Give two examples of Tailor’s contributions 2. Define and give an example of the human skills needed by managers. Explain why these skills are important for all managers in the organization Human skill is the manager’s ability to work with and through other people and to work effectively as a group member. This skill is demonstrated in the way manager relates to other people, including the ability to motivate, facilitate, coordinate, lead, communicate, and resolve conflicts.
A manager with human skills allows subordinates to express homeless without fear of ridicule and encourages participation. For example a CEO who is compassionate and tough, with willingness to work shoulder to shoulder with subordinates and energize everyone to work toward a common goal. Human skills are important for managers at all levels, and particularly for those who work with employees directly in a daily basis. Organizations frequently lose good employees because of front-line bosses who fail to show respect and concern for workers.
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As globalization, workforce diversity and societal turbulence increase, human skills become even more crucial. Management today is genuinely concerned with emotional needs of their employees, not Just the physical needs related to Job tasks. For example, if the CEO contributes to creating a work ethic and culture that is fun, open, and trusting, employees become more motivated. Motivated employees would help the organization expand in the stiff competition from larger rivals and hopefully help to turn a healthy profit. . Explain the difference between the general environmental conditions and the specific environmental conditions in an organization. Support your discussion by identifying two factors in each environment and give beautiful examples. An organization’s external environment is made up of two components: specific and general environment. Specific environment includes factors with which the organization interacts directly and that have a direct impact on the organization’s ability to achieve its goals.
While general, on the other hand, is composed on factors that may not have a direct impact on the daily operations of a firm but will indirectly influence it. Suppose that a Barbie doll toyshop external environment is changing. From specific environment’s point of view, suppose that its customers’ buying pattern has changed Ana Its mall plastic suppler changes enlarger price. Parent’s now want more AT educational and electronic toys instead of unmoving, plastic figurine doll. As a result, Barbie doll toyshop loses its customers and thus suffer sales decline.
In addition to this, its main plastic suppliers have increased the price for plastic; say due to government’s new tax on pollution generated to plastic manufacturers. This would add up the toyshop costs of production, which would hinder the company from generating higher revenue. Furthermore, its general environment also undergoes some changes. Suppose that the toyshop is located in Australia and the country economic condition is in danger of recession. Moreover, government has created new pollution tax policy for toy manufacturers.
As a result, due to the bad economic conditions, the toyshop faces further danger in terms of generating lower sales. The new pollution tax is also creating additional expense, which increases its costs of production. 4. Describe any four types of a stakeholder in an organization and explain their influence in the organization’s decisions Stakeholders are members in the organizational external environment that are affected by the organization’s decisions and actions. These members have a state in or are significantly influenced by what the organization does.
Examples of stakeholders include employees, shareholders, suppliers and customers. Employees are interested in salaries & wages, Job security, Job satisfaction and motivation. They can influence the organization by taking industrial action, service quality and staff turnover. Suppose that the employees are unsatisfied with the organization’s treatment and they take industrial action. This can leave a bad image or the company. Shareholders are interested in profit growth, share price growth and dividends and they can influence the process of directors’ election.
Suppliers’ main interests include long-term contracts, prompt payment and growth of purchasing. They can influence the organization in terms of pricing, quality and product availability. If suppliers raise their prices, it results in higher costs for the business and could affect its profit. Management then needs to change its cost- controlling and revise its planning. Customers are interested in reliable quality, value or money, product availability and customer service. They can influence the organization through revenue, repeat purchase and word of mouth recommendation.
If customers give out positive word of mouth by telling colleagues or close relative about how good the product is, it can lead to an increase in customers and thus revenue for the organization. 5. Discuss how an organization can encourage ethical behavior among its employees It is important for managers to focus on accomplishing key company goals and developing good working relationships in the office, but it is equally important to ensure ethical conduct among employees. Ethical conduct ensures that your business maintains a reputation for sound professional principles and values that are directly in line with the company mission.
