initial dialogues with formal and informal leaders and some community members. b. he identification of social problems and needs around which the organizing process can start. Aside from the initial dialogues, this may be done through occur visits to the community and a review or gathering of preliminary data from existing documents or as provided by key contact persons; and c. the community desire for the need for change and its willingness to work with the community’s organizer to bring about desired change/s. Initial impressions can either facilitate or hinder the achievement or organizing goals. The following guidelines are suggested in entering a community: . recognize the role and position of local authorities by paying them a visit and informing them of your presence and objectives. b. in your personal appearance, speech and behavior, adopt a life-style that keeps us with that of the community. c. choose a modest dwelling which is open to the majority of the poor in the community. Preferably, the host family should be a respected in the community. d. avoid raising expectations by adopting a low key approach and profile. Avoid establishing a commercial relationship with the host family by lending a hand in household chores. 2.
Integration with the People Integration is establishing rapport with the people in the continuing effort to imbibe community life by living with them and undergoing the same experiences, sharing their hopes, aspirations and hardships towards building mutual trust and cooperation. The organizer tries to immerse himself or herself in the community to get to know the culture, history, economy, leaders and lifestyles of the people. This is done by participating in both social and economic, formal and informal activities of the people. Integration is basic to all the other steps.
If the organizer is not one with the people her/she can never really learn the true dimensions of the people’s problems or how to motivate them to change. Some suggested activities to facilitate integration are: a. participate in direct production activities of the people such as planting or harvesting rice, fishing, etc. b. conduct house to house visits. c. seek out and converse wi9th the people where they usually congregate (e. g. corner store, water wells, washing stream, etc. ) d. lend a hand in household chores like cooking food, dishwashing, fetching water, housekeeping and even baby-sitting. e. void gambling and too much drinking. The process of integration should make the community organizer learn to respect the people’s strength to struggle, their values and lifestyle. The organizer must also be more understanding, tolerant and committed as well as recognizing his/her own limitations. 3. Social Investigation/Community Study Social investigation (S. I. ) is the process of systematically learning and analyzing the various structures and forces in the community, economically, politically and socio-culturally. This results in a community study write-up in order to draw a clearer picture of the community.
The community study is a long phase and process. A phase of community organizing, it comes at the beginning, and as process, it is continuous, i. e. no community study is ever complete. This means that we do not have to wait for information to come in before proceeding with our organizing work. The objectives of the social investigation/community study are a. to gather data on geographic, economic, political and socio-cultural situation of the community in order to identify and understand the problems and issues that need immediate and long-term solution. b. o identify the classes and sectors present in the community in order to determine their interests and attitudes towards the problems and issues in the community. c. to determine the correct approach and method of organizing. d. to provide a basis for planning and programming or organizing activities. Social investigation requires skills. Our skills and objectivity cannot be taken apart from our partisanship towards the oppressed. It is conducted to bring into focus the features of a general or particular exploitative and oppressive situation and to define the starting point of our organizing activity.
General Methodology and Guidelines in Social Investigation: a. Interview which may be conducted through: 1. House to house visits; 2. Informal/social gatherings; 3. Fact-finding meeting-depending on the objectives of our study, we may invite representatives from a particular class. It is important that the people invited have broad knowledge/experience. 4. Participation in production activities. b. Observation: 1. Casual observations. 2. Participant observation-by participating in the activities of the people, the observer feels and experiences the events in the community. c. Examination/Review of Secondary Data
This method assumes that much of the initial information needed are already available. Integration facilitates social investigation and vice-versa. In order to gain first hand and comprehensive knowledge of the community, it is important to immerse oneself in the community. The ordinary people cannot be expected to open up with their problems and opinions to complete strangers. As an outsider, the organizer can only learn of the local people through them. It is only the latter who can supply the most revealing picture of themselves and their community. Integration and data gathering are closely related.
Good integration for better data and better data as basis for better integration. Participatory Approach in Social Investigation People’s participation should be observed in all phase of community organizing, including social investigation. Participatory Data Gathering is the process of involving the community residents in the collection and consolidation of data or information, thus becoming the basis for problem identification and strategy formulation. It is simply knowing: 1. Why data are to be gathered, 2. What data to gather, 3. How data are to be gathered (tools to be used), 4.
Where data are to be gathered (sources), 5. Who collects the data. Why participatory data gathering? Participatory data gathering is important in the community organizing process because in general. It can provide: 1. a demographic profile of the community; 2. an inventory of community resources; 3. an identification of current community trends, including issues; 4. a picture of the network or services and organizations in the area; and an opportunity for raising the level of consciousness of leaders and members of the community such that they become more aware of existing realities in their environment.
