The purpose of this paper is, first, to present an overview of unman resource management and faculty development fundamentals including motivating, mentoring, and performance counseling. Second, a hypothetical case is presented for readers to apply theory to situation. Finally, the case is analyzed by reviewing central issues and the management concepts that may apply to the scenario. These include managing resources, mentoring, motivation, and development. In this case-based analysis, Dry. Roster is a junior faculty member employed in a developing school.
With a shortage of faculty in her field, she succumbs to the pressures of teaching ND administration at the expense of her own professional advancement through research. The tenure clock is ticking, however, and Dry. Roster has serious doubts about her ability to redirect her priorities and earn tenure. Dry. Weightier, the Associate Dean, also faces a dilemma: there is a shortage of faculty in Dry. Roster’s specialty, and the system is poised to exercise the “up- or-out” option. Dry. Clicking is Chairman, Department of Intentioned, School of Dentistry, University of Washington; Dry.
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Comer is Associate Dean for Patient Services, School of Dentistry, Medical College of Georgia; Dry. Filler is Assistant Dean, Student, Alumni, and External Affairs, University of Alabama at Birmingham; and Dry. Fine is Director, Postdoctoral Prescription, Columbia University School of Dental and Oral Surgery. Direct correspondence and requests for reprints to Dry. Gerald N. Clicking, Department of Intentioned, School of Dentistry, University of Washington, Box 357448, Seattle, WA 981 95-7448; 206-543-4734 phone; 206616-9085 fax; [email protected] Washington. Du.
Key words: faculty development, human relations, human resource management, motivation, mentoring, performance counseling, leadership, dental school administration, case-based studies Gerald N. Clicking, D. D. S. , M. S. , M. B. A. ,J. D. ; Robert W. Comer, D. M. D. ; Steven J. Filler, D. D. S. , M. Sћ MA. ; James Burke Fine, D. M. D. Academic administrators and industrial leaders frequently consider managing people a most complex aspect of their position. As a result, managing people has earned a place in management theory as a separate discipline of business.
This discipline, human relations (or resource) management, is defined as the process by which leaders bring together the needs of the organization with factors that motivate employees to create an environment hat is mutually beneficial. 1 In the academic setting, this process parallels the issue of faculty development. The ultimate goal is to supplement leaders’ and administrators’ intuition with facts and theories that will enhance their ability to lead, nurture, and motivate individuals and manage the organization more effectively.
Basic business theories for managing people incorporate general progressions from mentoring to motivation to performance counseling. The ultimate goals are to develop personnel and to advance the organization. Faculty with varying goals, objectives, and needs, however, may not be manageable by the general theories of personnel management. The consequences of using such traditional theories could be 520 poor performance, conflict, lack of trust, lack of motivation, and eventual unhappiness for both the administrator/chair and the faculty member. Remarry reasons for this difficulty lie within the complex nature Of human interrelationships, the need to understand and respect cultural diversity, and the varying perceptions that people may have of the same object or issue. These relationships must be managed with meticulous communication and leadership skills by the administrative staff. Thus, the resulting challenge for a chair/dean is to manage and lead a diverse group of people while respecting individual career development plans that must complement the mission and vision of the department, the school, and the university.
Purpose This paper first presents an overview of some critical theories in human relations management. Second, a hypothetical case is presented for discussion and application of principles; and finally, the central issues of the case are presented along with a review of relevant management concepts. Journal of Dental Education Volume 66, No. 4 Human Relations Fundamentals Even though people cannot be compartmentalized and treated uniformly, academic administrators can learn a variety of techniques to manage people.
For these techniques to be successfully employed, academic leaders must first develop a clear understanding of the management role and then apply the appropriate technique such as motivating,3-5 mentoring,1,3 and performance coo ensiling. 6 Motivating. Cotter summarizes some of the basic concepts of motivating people. These concepts include establishing vision, involving staff, supporting efforts, and rewiring outcomes. He posits that motivation is an evolutionary process in which leaders and employees cooperate to achieve the basic human relations goal: mutual benefit and satisfaction of the organizational goals and the individual’s needs.
To accomplish this, leaders must define a realistic vision, articulate its purpose, and ensure that employees understand and appreciate the vision that presents a realistic, credible, and attractive future. 7 The administrative challenge and responsibility, therefore, is to define the “what” of the organization. Cotter further states that employee motivation is improved by encouraging staff involvement in determining “how’ the institutional vision is to be achieved. A third motivational technique results from overt employee support.
