Look Who’s Talking (Tu Queue) C] Refers to the rejection of an argument or claim based on the arguer’s inability to follow his/her own advice. CLC Usually points to the arguer’s inability to practice what he preaches and rejects that helpful advice. 0 Example: My doctor told me to stop smoking, but since he smokes can still smoke; I should be Okay. Two Wrongs Make a Right C] Refers to the improper justification of an act simply because a similar act is just as bad or worse. C] Usually related to Tu Queue C] Example: 0 Mom: Jack, stop hitting your sister Jack: Well, she kicked me!
C] It doesn’t matter that Cuba is run by a dictator. We should lift the embargo on Cuba because we have trade relations with other dictators in China and the middle east. Scare Tactics C] Refers to the threat of violence or other detriment in order to emotionally manipulate the audience. 0 Usually sound like threatening statements; related to pathos 0 Example: Politician A: We both agree that I am in charge of the bill and what can go in it; it would be so unfortunate if I withheld my vote from your next project to prove so. D We should not vote in favor of Beamer because it would implement death panels.
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Appeal to Pity (Pathos) C] Refers to the way an arguer develops a claim with emotional baggage that has no bearing on the argument. CLC Usually used by students seeking a grade bump. 0 Student A: Professor, because I attended every class on time, tried my best on every assignment, and studied more than usual, I hope you can give me an A instead of a B. If don’t get an A, my dad would be so upset! I only need 0. 5 points! Bandwagon Argument CLC Refers to an arguer’s manipulation of the audience by appealing to the popularity or value of an aspect of a claim. Usually manipulates the audience’s desire to be “with the crowd” and not alone. L] Example: Some of the most famous musicians in history produced great music on drugs; therefore, you should use them too if you want to write good songs. Straw Man Fallacy C] Refers to the way an arguer distorts an opponent’s claim to make it easier to attack. CLC Usually uses different (tricky) words when falsely summarizing an opponent’s claim. 0 Example: John claims that the Goshawks are a better football team than the errs, but San Francisco isn’t a bad team like the Jaguars; after all, they made it to a championship game when many others did not.
Red Herring C] Refers to the use of an irrelevant issue that is irrelevant to the main argument at hand in order to distract the audience. C] usually used first to lead the audience astray then secondly to settle the original dispute when it is convenient for the arguer. [l Example: Many people accuse George Bush of invading Iraq when it was not necessary; but Bush was a great president who made Americans feel safe. Begging the Question 0 Refers to the adoption of a conclusion that is really the premise of an argument.
L] Usually circular in nature and simply restates the essential question of the argument or claim; it is quite redundant and offers nothing new. њ Example: Bungee-?jumping is dangerous because it is unsafe. Batman is cool because he is awesome. Mr.. Adams should take that specific course because it is required. Exercises: Spot the Logical Fallacy CLC Jim Gibson has argued that we need to build a new middle school for the growing demand of our city population. But Gibson is the owner of Gibbon’s Construction Company. He’ll make a fortune if his company is picked to build the new school.
Can no one else see why he wants to build a new middle school so badly? Exercises L] Hugh Heifer claims that his magazine engages in investigative journalism; but we all know that Hugh Heifer is just an old pervert who only cares about objectifying women. He is an old bag who cannot let go of the vigor of his youth. 0 My opponent has accused me of running a negative political campaign against him; however, if you have seen his ads that attack my family, you know that he has run a much more negative campaign than I have.
Just last week he said my wife embezzled from her firm, which is simply not true. Clearly, my opponent’s tactics show that the accusations Of my mudslinging campaign are untrue. C] Officer, I know was going eighty miles an hour back there, but don’t deserve a speeding ticket. I’ve already had a tough week. Yesterday, I got fired from my job, and last week my dog died, and right now, I’m just trying to get home so I can use the bathroom. 0 Professor Dave has argued that the Bible should not be read literally. Obviously, Dave believes that any reading of the bible is just as good as any other reading.
But this would mean that there is no difference between a good interpretation Of scripture and a bad one. Such a view is absurd. C] I am entitled to say whatever I want because I have the right to say whatever I choose. 0 Karen has argued that the secretaries at Chase Bank will get more respect if heir titles are changed to “office assistant. ” But everyone knows that Chase has a bottom-line mentality. They will let you call yourself anything you want, but they still won’t raise your salary-?not even by a nickel.
CLC Dry. Christina Sparks has argued that the morning after pill is an effective contraceptive. But Dry. Sparks fails to realize that the morning-after pill simply encourages sexual promiscuity, which is exactly why we have such high rates of abortions and out-of-wedlock births in this country to begin with. Obviously, Dry. Sparks is wrong. L] School superintendent Kate Duncan has argued that children in public school should be allowed to participate in a voluntary moment of silence at the beginning of each school day.
However, it is wrong for Duncan to allow teachers to indoctrinate students with Christian views. Dunce’s argument must be firmly rejected. CLC Rachel Peters has argued that assault weapons should be outlawed. Apparently, Rachel believes that no one has the right to own firearms for the purposes of self-defense. But such a view is completely indefensible. It would leave law-abiding citizens defenseless against those criminals who ignore the law and have the upper hand.