Specifically, it can aid in the community organizer in: 1. defining the situation he/she is entering into; 2. obtaining an initial view of the social problems to be confronted; 3. specify his role vis-a-vis the people with whom he will be working; 4. setting relevant objectives and effective programs to help the community; and evaluating the community’s programs and after programs have been implemented. 4. Problem/Issue Identification and Analysis a. Problem identification and analysis is the process of defining, analyzing and ranking community problems and needs.
It facilitates the systematic use of data as means of helping communities perceive and analyze their situation from a more comprehensive and analytical viewpoint. b. Guide in problem identification 1. Scope/Degree of the problem – Who are affected? – How many are affected and or concerned/ – In what ways are they affected? To what extent? – How does the problem affected the operations of the community/groups? – How does the members feel individually and collectively? 2. Past change efforts – What has the group / community done about the problem? What happened? Why? Were there other agencies in the past who tried to do something about the problem? What happened and Why? 3. Origin of the problem – When did the problem begin? – How did it start? 4. Factors that maintain/increase or eliminate the problems – What forces (economic, political, socio-cultural) maintain, increase, reduce or eliminate the problem? – What are the implications of the problem to the community’s structure? 5. Problem Prioritization – Which problem is the most urgent? Most widely/seriously felt? – Which problems are the most manageable to act on considering community’s resources and limitations? Which problems are tactical/strategical? 6. Planning and Strategizing Planning is the process of translating goals/objectives into specific activities to meet community needs or solve community problems. It involves a holistic situational analysis of the community towards identifying community needs/problems, and resources, response, basically answers the questions on: – how much (quantity of resources); – of what (programs, projects, services); – for whom (target beneficiaries/clients); – why (to achieve what goals); – for how much (these social and economic costs and under); – hat conditions (with what other consequences? ). The planning process involved: – Identification or perceived problems and needs. – Identification of existing resources. – Studying how to utilize the resources. – Formulation of possible solutions. – Setting plans of action. Plans are further broken down into strategies and tactics. A strategy is a general or over-all direction that the organizing process will take to attain ling-range goals 9e. g. community organizing, social advocacy). A tactic is a specific action within a strategy to attain short-term goal. Some guidelines for forming a strategy: a. Principal Issue or Problem
The organizer and the people should agree on what is the main or principal issue of the community. It should be the issue which effects most people and can serve as a basis for unity. b. Solution to the Problem Next, they should work out solutions and alternative option to this principal issue weighing the advantages and disadvantages of each option. It for example, if it is land issue in a squatter community, the group should decide whether to work for the land they are on or accept nearby relocation. The consequences of each option are carefully analyzed before making a decision. c. Strength and weaknesses
The group should then make a review of their organization’s strengths and weaknesses. Those of its allies and of the forces that may oppose their plans. d. Other secondary issues The people should study the other issues or problems in the area such as water, roads, drainage, garbage, income generating schemes, etc. and try to see how to work on these problems can be related to the principal issue. A people’s single issue will not provide enough opportunities to involve in action on a regular basis. e. Large outside issues Finally, the people should try how their area and its issue are related to large city or national issues. . Core Group Formation In the process of integration and social investigation, conscious efforts are made to identify potential leaders. Potential leaders can assist the community organizer in providing/validating about the community and its people. The community organizer should be able to asses the abilities and the willingness of each potential leader to work for change through his involvement in the different community mobilizations and activities. The following criteria are used for spotting potential leaders: a. Belong to the poor sector and classes and is directly engaged in production. b.
Well-respected by the members of the community and has relatively wide influence. c. Desirous of change and is willing to work for change. d. Conscientious and resourceful in his work. e. Able to communicate effectively (i. e. listens to community members while at the same time must be able to articulate their problems and needs). Core group formation is the laying down of the foundation of a strong people’s organization. This is brought about by bringing together several of the most respected indigenous leaders to exchange and insights towards a deeper understanding of the dynamics in the community.
The functions of the core groups are: – Serves as training ground for democratic and collective leadership. – Builds people’s potentials and self-confidence. – Helps the organizer gather data for genuine community studies, spotting other potential leaders and prospective members for a community-wide organization. – Helps in laying out plans and tasks for the formation and maintenance of a community-wide organization with working committees and officers to ensure democratic and collective leadership. 8. Organizational Development After a core group has been formed, other members of the community may join to form a community organization.
