The researcher just like anyone else who caters for the development and progress of his country would also feel concerned to take a clear look at the problem in order to ascertain its impact on the educational attainment of learners observation in Burk Local government area indicate that, the act is backed up with the seasons such as love for one another, sexual satisfaction, desire to be publicly recognized as responsible person, procreation, need for one’s assistance either in the farm or other activities.
According to Dull (201 0), early marriage has become a problem in the area under study especially among the youths. Problems such as leadership issue between complexes as in who will rule the house since they are of the same age-range, the inability of the young husband to cater for the needs of his family, school abandonment and other social problems. It is pertinent to note that primary school occupies a insensitive position in the development of pupils by uplifting their performances and preparing them for higher educational standards. Okay 2003). It is based on this reason that the researcher deems it necessary to investigate the impact of early marriage among the youths as on academic performance of pupils’ in primary schools in Burk Local Government Area of Venue State. The main areas of focus are: impact of early marriage on pupils’ attendance to school, pupils’ learning, pupils’ performance in examination and pupils’ access to learning materials. 1. 2 Statement of the Problems
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The early marriage among the youths has become problematic in our society and has resulted in low enrolment in our primary school pupils. According to Gobo and Gibe (2007), this has affected the standard of pupils academic performances in our primary schools. Some of the problems could be identified as school, which can hinder the desire to pursue further education attainment of the youths. As the girl-child is still valuable and submissive, she can be subjected to the atrocities of domestic violence and education abandonment.
Most girls are not fully developed before they are given into arraign. This causes difficulties in labor during delivery and it could consequently lead to premature death of the young mother and the infant. High level of primary school dropout due to inability of the young parents to pay the children’s school fees. Inadequate parental care and non-availability of counseling services is another obstacle. This denial of personal development and educational attainment due to this problem has hampered the situation in the sector.
High level of illiteracy among the youths and the myths and misconception about early marriage are contributory factors which have negative impact on the academic performance of primary school pupils. Due to the practice of forceful early marriage, some girls are forced within human treatment and consequently die at youthful age. Confronting the above problems, Gauche (2011 in his special report on problems of early marriage said, “the society is to fully appreciate the plight of our young boys and girls conquering in the cell of early marriage”.
It is at this background that the researcher intends to find out the impact of early marriage on pupils academic performance in primary schools in Burk LAG Of Venue State. 1. Purpose of the Study The general purpose of the study is to find out the impact of early marriage on pupils’ academic performance in primary schools in Burk Local Government Area of Venue State. Specifically the study intend to find out 1 . Find out impact of early marriage on pupils’ attendance to schools. 2. Investigate the impact of early marriage on pupils’ learning. . Ascertain the impact of early marriage on pupils’ class work. 4. Examine the impact of early marriage on pupils’ performance in examination. 5. Investigate the impact of early marriage on pupils’ access to learning materials. 1. Research Questions The following research questions are posed for the study. They include: 1 . What impact does early marriage has on pupils’ attendance to schools in Burk Local Government Area of Venue State. 2. What relationship does early marriage has on pupils’ learning? 3.
To what extent does early marriage impact pupils’ class work? 4. What impact does early marriage has on pupils’ performance in examination? 5. What relationship does early marriage has on pupils’ access to learning materials? 1. 5 Research Hypothesis The following research hypotheses are formulated. They include: 1 . There is o significant impact of early marriage on pupils’ attendance to school in Burk Local Government Area of Venue State. 2. Early marriage has no significant impact on pupils’ learning. 3.
There is no significant impact of early marriage on pupils’ class work. 4. There is no significant impact Of early marriage on pupils’ performance in examination. 5. There is no significant relationship between early marriages on pupils’ access to learning materials. 1. Significance of the Study This study in the impact of early marriage on pupils academic performance in primary schools upon successfully completion, it is hope that, it may be of immense value or significance to researchers willing to undertake further study on a similar topic.
The study also will be of great benefit to students as it will enlightened them about the impact of early marriage on pupils academic performance. A good understanding of the impact of early marriage on pupils’ academic performance will help parents especially the youths to avoid early marriages. This study will also be of great importance to guidance counselors in that the findings and recommendations of this study will be used as anecdotal data in appraising value judgment about the pupils’.