Staff efforts may be enhanced by “providing coaching, feedback, and role modeling, thereby helping people grow professionally and enhancing their self esteem. “4 The final motivational technique Cotter recommends is recognition. Clear demonstrations of recognition and rewards assure the employees that their efforts are contributing to the mission and that they are appreciated for their individual and team accomplishments. 4 Cotter emphasizes that motivation and inspiration energize people, not by pushing them in the right direction but by satisfying basic human needs.
Mentoring. In our opinion, the benefits of being mentored are enormous. The new faculty member adopts academic values, obtains practical advice, learns how to network, and ultimately grows both professionally and individually. Taylor identifies four key mentoring techniques: defining goals, peer involvement, professional development, and feedback. Familiarization with these four components of mentoring and application of these techniques should improve managerial effectiveness. 8 First, collaboration is a key feature in defining goals and objectives.
The mentor and mantle must work together to ensure that they communicate clearly. The goals must be precisely articulated by the mentor and fully understood by the mantle. The goals should then be revised regularly. Annual revisions are recommended. Second, peers by rank, age, or common professional interest have the potential to augment the mentoring relationship. The mentor need not be in the same department nor should the mentoring relationship depend on a single individual; a “constellation of mentors” may be needed to meet the different needs of the mantle.
When selecting mentors, one should concentrate on common interests and involvement as well as ascertaining whether the mentor is competent, accessible, and willing. The selection process should begin with informal conversations, especially with the more successful and experienced faculty. Generally the more accomplished faculty are most accommodating in interpreting and integrating personal goals into the institutional mission. Third, the faculty member who may be division head, chair, or dean shares the responsibility for professional development.
Once the goals are clearly defined, the chair and faculty should discuss and agree on resource allocation of duties, time, supplies, etc. Newer or probationary faculty should be reviewed regularly. The chair should invite comments from peer evaluators or external reviewers of teaching syllabi, research progress, and service activities. Fourth, frequent feedback from the administration is essential. Quarterly progress reviews ensure timely constructive comments and opportunities for redirection.
Regular attention to feedback and interactive assessments will avoid anyone being surprised during an annual evaluation. The relationship between the mantle and mentor must be evaluated, and there must be open, collegial, and constructive communication between the parties. If toxic mentoring occurs, such as mentor unavailability or mantle exploitation, then it is essential that a new mentor be selected in a timely manner. 9 Performance Counseling. The mentor’s counseling with the mantle reinforces the effects of motivational techniques.
The primary elements of performance counseling begin with the definition of responsibilities for the mantle and continue with a series of relevant communication strategies, scribed by Wiggeries as: Make performance counseling a year-round (not yearly) activity April 2002 Journal of Dental Education 521 Offer both formal and informal evaluation of job performance Make job performance expectations clear Make performance goals specific and manageable Focus evaluative comments on a person’s performance, not on a person’s personality Link evaluative comments to specific examples Incorporate self-evaluation and goal setting Offer specific suggestions for improvement Establish time frame for achieving goals Recognize and reward achievement.
As with any issue, problem, or challenge, numerous precipitating factors affect the process and outcome. The purpose of this case analysis is to explore only the central issues of a scenario demonstrating the challenge of managing people. The case that follows illustrates several management responsibilities, including the concepts vital for managing people: mentoring, motivation, and personal development. The tangential influences will be left for the reader’s imagination and discussion. Case Review: The Case of the Frustrated Faculty Member Having recently completed postgraduate training in prescription and a Ph. D. N molecular biology, Norwegian-born Dry.
Rebecca Roster had been heavily recruited to the new University of New Mexico College of Dentistry in Santa Fee to start a molecular biology program for dental and graduate students as well as teach prescription. The school was unique in the fact that it was going to be “departments. ” Due to its small enrollment of twenty-five students per year, the administration believed that hired faculty would participate in demodulating and thereby freely collaborate to satisfy the missions of the dental school. Dean Robert Waylaid, a retired oral surgeon, and Associate Dean Sylvia Weightier, M. D. , are new to the dental education arena. They recruited Dry. Roster with promises of a fully equipped research lab and implied that when more faculty were hired, she could develop and chair a new graduate program in prescription. Dry.
Roster was so excited about the potential at this new school that she chose not to interview any”here else. She accepted the position on the spot, particularly since the salary was so good. She felt that the Dentist Scientist Award she had re- chivied along with her training in prescription would provide her the necessary tools to develop at New Mexico and earn her tenure within six ears. Dry. Weightier also assured Dry. Roster that because this was a new school, strongly supported by the New Mexico legislature, the Promotion and Tenure Committee, of which she would be the chair, would likely “rubber- stamp” her tenure and promotion to associate professor. To gain that status, Dry.