There are few different ways to promote ethical conduct among employees. 1. Train Employees Managers cannot expect Nils employees to act ethnically In accordance Walt company’s code of ethics if they do not know what that code it, or why it is important. Hold regular sessions on ethics and how to approach ethical dilemmas among staff. The more training and resource provided, and the greater emphasis placed on being ethical and acting accordingly, the more employees will understand exactly what does the managers expect in the office. . Reward Ethical Behavior Far too often, companies simply expect ethical behavior; however, if managers want to promote this as a prominent behavior among staff, then they need to show and prove, so to speak. Provide rewards for solid ethical behavior; for example, if there is an employee that goes above and beyond to put her personal interests aside to always do what is best for her clients, that is considered ethical behavior and she should be rewarded and held up as an example for others to strive to do the same.
The more employees are rewarded for sound ethical decisions, the more likely the masses will follow suit. 3. Lead by Example Employees generally follow company examples set forth for them by managers. Managers need to hold higher ethical standards so that they are credible when they communicate expectations to their staffers to do the same. Hold regular discussions with employees to work through potential ethical issues that may come up and find ways to brainstorm through them as a team. If everyone is on the same page, it is more likely that the team as a whole will adopt the same types of ethical behaviors. Consider Work-Life Balance Employees are most likely to make good ethical decisions at work when they have a better sense of work-life balance. Pay attention to signs of burnout or discontent among staff, and take steps to address these types of issues when they present themselves. 6. Explain the difference between managing and leading. Give examples that show the difference Managing and leading are two different ways of organizing people. Leadership is setting a new direction or vision for a group that they follow, ex: a leader is the spearhead for that new direction.
On the other hand, management intros or directs people/resources in a group according to principles or values that have already been established. The manager uses a formal, rational method while leader uses passion and stirs emotion. People naturally and willingly follow leaders due to their charisma and personality traits, whereas a manager is obeyed due to the formal authority vested in him. As a result, people tend to be more loyal towards leaders rather than managers. 7. What contribution can HARM make to an organization effectiveness 8. Contrast feed-forward, concurrent and feedback control.
Explain how each type an be used to measure organizational performance Feed-forward control is the most desirable type of control – it prevents anticipated problems since it takes place before the actual activity. Unfortunately, this control type requires timely and accurate information that is often difficult to get. For example, at SST. Josephs hospital in West Bend, Indiana, a new facility was designed with identical rooms, nonsolid moors, Ana glass walls to reduce errors In patient care Ana to Increase employee safety. Concurrent control, as the name implies, takes place while an activity is in progress.
When control occurs while the work is being performed, management can correct problems before they come too costly. For example, when the principal moved through the grounds and classes, speaking to teachers in their classrooms and greeting students, discussing with them to gain better understanding of the effects of the learning programs have on them. When a manager directly oversees the actions of employees, he or she can monitor their actions and correct problems as they occur. Feedback control, the most popular type of control relies on feedback.
In feedback control, the control takes place after the activity is done. It gives managers meaningful information on how effective their planning efforts were, and it can also enhance employee motivation, as they want to know how well they have performed. For example, when Denver Mint discovered flawed Wisconsin quarters, it was discovered through feedback control. The damage has already occurred even though the organization corrected the problem once it was discovered. Essay questions (choose 1, 20 marks each section) 1 . A: What are the purposes of planning in an organization?
Is planning worthwhile? B: What is a SOOT analysis? Explain its place and purpose in the planning process. A: Planning meaner setting up a blue print for future and deciding what you want to do and who will do a particular task. Plans are of many types and are formulated to achieve specific purposes or all-purpose plans. Every plan should be linked with some objectives. The planning done by managers is aimed at achieving the organizational goals. The planning helps people in concentrating their efforts on the most important Jobs rather than wasting time on the lesser important work.
The purpose of planning is also to minimize the cost of performance and eliminate unproductive efforts. It also helps the management in adopting and adjusting according to the changes that take place in the environment. Planning also provides a basis for teamwork as when the goals are properly defined, assignments can be fixed and all the members can start contributing in the achievement of these objectives. Planning gives a sense of directions and ensured that efforts are being put into useful purpose instead of being wasted.
Planning also facilitate control because without planning, there will be nothing to control. B: Formulating strategy often begins with an assessment of the internal and external factors that will affect the organization’s competitive situation. SOOT analysis includes a search for strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats that affect organizational performance. External environment about opportunities and threats may be obtained from a variety of sources, including customers, government reports, professional Journals, suppliers, bankers, friends in other organizations, consultants, or escalation meetings.
