TABLE OF CONTENTS Question 1: ……………………………………………………………………………. 1 1. 1Discuss how the Human Resource environment at Dell is managed Linking HRM practices to the company’s business objectives………………………………. 1-3 1. 2Designing work that motivates and satisfies the employees as well as ………3-5 1. 3Maximizing customer service, quality and productivity………………………5-7 Question 2: ………………………………………………………………………. 7-10 Explain the process involved in the acquisition and preparation of potential employees at Dell.
Identifying HR requirements – HR Planning, recruiting employees and selecting employees, and Training employees Question 3: ……………………………………………………………………………10 Managers need to ensure that employees have the necessary skills to perform current and future jobs through continuous assessment, development and management. With regards to the above statement, discuss how the above is accomplished at Dell. 3. 1Measuring employees’ performance…………………………………………10-11 3. 2Preparing employees for future work roles………………………………….. 11-13 Question 4: …………………………………………………………………… …13-16 Dell is considered as an employer of choice because of its highly effective compensation system. Discuss how effective compensation system can lead to employee satisfaction/dissatisfaction if they believe pay and benefits are unfairly distributed Bibliography…………………………………………………………………………17-18 Question 1: 1. 1Discuss how the Human Resource environment at Dell is managed. Linking HRM practices to the company’s objectives Dell regards its human resource workforce as one of its most precious assets to pursue for excellence in the field it operates.
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Holbeche (2006:419) suggest that an organization’s overall business strategy should provide the guidance for the human resource management strategy, which in turn outlines the organization’s people objectives … are functional strategies in an organization’s objective achievement endeavours. Neo, Hollenbeck, Gerhart and Wright (2008:4) maintains that human resource management refers to policies, practices and systems that influence employees’ behavior, attitudes and performances thereby supporting business goals and objective.
This is demonstrated by the manner in which the human resource department and management interacts with their employees through open communication, value the concerns, views and suggestions of employees and its employee equity plan. Dell’s pursues for excellence in the field it operates. According to Storey (1995:7) human resource management is a distinctive approach to employment management which seeks to achieve competitive advantage through the strategic deployment of a highly committed and capable workforce, using an integrated array of cultural, structural and personnel techniques.
The human resource management strategy at Dell is such that it is aligned to achieving the company business objectives and this is seen through their employment policy how they identify prospective workforce and recruit them, continuously managed them and their family members. This is demonstrated by the manner in which they identify prospective employees, select and recruit the compensation system for rewarding and systems for retaining their employees.
Dell’s human resource planning activity is an ongoing process of forecasting the company’s future needs and competencies, developing innovative recruiting ways to find 1 and attract talent needed as well as commit to sound selection process which includes integrating new employees into the firm. Nel, Werner, Haasbroek, Poisat, Sono and Schultz (2008:216) maintains that Human Resource planning ensures that a predetermined amount of employees with appropriate skills, nowledge and abilities are available at a specified time in future … Human Resource planning therefore systematically identifies what is needed to e able to guarantee their availability. In the case study the executive team undertakes an activity to review employees bi-annually to set strategies around succession planning, critical roles, business key talent, exportable talent and leadership programmes. Succession planning is undertaken across all positions to prepare employees for future positions.
Recruitment and selection policy of Dell is of fundamental importance to human resource strategy in that the best person is recruited for the job. Neo et al. (2008:81) states that recruitment is the process through which the organization seeks applicants for potential employment while selection refers to the process by which it attempts to identify applicants with the necessary knowledge, skills, abilities and other characteristics that will help the company achieve its goals.