Roster would be required to demonstrate activity within her discipline, became Board-certified, and show evidence of scholarly activity. Dry. Weightier stated that guidelines for promotion and tenure were currently being developed and that if Dry. Roster wanted to have an idea of what would keel be expected, she should download the policies used by the medical school at New Mexico. Two years passed quickly, and Dry. Roster found herself inundated with responsibilities in addition to her research and teaching tasks. Since there were some unexpected budget cuts by the State, new factual¶y’ hires were limited. Spending most of her weekends at the university and not getting home before 9:00 p. M. N weekdays, she felt that she was feverishly treading water: she had not yet submitted a grant, the laboratory where she worked was devoid of basic human and technical resources, and she was spending the majority of time after hours with administrative responsibilities. Dry. Roster arranged meetings to discuss her situation with Dry. Weightier on numerous occasions, but they all were cancelled due to the associate dean’s busy schedule. Hired at the same time as Dry. Roster, Dry. Seven Langley, a sixty-two-year-old peritonitis retired from full-time practice, was the only other full-time peritonitis and came to the school voluntarily to help out in the clinic. Dry. Langley was hired as a clinical track educator with a three-year renewable contract.
He spent most of his time preparing lectures and seminars and developing a proposal to Start a graduate program. He had minimal interest in scholarly activity or participating on school committees. Recently, he has mentioned the possibility of returning to Sun City after completing his contract. One morning after an extended holiday period, when she had forfeited vacation to meet the academic demands of the school, Dry. Roster felt that she desperately needed to speak with Dry. Weightier and was finally able to arrange a meeting. At the meeting, she told Dry. Weightier that she really loved the school and that the potential there was tremendous, but that 522 she was quite frustrated.
She recognized that she was not developing as a cult member: she had submitted no papers for publication, had written no grant proposals, and found less and less time to spend in her laboratory. Dry. Weightier empathetic with Dry. Roster and reassured her that she was a valued faculty member, loved by her students, and recognized for her clinical skills. To lift Dry. Roster’s spirits, Dry. Weightier told her she would reward her with a $5,000 merit bonus for her dedication to the school and then cautioned her to “keep on plugging’ because her three-year review was only one year away. Dry. Roster had only recently been informed that, at New Mexico, the three-year review was designed to evaluate the progress of any faculty member who was on tenure-track.
If the specially appointed three- year review committee felt that a faculty member had virtually no chance of achieving tenure within six years, the faculty member was entitled to remain at the school for another year after which time the faculty members contract would not be renewed. Feeling insecure and confused, Dry. Roster began to panic as she left Dry. Whistler’s office. Potential. In this case, promises were unfulfilled, and Dry. Weightier allowed the pressures of her day-today operations as an associate dean to push aside ere concern for the personal growth of Dry. Roster and the true value of her contributions to the university. The effective manager and leader must also demonstrate consistent and dependable integrity.
One broken promise, especially if it served as a major recruiting attraction as in this scenario (promise of a fully equipped research lab), could be enough to taint a professional interpersonal relationship as well as any intended career goals. Central Issue #2: Unavailable Collaborative Opportunities One of the most frustrating and challenging elements of Dry. Roster’s academic situation is that she has basic skills and knowledge to begin a search career. However, she does not have a network Of scholars with whom she may collaborate. Further compounding the problem is the administration’s lack of scholarly development and guidance. The result is that Dry. Roster perceived that she was expected to produce while receiving no support to do so.
The importance of mentoring during the formative years of scholastic development therefore became a critical issue. Relevant Management Concept: Mentoring. Mentoring techniques offer terrific potential for developing young or new faculty in the participatory/ democratic management style of academics. The mentor’s role is to involve, inspire, teach, and collaborate with junior faculty. 10 Mentoring pairs should be selected based on personality (or likeability) and common professional interests. Multiple mentors may be encouraged in situations in which one mentor may guide research development while another may be more appropriate for building teaching skills. Caution should be exercised when selecting mentors in a small department environment.
The chair, who is the ultimate judge of the menthes performance, may introduce internal conflict by attempting to serve the dual roles of chair and mentor. Case Analysis In this situation, Dry. Roster and Weightier are both in precarious positions. Dry. Weightier may lose a dedicated faculty member who is unlikely to earn tenure. Dry. Roster is frustrated that her personal development goals and the institution’s priorities are in conflict. Her motivation was challenged; she could not identify a mentor to guide her to success; and performance counseling had been nonproductive. Her confusion was about to progress from frustration to depression. Central Issue #1: Misplaced Position Priorities From Dry.