Many Tells Nile special scanning organizations to provoke them with newspaper clippings, Internet research and analyses of relevant domestic global trends. In additional, many companies are hiring competitive intelligence reversionary to scope out competitors. Executives acquire information about internal strengths and weaknesses from a variety of reports, including budgets, financial ratios, profit and loss statements, and surveys of employee attitudes and satisfaction.
Through face-to-face discussions and meetings with people of all levels of the hierarchy, executives build an understanding of the company’s internal strengths and weaknesses. If the company understands its strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats, it can make better planning accordingly to boost its strengths while covering its nakedness, and go after the opportunities while defending from threats. 2. A: Identify the differences between social and/or national culture and organizational culture. Explain how organizational culture is established, observed and maintained.
B: Identify 4 of Hypotheses 5 dimensions of national culture and give examples of implications of those four dimensions in managing globally 1. Power Distance. High power distance meaner that people accept inequality in power among institutions, organizations, and people. Low power distance meaner that people expect equality in power. In a high PDP country such as Malaysia, employees could probably send reports only to top management and have closed-door meetings where only selected powerful leaders were in attendance. 2. Uncertainty Avoidance.
High uncertainty avoidance meaner that members of a society feel uncomfortable with uncertainty and ambiguity and thus support beliefs that promise certainty and conformity. Low uncertainty avoidance meaner that people have high tolerance for the unstructured, the unclear, and the unpredictable. When discussing a project with people in Belgium, whose country has high uncertainty avoidance, employees should investigate the various options and then present a emitted number of choices, but have very detailed information available on the contingency and risk plans. . Individualism and Collectivism. Individualism reflects a value for loosely knit social framework in which individuals are expected to take care of themselves. Collectivism meaner a preference for a tightly knit social framework in which individuals look after one another and organizations protect their members’ interests. A marketing campaign that emphasized benefits to the community or that tied into a popular political movement would likely be understood and well received in countries with low individualism such as Panama and Guatemala. . Masculinity/Femininity. Masculinity stands for preference for achievement, heroism, assertiveness, work centrality, and material success. Femininity reflects the values of relationships, cooperation, group decision-making, and quality of life. Japan is a highly masculine country. If you open an office in Japan, tense wall De greater success canalled IT male employee Is appellant team and had a strong male contingent on the team. 3. A: Distinguish between content and process theories of motivation and give 1 detail example of each.
B: Is money a motivator? Compare and contrast the role of none as a motivator in each of the motivation theory. A: Content theories – such as Mascots and Herbert, stress the satisfaction of need. Content theories attempt to explain those specific things that actually motivate the individual at work. These theories are concerned with identifying people’s needs and their relative strengths, and the goals they pursue in order to satisfy these needs. Content theories place emphasis on the nature of needs and what motivates them.
There is assumption that everyone responds in much the same way to motivating pressures and that there is, therefore, one best way to motivate everybody. These theories provide a prescriptive list, which managers can follow in attempt to increase productivity. For example Process theories emphasize the importance of rewards. These theories attempt to explain and describe how people start, sustain and direct behavior aimed at the satisfaction of needs or reduction of inner tension. They place emphasis on the actual process of motivation.
Process theories also attempt to identify major variables that explain behavior, but the focus is on the dynamics of how the variables are interrelated in explaining the direction, degree and persistence of effort. The major variables in process models are incentive, drive, reinforcement and expectancy. Whether in the form of wages, piecework, incentive pay, bonuses, stock options, company paid insurance or any other things given to people for performance, money is important. Economists, accountants and many managers tend to regard money as a prime motivator.
However, behavioral scientists tend to place it low on the scale of motivators. Probably, neither view is correct as an all-embracing approach; it depends on the individual. Money in the form of pay is a powerful motivator, which can be related to the devotional theories such as Mascots hierarchy of needs. In discussing money as a motivator, it is necessary to recognize its effects at two levels: a) Money in absolute terms, as an exact amount, is important because of its purchasing power. It is what money can buy, not money itself that gives it value. ) Money is also important as an indicator of status. There are several features which are unique to money as a motivating force and which can affect workers in different ways: a) Money is more important to people who are seeking to establish an initial standard of living rather than those who have arrived. ) If all efforts by the company are devoted to doing away with work by automation and computerizing, then work is devalued activity which people put up Walt Decease no toner way NAS Eden Tuna AT long It People would odometer De working Just for money. ) Most organizations use money not as a motivator, but simply as a meaner of ensuring adequate staffing d) The need for apparent fairness encourage the use of salary grades and hence comparability of earnings. E) Financial incentives operate with varying strengths for different people in different situations f) Much research has shown that money is not a single motivator or even prime motivator. 4. A: Compare and contrast the main features of mechanistic and organic structure B: What are the key contingency factors that determine which form is the most appropriate?