Due to the industry Dell operates in, its success and competitive edge is based on its recruitment and selection system. Therefore, it relies heavily on highly skilled and motivated workforce. Dell’s employee profile is a driven professional who thrives in an environment where pressure is high, show attention to detail, creative thought and capacity for independent action. Dell provides various employees with training sessions appropriate for enabling them in achieving its mission and business objectives which could be an after result of assessment of performance appraisal feedback. Neo et al. 2008:347) points out that performance management is critical for companies in executing their talent management strategy, through identifying employees’ strengths and weaknesses thereby linking to training and development and rewarding good performance with pay and other incentives. Neo et al. (2008:216) defines training as the planned effort by a company to facilitate employees’ learning of job-related competencies such as knowledge, skills or behavior that are 2 critical for successful job performance. The above indicates that there is link between performance management and training and development.
The employees are provided with international training, ongoing online and classroom training. It pays market-related salaries and offers a range of standard big-company benefits and rewards are high. This can be good investment for companies who want to stay ahead of competition in the ever changing business environment. But can be bad for companies who fail to address employee retention. The human resource management practices at Dell are not isolated practices but form of systems and processes that help support the business strategy of the company. Nel et al. 2008:649) argue that though it is essential to recognize that although ‘best practice’ HR appears to be ideal in achieving organizational objectives, it is not as the best mode of practice, because the influence of not using ‘best principles’ is unfortunately often observed in HR decision-making. 2. Designing work that motivates and satisfies the employees The management team at Dell has the opportunity to influence motivation of their employees through the design of their jobs to improve the efficiency of the business and improve employee satisfaction.
Brewster et al. (2003:175) states that the direct challenge facing the Human Resource function is to design jobs that provide employees with the necessary growth opportunities and use information technology as an integrated part there-of. According to Herzberg, the answer to the motivation problem lies in the design of the work itself (Nel et al, 2008:340). In the case study there is no mention of job design or job analysis but from the recruitment and selection policy there is possible indication that the process was undertaken.
Dell employee profile is a driven professional who thrives in an environment where pressure and rewards are both high as well as passion for the job and technology industry. The structure of the job refers to the job enrichment approach which gives more autonomy and set of goals to that are motivating 3 and satisfying. Poorly designed jobs are likely to be discouraging, boring, frustrating to employees and certainly will lead to dissatisfaction. Employees at Dell are given an opportunity to be innovative with their creative thoughts. In order for organizations to adapt to a changing environment both Nel et al. 2008:349) states that employees should be encouraged to become more creative … creativity is closely related to motivation, as the same contextual variable that are predicted to foster intrinsic motivation are also associated with creative performance. Employees have the capacity for independent action and creative thought and show attention to detail. Organizations cannot compete successfully without a motivated workforce therefore encouraging its workforce to be creative and innovative is a way of fostering a culture of continuous active learning and participation.
Motivation cannot be separated from leadership, which is the ability to inspire people to voluntarily and enthusiastically work towards the attainment of organization goals (Nel et al, 2008:336). Motivational approach focuses on the job characteristics that affect psychological meaning and motivational potential, and it views attitudinal variables such as satisfaction, intrinsic motivation, job involvement, and behavioral variables such as attendance and performance as the most important outcomes of job design (Neo et al, 2008:169).
Maslow’s (1954) theory states that as soon as one need is satisfied, another takes its place … and the lowest level must be satisfied before higher-order needs emerge and become motivators of behavior (Nel et al, 2008:337). Herzberg’s two-factor motivation theory can be linked to the needs hierarchy of Maslow (1954) … the hygiene factors are similar to the lower level needs in the hierarchy, while the motivators are similar to the higher level needs (Nel et al, (2008:340).
Theories of motivation such as Maslow’s theory, Alfelder’s theory, McClelland’s theory, and Herzberg’s theory (1999) explain why employees and staff should be motivated and why organizations should take this concept into consideration. But what really constitutes 4 effective employee motivation? • As is indicated in the case study from the result of the market research done by Gartner, 2007 and the double-digit growth rates enjoyed in the local market. This shows how work is designed and aligned to human resource planning and polices ensures the successful competitive advantage of the organization through its shareholders. Market related salaries bring satisfaction including open communication which is presented at Dell. Sometimes employees become tired of doing the same tasks repeatedly, which leads them to lack interest on the job and decrease their productivity. This leads to the demotivation and alienation of the employee though employees appreciate an employer’s effort to make their jobs as motivational and challenging as feasible. 3. Maximizing customer service and productivity Dell believes that with the highly knowledgeable and motivated employees the company provides real value to customers.