More significantly the research will meet one of the requirements for the award of Bachelors Degree in education at Venue State University Mazurka if approved. 1. Scope of the Study This study covers all the public primary schools in Burk local government area of Venue State. Precisely, there are ninety-two public primary schools located in the five district areas of Burk local government area which are Sub district, Mbabane, Outlet, Short and Tomb district. But due to financial constrain, the scope of the research is limited to ten sample schools in the study area.
The study also covers all the variables posed for the study which includes: the impact of early marriage on pupils attendance to school, the impact of early marriage on pupils class work, impact of early marriage on pupils learning, impact of early marriage on pupil’s performance in examination and finally, the impact of early marriage on pupils access to learning materials. 1. 8 Operational Definition of Terms An academic understanding of this nature usually has strange concepts that when not adequately explained, may convey different meaning from their official usage.
For this reason, it has become imperative to define the following concepts to ease understanding of the context in which they are seed in this research work. They are:- Marriage: In this study, marriage is referred to as an acceptable union between a man and a woman to become husband and wife. When the marriage is contracted within the age limit, it is considered to be premature by the society, and then it becomes early marriage. Academic performance: In this work, academic performance refers to the level of achievement of the pupils or students in an academic subject designed to be presented within a formal school setting or environment.
Measurement of performance can be through written assignments, tests, examinations etc. Girl Child: This is used to a female daughter of the opposite sex with an exclusive reproductive organ Tim (2009). Anecdotal: A short interesting or amusing story about a real person or event. CHAPTER MO REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE This chapter dealt with theoretical/conceptual framework, empirical studies and the summary of literature review. 2. 1 Theoretical/Conceptual Framework Many theories have been developed which have useful explanatory power on the nature of marriage.
It is imperative to adopt a theoretical framework of analysis that will help the understanding of early marriage. Some of these theories include structural functionalism and Marxist or conflict theory among others. 2. 1. 1 Theory of Structural Functionalism Augusta Comet (1789) propounded the theory of structural functionalism. According to the theory society is a system consisting of interrelated and interdependent parts which works together to maintain order and stability in the society. The theory viewed the society as a living organism with parts which are interrelated and interdependent, which function to maintain stability of the whole.
He takes society as its unity of analysis. Scatter and m (1979) are of the view that to understand any part of the society, such as religion, family, policies, legal system, economic and marriage, these parts must work together in relation to the society as a whole. One major assumption of structural functionalism is that, the theory assumes that, all parts of the system exist because they are functional to the system and when it is no longer functional, it seizes to exist. Thus in relating the theory to the topic under research which is early marriage, any dislocation with the part of system will affects the whole society.
Scatter and Lam (1979) supported this assertion by saying that functionalism emphasis stability and harmony, it also leads to sustainability of the whole institutions which basically enhance continuity of the society. They viewed the institution of marriage as benefiting all in the family and society. 2. 1. 2 Theory of Marxist or Conflict Theory Karl Marx theory of Marxist or conflict theory was propounded in (1818) which states that society in a state of perpetual conflict due to competition for limited resources. Conflict theory holds that social order is maintained by domination and power, rather than consensus and conformity.
According to inflict theory, those with power try to hold onto it by any means possible, chiefly by suppressing the poor and powerless. Conflict theory also ascribes most of the fundamental developments in human history such as democracy and civil rights to capitalistic attempts to control the masses rather than to desire for social order. Therefore, in relating the theory to the study, most of the early marriages engage in today are as a result of competition and domination which is as a result of the capitalist nature of man rather than going into marriage to maintain social order in conformity with the society. . 1. Concept of Early Marriage Early marriage according to the World Health Organization (WHO) (2001 ) viewed early marriage as a marriage before eighteen years. United Nations (2000) defines early marriage as a marriage before years for girls. Early marriage is any marriage in which at least a spouse especially the girl is yet nineteen-twenty years of age (Breaching, 2000). Also early marriage is refers to marriage before eighteen years of age. In other words, it could be formed as child marriage, which is contracted amongst people who are not prepared and fully developed physically, mentally and emotionally.