Provide 2 specific examples. A: Organizations using mechanistic structure is characterized by 1) highly centralized authority, 2) formalized procedures and practices, and 3) specialized functions. Mechanistic organization is relatively easier and simpler to organize, but rapid change is very challenging. Employees are found to work separately and on their own assigned tasks. There is a definite chain of command and decisions are kept as high p the chain as possible. Communication is a process between managers and supervisors up to executives; there is little daily interaction if any.
There are strict company policies or operating standards with an abundance of documentation. This structure is considered more stable than organic. Companies in mechanistic organization structure typically hold tight control, over processes and employees. Rules are implemented and rarely deviated from while there is also a very clear chain of command to delegate responsibilities and power throughout the organization. Again, it is manufacturing companies that are well now for this type of structure but there are other groups that benefit from mechanistic organization; like universities.
Organic, on the other hand, is characterized by 1) flatness: communications and interactions are horizontal, 2) low specialization: knowledge resides wherever it is most useful, and 3) decentralization: great deal of formal and informal participation in decision-making. Employees are often found working in groups and share input on tasks. There are usually teams that handle one task. Communication is open between employees, managers and executives though they are typically Just know as the winner’. There is a greater scale of verbal communication between parties.
There is also more face-to-face time within the hierarchy of power. Companies in an organic organization structure typically have a more open communication and contribution to tasks at hand. The structure of the business is more adaptable and flexible to changes. The environment is unpredictable but because of the freedom afforded the employees and management it is better maintained. Good examples of this type of structure would be Google and the coveted positions that lie within the Faceable Corporation. Organic organizations eave quickly realized that a happy workplace makes for a happy employee.
Paper 2 Short answer questions – choose 6, 10 marks each) 1 . Describe the contribution of Katz management in organization. Give an example of how his ideas are still in use today Robert Katz identified three core management skill groups that managers need in order to be successful: technical, human and conceptual. Technical skill is the understanding of and proficiency in the performance of specific tasks. It includes mastery of the methods, techniques, and equipment involved in specific functions such as engineering, manufacturing, or enhance.
It also includes specialized knowledge, analytical ability, and the competent use of tools and techniques to solve problems in that specific discipline. For example, in his seven years as a manufacturing engineer at Boeing, Bruce Moravia developed superb technical skills in his area of operation. But when he was asked to lead the team designing a new fuselage for the Boeing 757, he found that he needed to rely heavily on human skills to gain respect and confidence of people who worked in areas he knew little about. Human skill is the manager’s ability to work with and through other people and to org effectively as a group member.
This skill is demonstrated in the way manager relates to other people, including the ability to motivate, facilitate, coordinate, lead, communicate, and resolve conflicts. A manager with human skills allows subordinates to express themselves without fear of ridicule and encourages participation. For example a CEO who is compassionate and tough, with willingness to work shoulder to shoulder with subordinates and energize everyone to work toward a common goal. Conceptual skill is the cognitive ability to see the organization as a whole and the relationships among its parts.
It involves the manager’s thinking, information processing, and planning abilities. For example, Microsoft, the giant software company, reflects the conceptual skills of its founder and chairman, Bill Gates. Overall business goals are clearly stated and effectively communicated throughout the company, contributing to Microsoft’s leadership reputation and billion-dollar revenues. 2. Identify a changing economic factor in today’s general environment and describe its impact on an organization known to you The economic dimension represents the general economic health of a country or region in which the organization operates.
Consumer purchasing power, the unemployment rate, and interest rates are part of an organization’s economic environment. Because organizations today are operating in a global environment, the economic dimension has become exceedingly complex and creates enormous uncertainty for managers. The economies of countries are more closely tied together now. For example, the economic recession and the decline of consumer confidence in the United States in the early sass affected economies and organizations around the world.