A community organization will facilitate wider participation and collective action on community problems. The core group members assist the community organizer in motivating people of the need to get organized. The process to recruit members to join an organization involves are: a. Ground Work The organizer goes around and motivates people on a one-to-one basis to do something on community issues. This is also called agitation. Some aspects of motivation or agitation include issues such as self-interest, morality, rights, honor, shame or anger. Some examples are: It is economically good for you to get access to public water faucets. You can buy rice with your savings. – You pay taxes. You deserve the faucets. – The government does it for the rich. Why not for you? – Your women are getting worn out getting water. You men should do something if you’re really men. As he goes around, the organizer talks about a general meeting during which more people can come for further discussion and action. He discusses the pros and cons of this action and gets people willing to do something and prepared to come to a meeting at such and such a time and place to agree upon such and such. b. Meeting
At a community meeting, the people collectively ratify what they have already decided on individually. The meeting gives a sense of collective power and confidence. People discover that they are not alone. They learn from one another’s motivation and conviction as responsible and contributing community members. The creation of working committees and assigning responsibilities to people for particular tasks may also be done during this time. c. Organizational Structure The formal setting up of the community organization may be done through a general assembly where the constitution and organizational plans are ratified and approved.
The principles observed in setting up the organizations are: – maximum participation of membership; – maximum control by the people; – simplicity of structures; – general assembly; – council of leaders; – executive committee; – working committees; – collective/shared leadership. Once people recognize the legitimate issues add exert organizing efforts, the organizational development is strengthened. The organizing process should resulting consolidating a viable people’s organization. The people’s organization is the result of many successive and similar actions of the people. The following are some characteristics of a people’s organization: . It is an organization or smaller organizations, not individuals. 2. It has an internal structure to help people participate and deliberate, and provides for a system of checks and balances. 3. It is based multi-issues-based at any given time. 4. It is in constant action. Action is the life-blood of an organization. 5. It is serious. It is out to win. It shown tactics which are effective. 6. It is visible and controversial. It projects an image of power. 7. New leaders are constantly emerging. The people with their leaders, think and operate in terms of increasing their power so as to promote the people’s interest. . It raises funds from among the people and is accountable to the people. 9. It creates an impact beyond its immediate concerns. d. Leadership Training and Development The organizing process must not revolve around the community organizer but on the indigenous leaders of the community who will eventually take over the role of the community organizer. Community organizing promotes collective or shared leadership. This best described in the slogan: “All the people, all the time. Some of the people, all of the time. ” Leadership training must be anchored on the following principles and concepts: 1.
Leadership as service – as opposed to a leader being an authoritative figure. Leadership is created towards the welfare of the others. 2. Corporate/collective leadership – as opposed to one-person form of leadership. It means sharing of leadership with the others. Members help in making decisions and pursuing goals. Information is also shared with all. 3. Delegation of authority – in implementing decisions, work and responsibility are divided among different leaders and members. 4. Eliciting participation – leaders encourage/motivate people to join in discussions and work towards a common goal. . Problem solving – means investigating all aspect of a situation or a problem. Consider all suggestions and integrates them into a viable theory and bring back this theory to the people so that it could put into practice. Leadership training and development may be done informally or formally. Informal leadership training refers to the less structured, experiential types of activities which are usually done alongside core group development. Formal leadership training refers to structured activities which are organized to respond to the training of leaders.
This may take the form of seminars and compliment the inputs of the activities of the informal training but it is more focused in objectives and content and serves to synthesize and further enrich the learning from the leader’s day-to-day activities. A formal leadership training seminar usually contains modules on self-awareness, group/team building, communication, problem-solving/community organizing process, share leadership concepts and basic leadership functions and skills. Depending on the leader’s level of training needs, these basic topics may be elaborated and enriched.
Structure study/education sessions may be organized on special topics such as on social problems and their relationships to macro realities as they affect the local community. These compliment the leadership knowledge and skills. Study sessions on issues have a conscientizing thrust in building the leader and community’s awareness of the boarder dimensions of issues confronting them. 9. Mobilization Refers to the activities undertaken by the community or people’s organization to solve problems confronting the community and which serves to build and strengthen the people’s self-confidence and self-respect.