Early marriage is defined as a formal marriage or informal union entered into by an individual before reaching the age of 18. Early marriage is observed for both boys and girls, the overwhelming majority of those affected by the practice are girls, most of whom are in poor socio-economic situations (EUNICE 2000). Early marriage is also known as teen marriage and it is typically defined as the union of two adolescents, joined in marriage from at a young age starting from the age of 14 years old. In many communities where early marriage is practiced, girls are not valued as much as boys. They are seen as a burden.
The challenges will be to change parents’ attitudes and emphasis that girls who avoid early marriage and stay in school will likely be able to make a greater contribution to their family and their community in the long term. Meson, R. And Thornton R. 2003) Early marriage refers to any marriage before the legal age Of marriage which may differ from country to country. The legal age of marriage differs by sex, for example in some countries in Africa it is 18 for males and 15 for females (EUNICE 2009). United Nations Convention on the Rights of Children (2003) defines early marriage as the adolescents under the age of 18 as child marriage.
International Association of Counseling (IAC 2003), early marriage, also known as child marriage is define as any manage carried out below the age of 18 years, before the girl is physically, physiologically and psychologically ready to shoulder the responsibilities of marriage and child bearing. 2. 1. 4 Causes of Early Marriage Many reasons have been advanced for the rush into early marriage by teenagers. Early marriage is usually caused by various factors. People rush into marriage before the right approved age for diverse reasons these include; poverty, extra marital pregnancy, bad counseling and materialism rotational belief among others.
Poverty: Poverty according to united Nation International Children Education Fund (EUNICE 2000) reports that poverty is one of the major factors underpinning early marriage. Where poverty is acute, a young girl may be regarded as an economic burden. The parents are saddled with the problem of choice between the boy and the girl who amongst them should be sent to school. The preference of the boy child over the girl child, the boy child is sent to school while the girl child is given out in marriage at an early age to meet up the economic needs of the family.
Also economic depression and hardship has been identified as a strong factor motivating early marriage. Due to the economic crunch that makes it impossible for many families to feed and maintain their children, many young girls are willing to enter into marriage with any able-bodied young man willing to take them as wives and provide them with their basics needs. With this urge to marry any man so common among young girls, they no longer aspire to further their education or possibly dropout of school (Koki 2006). Extract Marital Pregnancy: Deja (2007) noted that extra marital pregnancy leads to underage marriage.
This he noted, because of the shame that ensures and also the obligation to provide a family name for the baby, parents genuinely feels that their daughters will be better off and safer with a regular male guardian in the name of marriage. Peter (2002) however, opined that, when a close relationship maintained by a boy and a girl either in the school or at home is easy for the two to experiment the sexual urge and when this happened it leads to pregnancy. The parent of the impregnated girl is likely to insist that the boy must marry the girl. Supporting this, American customs (2003) valued that romance is the cause of casual marriage.
In other words, an increase in emotional attachment among teenage lovers often lead to sexual intercourse which eventually ends up in pregnancy, marriage and the breeding of children. Traditional Belief: Koki (2006) sees traditional belief to be the major cause of early marriage in Nigeria today. The African tradition sees getting marriage and rearing children as a sign Of God’s blessings and approval. This traditional belief and value system is seen as the major reason for the reluctance of parents to discourage their young offspring from rushing onto early marriage.
On the centrally, Uniquely (2011) opined that, a number of parents in our traditional societies are not enlightened and educated and therefore hold to the traditional belief that a young girl must marry as soon as she begins to menstruate. The traditional values that a girl must be taken care of by either her father, brother or husband persist and therefore the parents continue to carryout the old practice of sending these young girls who are basically children into marriage. Bad Counseling: It is sociologically agreed that people’s attitudes, behaviors and values influence others within he same group.
Hence this justifies the adage that says, bad company runs bad companies they keep. The concern of these girls who may already have gone into marriage and come back is to be friend these young girls and introduce them to love affairs early. These girls then elope with this young man before they are emotionally or physically matured. Materialism: According to Uniquely (2011) says our contemporary society is posed with problem of the high guest and pursuit of materialistic gains. Thus our young girls are caught up with Craze of trying to look better than their peer groups.