Cant et al. (2006:302) states that employees are pivotal in delivering customer satisfaction and negative experiences of customers are frequently associated with employees’ behavior and attitudes, not necessarily rooted in the service component. Cant et al (2006:310) argues that the quality of service that employees give to external customers will be similar to the treatment they receive from their employers. As a high performing company where the value of customers is codified in the business strategy and the employees get to make quick decision with little bureaucracy.
It makes it easier for the employees to be accountable for their actions and decision which promote high performance levels and promotes quality productivity. Dell’s clients seem to be satisfied by the service delivery and the quality of product provided through the highly skilled and knowledgeable workforce. Motivated people 5 voluntarily and enthusiastically do more than what is required of them … aware of the fact that a specific goal must be achieved and continuously directs their effort at achieving that goal even in the face of adversity (Nel et al, 2008:336).
This is evidenced by the double-digit growth rate in the local PC market which can be expected to continue and its potential to grow from strength to strength. Communication is important in Dell because of its business environment where many interactions are needed and much information is acquired. Nel et al. (2008:131) suggest that effective communication results in higher productivity and greater cooperation in an organization. The practice of effective communication within the company is also linked with the development of a healthy corporate culture, job satisfaction of employees, and the happiness and productivity of employees.
Communication skills are also important to the leaders of Dell Corporation because it helps them manage the company more effectively through a range of open communication channels such as the managing director; each month meets groups of employees to hear their views, concerns and any suggestions including monthly session to share information. This shows that employees and managers engage in frequent communication and feedback sessions so that employees correct any deficiencies with regards to their performances.
The Code of Conduct applied to all Dell employees worldwide helps and guides employees on ethical standards in every company business with regards to interaction with customers, competitors, government and other stakeholders. The code also covers how employee privacy should be handled, environmental standards and managing potential conflicts of interest. Having such interventions in place fosters an environment where employees are well informed of what is expected of them and their contribution towards attaining company goals.
HRM practices have been shown to be valuable such as compensation, staffing training and development, performance management and other HRM practices are investments that directly affect employees; motivation and ability to provide products and services that are valued by customers, (Noe et al. 2008, 51). 6 Dell is a company that knows how to enhance and retain its customers through its ability to quickly and easily adapt to change and in efficiency with which products are brought to the market as well as how it listens and interact with customers.
It is stated in the case study, the report given by the Managing Director, Steward van Graan, that management “have spent some time reflecting, correcting, defining and aligning ourselves to better position our company to the changing needs of our customers”. Total Quality Management implies a continuous improvement in products and services through the active learning and participation of all employees (Nel et al, 2008:350). This results in high productivity which enhanced maximum customer service and retention. Question 2
Explain the process involved in the acquisition and preparation of potential employees at Dell. Identifying HR requirements – HR Planning, recruiting employees, and selecting employees; – training employees The process of recruiting and selecting potential employees is directly associated to the ability of the organization to succeed and attain or accomplish identified goals. It is then argued that recruitment and selection process in whatever job position should be systematically and strategically aligned with the consideration of positive outcomes in the organizational setting.
The human resource manager at Dell plans, develops, implements, and advises the valuable use of employees within the company through identified and agreed regulations and policies relating to human resource management. Nel et al. (2008:216) states that human resource planning ensures that a predetermined amount of employees with appropriate skills, knowledge, and abilities are available at a specific time in future. HR planning therefore systematically identifies what is needed to be able to guarantee their availability.
Stone (2005) concurs that human resource planning is systematic, fully integrated organization process that involves proactively planning ahead to avoid talent 7 surpluses or shortages. The human resource department identifies employee forecast requirements through internal source or external sources using different techniques such creative recruitment, training programmes, different selection standards and compensation structures. The outcome of the review used to set a strategy either to reduce or increase its workforce.