Roster’s perspective, the daily demands for instruction preempted her opportunity for research. From the administration’s perspective, Dry. Roster is seen as a faculty member who is ineffective in making progress on one of her primary assignments: research. Both parties are frustrated by the lack of progress. However, the establishment of priorities and allocation of resources underlie the issue from either perspective. Relevant Management Concept: Trust. The effective leader must enable others to reach their April 2002 Central Issue #3: Uncertainty of Support Dry. Roster’s role is unclear in this case. The conditions of her interview and employment agreements focused on research and teaching.
However, 523 changing circumstances resulted in a redirection of her responsibilities to administration without a concomitant acknowledgment that the expectations for research and teaching should be modified in exchange for the dean’s demands for more administrative responsibility. Dry. Roster’s comments indicated declining motivation as the demands of her employment were changing but the expectations for her personal development were not being modified. Relevant Management Concept: Motivation and Development. Traditional motivational concepts apply in academics. Understanding one’s ole, the value of one’s talent, and the importance of individual contributions to the outcome measures are all important in motivation. 4 However, motivation and positive outcomes are predicated on the individual’s decision to participate in each of the assigned or voluntary duties.
The passive or intentional decision not to participate frequently stems from a perception that the input exceeds the benefit or output. When this is recognized, complaints generally follow, and questions of sulfurous arise. The faculty member’s concern may be transformed into a feeling of self-sacrifice. In some asses, because motivation appears to be diminishing, the astute manager may need to confer with the faculty member and ask the question “How can this school/university help your Both must be prepared to identify the positives as well as negatives while assessing the fairness of the outcome/ reward system. Both must also be willing to explore redirection of priorities and outcomes.
In today’s academic environment, it is essential that the leader/ manager communicate to his or her faculty a feeling of “belonging” as well as a genuine belief that the future of the school depends upon the skills and talents of its entire faculty. Deed definition. Because this case is primarily presented from Dry. Roster’s perspective, the action plan is presented from her perspective. Action Alternatives Dry. Roster is definitely at a crossroads in her career as well as her personal life, so the action alternatives include a number of options that should be considered. Each, of course, has advantages and limitations, and, as in any realistic situation, the degree of success may be uncertain.
The consequences and contingencies of each action could be explored further in group discussions or individually. The primary actions may include: Prepare an action plan for ?herself ?the position ?the school Demand clarification of a realistic position description. Present a proposal for a revised position description for negotiation and modification. Request additional faculty to share responsibilities. Request clarification and/or exemptions of the tenure policy. Seek an external mentor for collaboration. Develop a constellation of mentors. Ask the dean again to reconsider her problem and to present a solution. Move to another university. Leave academia.
Expected Outcomes The principal guiding considerations for managing people should include source allocation (especially time), mentoring techniques, and attention to motivation and development, as well as a commitment to equitable treatment. Astute leaders will recognize that career development and advancement of junior faculty are extremely important to the overall health of a dental school. Given the present faculty shortage, every talented individual requires nurturing. Assessment of this case from the perspective of either Dry. Weightier or Dry. Roster could stimulate readers to recognize the value of: establishing faculty career development progress Related Issues Several other important issues have a bearing on the case.
These include: poorly defined administrative structure lack of administrative preparation vague guidelines for promotion and tenure professional frustration that affects personal life unclear expectations Readers’ individual experiences and values will determine which aspect of Dry. Roster’s situation they choose to address. These considerations should factor into developing a plan of action. In this case, two plans of action?Dry. Roster’s and Dry. Whistler’s 524 developing executive management training creating an equitable professional environment instituting highly effective mentoring legislations These values are achievable with attention to an equitable allocation of resources (and assignments), mentoring, and strengthening communication to motivate and stimulate all parties. Finally, faculty collectively must evaluate how mentors and administrators manage young/ novice faculty.
Those who are unable to help young faculty advance and develop may themselves need additional training or mentoring in this process to ensure success of the individual and the organization. In some cases, ineffective mentors may need to be replaced. Dervish Institute, for his support, leadership, and assistance. Conclusion The case of the frustrated faculty member illustrates a realistic academic scenario. The issues, actions, and their ramifications may have infinite combinations. Dental schools face significant difficulties in attracting and retaining qualified faculty members. The complexity of issues such as the ones presented in this case impact faculty performance, job satisfaction, promotion, and, ultimately, job retention.