A heated argument can create a sense of equality and dignity between the rich and the poor. Some steps and guidelines in preparing for conflict situation are: A. Issue spotting and analysis 1. Is it just on democratic or moral grounds? 2. Can it mobilize majority of the people? 3. Can it assure tactical victory? B. Target analysis 1. Zero on the target. 2. Personify the target. 3. Look for the target’s vulnerable aspect (time, place) etc. 4. Situate the tactic within the people’s experience and outside the target’s experience. C. Planning 1. Formulation of demands. 2. Voicing demands at public forums. . Formation of support groups. 4. Formation of working committees (e. g. negotiating panel, speakers logistics, etc. ) 5. Role playing. 6. Evaluation and assessment. D. Role playing Means acting out the meeting or the activity that will take place between the people and the target, e. g. government representatives. The leaders play themselves while some of the people play the part of the government panel and answer or act. It is a way of training people to anticipate what will happen and to prepare themselves. Role playing is a good method to develop a sense of on-the-spot reaction.
The organizer can step in with advice from time to time. The main advantage of role-play over other methods of preparation is that by nature, it involves people’s emotions as well as their intellect and people enter into it with full enthusiasm. It is not difficult to do if it is a pleasant way of reviewing issues and aspects or the problem. Role play allows for the atmosphere of confrontation that the people should get used to. 10. Reflection and Evaluation Reflection means analyzing the finished mass action. Its good and weak points identified. This done best right after the activity while it is fresh in the people’s minds.
Structures and systems in which the people live are also torn apart and criticized in the light of their experience. Questions to guide the reflection vary but on the whole they should be concrete and with a definite purpose. Continual self-analysis is necessary to maintain and consolidate a cooperative and participatory spirit among members of a group, i. e. to ensure that an oppressor-oppressed relationship does not emerge within the group. Self-analysis becomes and act of mutual encouragement and motivation for the members of the groups to participate in their own development.
It is seen as a process which bridges the gap between activism and intellectualism, between theory and practice. Through the process usefulness of action is judged by the extent to which it challenges the fundamental causes of oppressing rather than the superficial symptoms. Reflection upon experience relates practice to theory and creates an awareness of global issues. Evaluation is the process of discovering by the people what has been accomplished what has been left out and what remains to be done. Through this collective effort, the people draw inspirations and deepen their commitments to pursue their common goals.
It is essential to evaluate to what the degree objectives correspond to the real problems. People’s participation is as important is as important as planning and implementation. Evaluation must be simple and must involve maximum participation of the people through workshops, dialogues and others. These mechanisms should provide for feedback and education. 11. Turn-over and Phase-out Community organizing is an enabling process where after some time, the community organizer become dispensable and the people’s organization take over.
The relationship between the community organizer and the people should be a temporary one. If most or all the indicators outlined above are satisfactorily achieved i. e. high level of socio-political awareness is noted, sustained membership organization is demonstrated a pool of leaders have been trained, community structures and their coordination and linkages are well set-up and delineated, goals/ directions/ plans of action are clear, and the organizing process may now be turned over after the evaluation was conducted and preferably in community ceremonies such as a community assembly.
The turnover includes the transfer of community organizing roles and responsibilities and the document such as community study. A culminating program reviewing the objectives of the community organizing. Community relationship and highlights of the community organizing process is best done to make the community more conscious of what they have been through and what challenges lie ahead for them to tackle. The turn over does not always mean complete pull out since the degree of self-reliance achieved may be relative vis-a-vis the problems confronting the community.
Immediate after the phase-out, the organizer may have to shift a supporting role-monitoring consultation, evaluation of the people who have now become equals in the real sense of the world. (Source: ASI CD Monograph, 1998) Worksheet No. 1 Answer the following questions. 1. Give your opinion why is there a need to develop leadership in the community. 2. Explain the guiding principle: “Learn, plan and work with the people. ” Part II. The Call to Service Topic Discussion Volunteerism Volunteerism is a cross-cutting social phenomenon that involves all groups in society and all aspects of human activity.
Volunteer action directly contributes to economic growth, social welfare and protecting the environment. It also helps to build and/or consolidate social capital and to promote more participation and self-initiative, thereby, establishing or stabilizing democratic processes. Volunteerism opens wide doors of opportunities for other things. Serving others can lead an individual to new avenues which he can gain valuable experiences in life. Through volunteer work, one can expand his horizon and learn how to live with other people and can even gain new friends.
The experience of living in a new environment can make him more understanding and compassionate while at the same time learning new skills to develop his self-esteem and interpersonal skills. Opportunities abound for him to share his skills and resources, but so much more to share his hopes and dreams, and in the process, make other dreams come true. Serving others through volunteer work can challenge one to tap his resources, get in touch with his inner self and discover latent abilities he never thought he had.