As employee reduction is not mentioned in the case study, Dell is likely to have adapted a strategy for avoiding an unexpected labour shortage (Neo et al, 2008). Human resource planning process has uses the forecast phase – the manger attempts to determine labour supply and demand for various positions in the organization. Forecasting can be implemented using quantitative and qualitative methods and quantitative methods uses historical data and qualitative methods are used by top management (Nel et al, 2008).
The recruitment and selection is the most crucial human resource function at Dell which supports in achieving business objectives and maintaining competition. Noe et al. (2008:202) defines recruitment as the practice or activity carried on by the organization with the primary purpose of identifying and attracting potential employees. Brewster et al. (2005:257) emphasize that effective and fair selection practices for strategic deployment of highly motivated and competent employees are an important vehicle for enterprises to gain a competitive advantage.
Dell aims to recruit top performers by offering a sound career path, opportunities to develop skills and pay market-related salaries including a range of standard big-company benefits. The selection of Dell’s potential employees is based on creative recruiting and reward structures. Both Snell and Bohlander, (2007:234) and Wild et al (2007:548) agree that selection is the process of choosing individuals who have relevant qualifications to fill existing or projected job openings. DeNisi and Griffin (2005:219) goes on to emphasize that the selection ecision must focus on competency-related issues if the selection process is to contribute to the organization’s success. Dell bases its employee selection on 8 highly skilled and motivated employees, employees who show attention to detail, have capacity for independent and creative thought. Dell recruits its employees through recruitment agencies, search and selection specialists who screens the candidates. Nel et al. (2008:206) states that sources from which a company recruits potential employees are a critical aspect of its overall recruitment strategy.
Organizations can recruit and select potential employees using internal or external sources and methods (Gomez-Mejia et al, 2004:159). Dell uses both internal and external sources and methods for recruiting its potential employees. They recruit externally using recruiting agencies, search and selection specialist and direct application. Promotions, transfers, internally advertise and post on the website. According to Nel et al. (2008) suggests that an organization’s recruitment policy outlines the objectives of the recruitment process and provides guidelines as to how the process should be carried out.
If the recruitment and selection processes are properly done can save company’s resources, time, effort, and money. Nel et al. (2005:313) argues that the selection practices of organizations should be fair to ensure that the most suitable applicants are appointed. In practice an effective selection process can reduce the risk of financial loss in training and going over the recruiting process. Because of the ever changing business environment Dell provides training to its employees for various reasons.
Grobler et al. (2006:300) identify training as being task oriented and focused on improving the learner’s job performance. Noe et al. (2008:267) defines training as the planned efforts by a company to facilitate employees’ learning of job-related competencies which include knowledge, skills or behavior that are critical for successful job performance. Dell invests in online and classroom training and offer opportunities for new entrants to the job market to gain a year of hands-on work experience.
The training programmes offered ensure that the intellectual capital is well guarded and retained in the company to compete successfully in the industry as well as creating a learning culture and a motivated workforce. 9 Dell uses two methods to train its employees, the presentation method and hands-on-method. Training methods may be divided into three groups such as presentation methods, hands-on-methods and group building methods (Neo et al, 2008:311). It can be argued that Dell used ‘high-leverage’ training approach which ‘is linked to strategic business goals and has top management support’ (Noe et al, 2008:267).
Training is important in that it improves the current performance of those who may not be working effectively, teaching and orienting new entrants how to perform their initial job assignments and preparing employees for future promotions, teaching new processes and technology. Question 3 Managers need to ensure that employees have the necessary skills to perform current and future jobs through continuous assessment, development and management. With regards to this statement, discuss how the above is accomplished at Dell. Your discussion must consider the following:- 3. Measuring employees’ performance Dell understands and knows its business, therefore, invests in performance management systems which are aligned to continuous training and development of its employees. Neo et al. (2008:343) defines performance management as the process through which managers ensure that employees’ activities and outputs are congruent with the organization’s goals … emphasize that performance appraisal is only a component of performance management at it involves the administrative and relatively isolated duty of measuring aspect of an employee’s performance.