Similarly, economic problems in Asia and Europe Ana a tremendous Impact on companies Ana ten stock market en unlace States. 3. Explain why globalization can be seen as a threat and/or an opportunity to today’s business organization 4. Contrast mechanistic and organic organizational form. Which of these is more suitable in today’s condition of high environmental uncertainty? Give relevant example of each of them In mechanistic organizational form, the internal organization is characterized by rules, procedures, and a clear hierarchy of authority. Organizations were formalized.
They were also centralized, with most decisions made at the top. Examples of organizations using mechanistic structure include college and universities. They have a long and strict registration procedures, rarely have to adapt or change in order to keep students enrolling, and most students tend to maintain high loyalty or obedience toward their instructors. Organic, on the other hand, is characterized by its looser, free-flowing and adaptive internal organization. Rules and regulations often were not written down, or if written down, were ignored. People had to find their own way through the system to figure out what to do.
The hierarchy of authority was not clear. Decision-making authority was decentralized. Google Corporation is a great example of an organic structure based business. Their employees are encouraged to use creative problem solving skills and develop new products. As environmental uncertainty increases, organizations tend to become more organic, which meaner decentralization authority and responsibility to lower levels, encouraging employees to take care of problems by working directly with one another, encouraging teamwork, and taking an informal approach to assigning tasks and responsibility.
Thus, the organization is more fluid and is able to adapt continually to changes in the external environment. 5. Explain what is meant of the control function of management. Providing 3 examples of control measure, describe why are they important in enabling organizations in achieving their goals. Organizational control refers to the systematic process of regulating organizational activities to make them consistent with the expectations established in plans, targets, and standards of performance.
Effectively controlling an organization requires information about performance standards and actual performance, as well as actions taken to correct any deviations from the standards. To effectively control an organization, managers need to decide what information is essential, how they will obtain that information, and how they can and should respond to it. Having the correct data is essential. Managers decide which standards, measurements, and metric are needed to effectively monitor and control the organization and set up systems for obtaining that information.
For example, an important metric for a pro football or basketball team might be the number of season tickets, which reduces the organization’s dependence on ore labor-intensive box- office sales. 6. Contrast ten goals AT inclemency Ana effectiveness Ana Locus tenet relations to organizational performance Organizational effectiveness constitutes its ability to perform a function with optimal level of inputs and outputs. Companies use organizational effectiveness to measure any number of things, from the relationship between employee performance and company profits to the correlation between manufacturing processes and production volume.
No set parameters exist for organizational effectiveness and it follows no definitive mathematical formula – each organization creates its own method of measuring effectiveness. Measuring effectiveness can help a small business without the ability to absorb ineffective recesses modify its approach to avoid loss. Organizational efficiency essentially denotes how well a company overhauls its procedures and policies to create a company that can meet or exceed goals while providing a satisfying working environment and keeping clients happy.
Many companies perform organizational efficiency reviews to see how they can improve and what areas of the company are lacking cohesiveness. Organizational efficiency can increase profits and make a company successful. 7. Identify and explain Integer’s 3 managerial roles and give beautiful examples A role is a set of expectations for a manager’s behavior. Integer identified 10 roles of management, divided into three conceptual categories: informational (managing by information); interpersonal (managing through people); and decisional (managing through action).
Each role represents activities that managers undertake to ultimately accomplish the functions of planning, organizing, leading and controlling. Informational roles describe the activities used to maintain and develop an information network. The monitor role involves seeking current information from many sources, for examples the manager can acquire information through scanning he organizational activities or from written materials to stay informed.
The disseminated and spokesperson roles are Just the opposite: the manager transmits current information to others, both inside and outside the organization, who can use it. One example of the spokesperson role is Mica Jaeger of the Rolling Stone. The rock band is run like a large, multinational organization with Jaeger as the CEO. Jaeger surrounds himself not only with talented artists, but also with sophisticated and experienced business executives. Yet it is Jaeger who typically deals with the media ND packages the band’s image for a worldwide audience.
Interpersonal roles pertain to relationships with others. The figurehead role involves handling ceremonial and symbolic activities for the department or organization. The manager represents the organization in his or her formal managerial capacity as the head of the unit. The presentation of employee awards by a division manager at McDonald is an example of the figurehead role.