Hence, to do this they needs money from the older men or young men who engaged themselves in odd jobs of manual labor and are Willing to spend the money on these young and tender girls. A number of these girls usually elope with these men only to discover that all the promised never materialize. 2. 1. 5 Impact of early marriage on pupils’ attendance to school Early marriage is a global issue which can violate the rights of girls and boys, both in this generation and the next. It affects the education and well being of millions of children and has a knock-on effect for the poverty and placement of communities (Costs Handsaw & Carline 2010).
Also, early marriage can be a violation of children’s basic rights – to a childhood, to an education, to good health and to make decisions about their own lives. More so, the physical, emotional and social impacts of early marriage are varied, but one of the most common outcomes is the withdrawal of girls from formal education (Monika 2000). Evidence suggests that children of young uneducated mothers are less likely to have a good start to their education, do well in class or continue beyond the minimum schooling. Their daughters specially are likely to drop out, marry young and begin the cycle again.
Early marriage can therefore, be a significant barrier for communities seeking to raise education levels and break the cycle of poverty (Williams, E. G. & Sadler, L. S. 2001 Parent’s responsibility to secure children’s attendance to school is a fairly modern concept. It is one of the social factors that impose pressure on parents and consequently disturb the parent child relationship as reflected in school attendance. A child become like the people he lives with. Most important of all, in determining the type of reaction he will show in school situation is the attention and training he received at home.
Those who do come from families where there is love and discipline rarely play truant for long (Thermal 2001 Kaka et al (2001 ) argues that, school non-attendance could include parent’s need for their children to work in family business or subsistence activities of antagonism to school. More so, Asininely (2000) stated that in some Nigerian homes, for socio-economic reasons, some children have to hawk bread or “Ago” “Guam” “kiss” (beans cake) “Acidic” before going to school. Sometimes these children are late coming from their errands. Late arrival at school usually earns the child some punishment.
Some pupils will prefer to truant than to be punished. Similarly, Router et al (2001) found out that pupils from families of low occupational status were most likely to have poor records Of attendance in school. 2. 1. Impact Of Early Marriage on pupils’ learning The transition from class to class can be anxiety provoking for some pupils who react unfavorable to a large-extent to environment (Mullen 2005). The ability of an individual to reproduce and effectively articulates what he or she is being taught, depends on a number of factors.
This is basically because one’s ability to absorb does not depend just on the quality and capability of the teacher, but to a large extent, depends on the social and economic background of the students as well as other environmental factors. Education of an individual is influenced and determined by three factors which include the home, child and school (Rungs 2010). Thus for the purpose of this study we will consider only the home in respect to early marriage as it affect the learning of pupils in primary schools. The home, which consists of the family, influences the performance Of an individual significantly.
The atmosphere that is the relationship, which exists in the family among family members affects the attitude of a child or students. In a home where there is a constant problem of quarreling and fighting may affects negatively the ability of the child or student to perform well given that, the thought of quarrels, fights and unrest affect his psychological state, constantly, feeling distressed and dejected such a student will not pay adequate attention in class and hence learn very little or nothing at the end of the day.
Unlike a child from a home where love and peace exist, such a student arrive school tit high spiritual, excited and willing to learn. Apart form the willingness, there is high level of concentration as well as performance (Uniquely 2011). Furthermore, considering a case of early marriage where a female all through and as a result, persistent quarrelling and fighting goes on in the home. Such a situation leaves the student dejected and in cases of battering, she will be in hospitals when she is actually supposed to be in school.
Even when she is in school, the ability to concentrate is lost as absent mindedness sets in, psychologically she is tortured. On the other hand, in the case of pregnancy ND child bearing, she has to be out of school because of pregnancy and child nursing which repeatedly affects her study and in most cases, she is compelled to repeat classes (Or hunger 2010). 2. 1. 7 Impact Of Early Marriage on pupils’ access to learning materials: Most Nigerian parents see the need to send their children to school.
But they do not see the need for providing facilities and opportunities at home to support what the child has learnt in the school, without facilities at home the child may not complete his homework, (Dreamily 2000). More so, Demo (2001 ) agrees that lack of school materials make many pupils to run away from school. If a pupil has no exercise books, pen and reading books, he or she finds it extremely difficult to do his or her home work, prepare for his examination and thereby affecting his academic achievement.