Dell has a performance plan which is reviewed regularly and individual development plan that is a working document for personal and career development. Regular reviews benefit employees in recognition, receiving training for work needs and offering career guidance through feedback. A company is able to measure employee performance through job analysis and design of the kind of performance it expects from employees. 10 There are several approaches used for measuring employee performance. (Neo et al, 2008:351) discussed five main criteria to evaluate performance management systems i. . strategic congruence, validity, reliability, acceptability and specificity. The results approach is used at Dell to measure employee performance through different techniques. Neo et al. (2008:367) observe that this approach is based on the premise that results are the one best indicator of how a subordinate’s performance has contributed to organizational success and techniques such the Management By Objectives, productivity measurement and evaluation systems and balanced scorecards (Snell and Bohlander, 2007:358) can be used.
The annual revenue-US$60 billion and their cliental base is an indicator of the performance of the company aligned to the performance of the employees. Hence with such information reflects the performance of an individual employee. The management at Dell uses performance management system to monitor performance of their managers, the 360 degree feedback. Managers’ effectiveness is monitored by periodic employee survey that ask questions about whether the manager discusses performance, two-way dialogue take place and whether employee ongoing feedback (Neo et al, 2008:375).
This is evidenced by company climate survey done twice a year to gather information about how the employees rate their managers. This is a good employee evaluation system because of the two-way practice which helps improves working conditions and managers also get to improve on their weaknesses. 3. 2 Preparing employees for future work roles Dell uses the performance management for developmental purposes. Neo et al. (2008:346) states that performance management systems provide information about employee strengths and weaknesses and in so doing identify developmental needs.
Based on results outcome, the management structures the type of training to offer their employees for example classroom training, on-the job training, on-going online training and work experience opportunities. 11 These training structure help employee improve on their current performance and also prepare for the future activities. The developmental purpose of performance management is to develop employees who are effective at their jobs. Feedback given during evaluation process may indicate the employee’s weaknesses and deficiencies (Noe et al, 2008:348).
Dell relies on ongoing online and classroom training because they are tied directly to business needs and can be easily evaluated. Dell emphasizes on-the-job training so that employees may improve on their work and as well as improve the performance of the company. Succession planning takes place across all positions at Dell as it forms a vital component of the human resource strategy. Nankervis, Compton and Baird (2005:309-310) explains that mentoring starts in two ways, formally and informally … many organizations have set up programs, often as part of their affirmative action or orientation efforts.
Every year top performers are chosen based on their performance and placed on an accelerated development plan and reward them with bonuses and on-job training supported by mentor. The acknowledgement for best performance motivates individual employees and is reinforced the training and merit rewards offered. Career management also known as developmental planning system is a system to retain and motivate employees by identifying and meeting their development needs which is important in retaining good performers and employees who have potential for managerial positions (Neo et al, 2008:403).
Dell has a development management system in place for it employees as it offers a sound career path and opportunities to development employee skills. Employees are given international training and work experience opportunities which results in career development of the staff as well as increasing quality productivity. Brown (2007:19) explains the importance of career management to employers and employees by stating that “it is essential that the process of employee career management is aligned with the organizational goals and strategy to ensure that organizations meet 12 heir objectives”. The participation of executive teams in reviewing employees’ bi-annually to set strategies shows the career management system is an important component in their success of their business objectives. Question 4 Dell is considered as an employer of choice because of its highly effective compensation system. Discuss how effective compensation systems can lead to employee satisfaction/dissatisfaction if they believe pay and benefits are unfairly distributed. Use appropriate theories and literature to enhance your argument. According to Grobler et al. 2006:35) the term compensation is actually a broader concept … compensation refers not only to extrinsic rewards such as salary and benefits but to intrinsic rewards such as achieving personal goals, autonomy and more challenging job opportunities. Dell’s compensation plan is in such a way that it’s competitive and the rewards are motivating. Snell and Bohlander (2007:378) make use of the term “strategic compensation planning” which refers to the compensation of employees in ways that enhance motivation and growth, while at the same time aligning their efforts with the objectives, philosophies and culture of the organization.