Given the responsibilities of a volunteer, many people have discovered their deep sense of commitment and the heart to help others. Volunteerism recognizes the power of individuals driven by their commitment to make a difference wherever they are. (Source: VSO Leaflet) Worksheet No. 2 Based on the lyrics of the Letran Hymn, describe in your own words the Letranite as a servant leader. The poet and alumnus, professor Julio Esteban Anguita, employed images to provide verbal pictures to easily address the senses, real or imagined to sing praises to our school.
Alma Mater, Letran esplendente, Pure Mother, glorious Letran, Como el sol es tu Gloria, sin fin; As the sun is your glory forever; (The simile presents Letran’s glory is like that of the suns’s which is for ever. ) Y perfuman los lauros tu ambiente, And the laurels give aroma to your air, Como exhala su aroma el jasmin. As the jasmine breathes of its fragrance. (And the academic excellence as imaged by the green laurel wreath creates the ambiance of prestige, nobility and beauty acknowledged by all. ) Orgullosos de ti y de tu historia, Proud of you and your history
Nuestras almas desde hoy juraran; Our souls from today shall swear; (We are proud of you and your history that from today our souls shall solemnly swear. ) Conquistar por tu honor nuevas glorias! To conquer for your honor and new glory! Y jamas olvidarte, Letran. And never to forget you, Letran. (To conquer new glories for your honor by carrying on the legacy of academic excellence Anchored on the school motto Deus, Patria, Letran and never to forget you Letran. ) En el magico eden Filipino In the magical Philippines paradise Fuiste antorcha de luz y saber;
You were the torch of light and knowledge; (In the magical Philippine paradise, Letran is the torch of light and knowledge. Letran dispels way the darkness of ignorance. ) Y atraves de su augusto destino And through your venerable destiny De esperanze seras rosicler, You shall be the rosy color of hope, (And through Letran’s venerable destiny of forming illustrious men, It shall be the color of hope, a living hope of the nation. ) Pues logrates segun tu modelo, For you were able according to your example, Tantos hombres ilustres formar; To mold so many illustrious men; For it has proven itself to mold saints, religious presidents, heroes, statesmen, leaders and artists according to its teachings and examples. ) Que semejan estrellas del cielo Who resemble stars in heaven El la noche serena al brillar. As they shine on tranquil evenings. (Who resemble the stars in heaven that shine in tranquil evening, as yesterday’s Gospel would say of good disciples, “their names are written in the stars. ) Worksheet No. 3 1. Reflect on the story of our Filipino volunteers in the different parts of the world. 2. Submit reflection report.
A. Shirley Hapatinga Project Officer in Ghana “A Ghanian was surprised when I told him I am from the Philippines. He mused how could I be helping them when my fellow Filipinos need me just as much? However, after a few months of working with them, they give me this look like I am something else. They truly appreciate whatever it is you do for them, not just because you do it on a volunteer basis, but more so because they can see that you put your heart and soul into it. It is a very humbling experience and that’s why I want to do it again. . . olunteering is a fulfilling job, if I may call it a job. . . oh but yes it is, because it is something you do full time! ” B. Norie Garcia Project Officer, PR China “I had to walk for three hours to go to one village to conduct training on participatory rural processes and gender awareness, as well as to observe the community consultations on the township’s livelihood project. These serve as great avenues for me to learn about their way of life and it was very uplifting. After my two years in China, I began to value the simplest things and I finally understood who I was.
No amount of cash could compensate for that. ” C. According to Adelaide Addo-Fening Country Director, Ghana “I’ve been struck by the Filipino volunteers’ ability to adapt within the Ghanaian context. A lot of them have commented about similarities in their work and workplace here with those of their own home. For that reason, they are able to adjust very quickly. They soon manage to establish a very good rapport with the people they work with, probably because they can empathise and understand.
This in turn makes for good professional relationships, so they are able to achieve significant targets within relatively short periods of time. ” ———————– Low income Low Production Lack of school fees Low taxation Inadequate and inappropriate Educational system Inability to sponsor Literacy programmers Lack of knowledge Lack of skills Lack of awareness Lack of self-confidence Lack of innovation Dependency thinking Illiteracy Lack of education Low Income Low Taxation Low Production Lack of Health Facilities Poor Health Disease/ Malnutrition