He further stated that across all socioeconomic groups, young parents face major challenges when it comes to providing optimal care and quality education for their children. Children Of the young parents are economically disadvantage in the sense that, it is difficult for young parents who is economically backward to feed well at home to to talk affording books, home computers and private lessons that make it easier for their children to succeed in school.
Similarly, they cannot afford clothes, shoes, writing materials and other consumer goods that give their children status among their peers. Research shows that children do better at school and exhibit fewer behavioral problems when non resident father pay child support likewise suggests the importance of income in facilitating children’s well being. 2. 2 Empirical Studies Uniquely (201 1) carried out a research with the title effects of early marriage n education development of the girl child in Kinshasa local government area of Venue State.
The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of early marriage on the educational development Of girl child in Kinshasa local government area. Five research questions and five research hypothesis were formulated to guide the study. A descriptive sunless design was used. The population of the study comprised of all students within the 68 secondary schools in Kinshasa local government area out of which, 200 students were drawn from 20 schools in the area through simple random sampling technique. A 21 item questionnaire was used for data collection.
The collected data was analyzed using mean standard deviation and chi-square. The study revealed that early marriage have negatively affected the educational development of the girl child in Kinshasa local government. It only fails to consider some of the variables of educational development like attendance to school and access to learning materials which the current research is taking of. Koki (2006) carried out a research with the title effects of early marriage on education development of Juju Local Government Area of Venue State.
The repose of the study was to examine the effects of early marriage on the educational attainment in Juju Local Government Area. Six (6) research questions and six (6) hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. A descriptive survey design was used. The population of the study comprise of all teachers within the 25 secondary schools in Juju local government area out Of which 100 teachers Were drawn from 10 secondary schools in the area through simple random sampling technique. A 15 item questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected data was analyses using simple percentages and tables.
The study revealed that early marriage leads to abortion of educational careers by the younger ones. It only fails to consider some of the variables of early marriage like economic status which the current research is taking care of. Manure (2010) carried out a research on the topic title effects of early marriage on the academic performance of primary school pupils in Catkins-Ala Local Government Area of Venue State. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of early marriage on the academic performances of primary school pupils.
Five research questions and five hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. A survey design was used. The population of the study comprise of all primary school teachers within the (169) public primary schools in Catkins-Ala Local Government Area out of which, 100 teachers were drawn from 10 schools in the area through random sampling technique. A 20-item questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected data was analyses using mean scores and chi-square (XX). The study revealed that there is low enrolment of pupils in school as a result of early marriage.
Also the young couples who are mostly school drop- out have no viable jobs to enable them cope with their demands and that of heir family members such as providing children’s learning materials. It only fails to consider some of the variables or early marriage like single parents which the current research is taking care of. Alerter (2008) carried out a research with the title “effect of divorce on academic performance of secondary school students in Mina Local Government Area Of Niger State.
The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of divorce on academic performance of secondary school students in Mina Local Government Area. Three research questions and three hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. A descriptive survey research design was used. The population of the study comprise of all students within the 46 secondary schools in Mina Local Government Area-out of which, 300 students were drawn from 20 schools in the area through simple random sampling technique. A 16 item questionnaire was used for data collection.
The collected data was analyses using mean standard deviation and chi-square. The study revealed that early marriage is responsible for so many cases of divorce, it only fails to consider some of the variables of divorce like early marriage which the current research is taking care of. Fakir (2009) carried out a research with the title effect of early marriage on the academic achievement secondary schools in Mazurka local government area of Venue State. The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of early marriage on the academic achievement of students of secondary school in Mazurka local government area.
Four research questions and four research hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. A descriptive survey design was used. The population of the study comprised of all teachers within the 74 secondary schools in Mazurka Local Government Area. Out of which 250 teachers were drawn from 20 schools in the area through simple random sampling technique. A 21 item sing mean, standard deviation and chi-square. The study revealed that early marriage affects the provision of students school materials such as uniforms, textbooks and other writing materials.
It only fails to consider some of the variables of early marriage like class work activities which the current research is taking care of. 2. Summary This chapter reviewed literature that are relevant and related to the study. The conceptual/theoretical frame work, looked at empirical studies and summary. The theory of structural functionalism and that of Marxist or conflict theory, the concept of early marriage, causes of early marriage and he impact of early marriage on pupils academic performance.