Neo et al. (2008:486) emphasize the need to align compensation strategy to the overall organizational strategy. Compensation has a considerable impact on employee attitudes and behavior and is critical for helping the organization in attaining its strategic goals (Neo et al, 2008:486). Dell understands that for it to be successful in the competitive market, its compensation system has to be aligned to the business objectives, hence it pays market-related salaries and offers a range of standard big-company benefits and rewards for good performance which is measured against a clear set of matrices.
Neo et al. (2008:487) emphasize how the Equity Theory influences compensation. The equity theory argues that a person compares her own ratio of perceived outcomes to perceived inputs to the ratio of a comparison other. 13 If equity is perceived, no change will occur in the employee’s behavior or attitudes but if inequity is perceived, the employees will take steps to restore equity through, for example, reducing the amount of effort he/she exerts. Nel et al (2008:345) explain that satisfaction is influenced by both intrinsic and extrinsic rewards.
Employees expect rewards that are not only equitable to their own input, but also equitable to the rewards that other employees with similar inputs receive and if inequity is perceived employees direct their behavior towards creating equity. (Nel 2002:286) reveals that it is widely recognized in South Africa that inconsistencies in compensation very easily lead to industrial disputes and strikes. The success of an incentive plan depends on the organizational climate in which it must operates, employee confidence and its sustainability to employee and organizational needs.
Importantly, employees must view their incentive pay as being equitable and related to their performance. Performance measures should be quantifiable, be easily understood, and bear a demonstrated relationship to organizational performance. It is said that an effective compensation and reward system is composed of three elements – financial rewards, non-financial rewards and psychological satisfactions. These components are important and it is required that these components are balanced. While, financial rewards are the most noticeable elements, relying on it as an incentive can do more harm than good.
One form of incentive system is merit pay, which is based on giving financial incentives. While this is seen by many as effective in improving performance, relying on financial incentives as an employee motivator can create problems. Merit pay works well when behaviors that contribute to the effective functioning of the firm are rewarded. Behaviors critical to organizational effectiveness includes innovation, empowerment and customer service. Behaviors results are especially important to measure when the results are outside the control of employees.
Merit pay plans have been criticized because they may promote an entitlement culture and because they fail to differentiate high and low performers. The perception of merit pay systems is multidimensional, consisting of performance assessments and merit pay allocation. 14 Another criticism of merit pay is that it leads to competition rather than cooperation. Employees are pitted against one another to compete for a limited fund. Paying for individual performance strikes some companies as too difficult. Financial incentive schemes can also be a source of discontentment of employees, especially when they view that they are unfairly treated.
Preconditions for merit pay – trust. Employers should consider including a code of equal remuneration in service conditions (Nel et al, 2008:149). Although each employee is unique and thus requires some degree of individualized treatment, standardizing the treatment of similar employees (those with similar jobs) can help greatly to make compensation administration and decision making more manageable and more equitable (Neo et al. 2008:487). Pay grades where jobs are classified into a number of pay grade … specify the pay range for particular categories of jobs (Neo et al, 2008:495).
For example in our organization, the World Health Organization uses a pay grade structure where jobs of similar worth or similar duties are grouped together e. g. there is a seven-grade structure for general service staff and a six-grade structure for professional staff. Overall from the general service staffs’ point of view is satisfying because the equity distribution is perceived to be fair among similar performing jobs. Nel et al. (2008:297) defines employee benefits as items in total package offered to employees over and above salary, which increase their wealth or well-being at some cost to the employer.
On the other hand, Snell & Bohlander (2007:448) defines employee benefits as an indirect form of compensation intended to improve the quality of work lives and the personal lives of employees. As with scenario in WHO, though there could be satisfaction on the pay grade structure, on the other hand there could be dissatisfaction on the number of benefits offered to different categories of staff. For example locally recruited general service staff nationals are not entitled to same benefits awarded to international recruited general service and professional staff. 15
Research has generally found that organizations providing effective employee services have employees who are generally happier and more satisfied than employees in organizations who do not have such services. For example, “organizations that had on-site childcare facilities had more satisfied employees and higher employee retention rates … however organizations that were unable to help their employees shoulder eldercare obligations had significantly higher employee absenteeism and intensions to quit, lower work productivity and more employees with health problems because of care giving stress” (Lee et al. 008:223). • Toyota’s Child Development Program provides 24-hours-a-day care for children of workers at its Georgetown, Kentucky, plant (Neo et al, 2008:582). • Memphis-based First Tennessee Bank, which was losing 1,500 days of productivity a year because of child care problems, considered creating its own on-site day care center … opted to establish a sick-child care center, which was less costly and smaller in scope than a full-time center and yet still solved the employees’ major problem and resulted in absenteeism dropping drastically (Neo et al, 2008:583). Brewster and Carey et al. 2003:260) argues that procedural and distributive justice and the absence of economic and psychological harm are ethical components of fair and equitable compensation strategies; and compensation that are perceived to be fair and equitable are central to employee motivation and self-esteem. The importance of pay and other rewards, however, is affected by many factors. Money, for example, is likely to be viewed differently at various points in one’s career, because the need for money versus other rewards (status, growth, security, and so forth) changes at each stage. 6 Bibliography Brewster, C. , Carey L. , Dowling P. , Grobler, P. , Holland, P. & Warnich S. (2005) Contemporary issues in human resource management: gaining a competitive advantage. 2nd edition. Cape Town: Oxford University Press. Brown, W. (2007) Career Development. People Dynamics. 252(2): 19, February. Cant, M. C. , Strydom, J. W. , Jooste, C. J. & Du Plessis, P. J. (2006) Marketing Management. 5th edition. Cape Town: Juta. De Nisi, A. S. & Griffin, R. W. (2005) Human Resource management. nd edition. USA: Houghton Mifflin Company. Gomez-Mejia, L. R. , Balkin, D. B. , & Cardy, R. I. (2004) Managing human resources. 2nd edition. Upper Saddle river, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Grobler, P. , Warnich, S. , Carrell, M. R. , Elbert, N. F. & Hatfield, R. D. (2006) Human Resource Management in South Africa. 3rd edition. London: Thompson. Holbeshe, L. (2006) Transforming the human resources function. Understanding Change. Oxford: Elsevier. Lee, S. H. , Lee, T. W. & Kum, C. F. 2008) The Effects of Employee Services on Organisation Commitment and Intensions to Quit. Personnel Review. Vol. 37, No. 2, pp 222-237. Nankervis, A. , Compton, R. & Baird, M. (2005) Human resource management. Strategies and processes. 5th edition. Australia: Thompson. 17 Nel, P. S. , Werner A. , Haasbroek G. D. , Poisat P. , Sono T. , & Schultz H. B. (2008) Human Resource Management. 7th edition. Cape Town: Oxford University Press. Neo, R. A. , Hollenbeck, J. R. , Gerhart, B. & Wright, P. M. 2008) Human Resource Management: Gaining a Competitive Advantage. 6th edition. McGraw-Hill. Stone, R. J. (2005) Human Resource Management. 5th edition. Australia: John Wiley & Sons. Storey, J. (2007) Human Resource Management: A Critical Text. 3rd edition. Illustrated Publisher Cengage Learning EMEA, Snell, S. and Bohlander, G. (2007) Human Resource Management. Mason: Thompson Wild, J. J. , Wild, K. L. , Han, J. C. Y & Rammal, H. G. (2007) International Business. The challenges of globalization. Australia: Pearson Education. 18