Alignment of HR Practices with Business Strategy Assignment

Alignment of HR Practices with Business Strategy Assignment Words: 5242

This Assignment reveals how Nestle is able to integrate and align it’s HRM practices with the overall business strategy, able to manage the responsibility of identifying, attracting, selecting and moulding employees and provides an evaluation of their recruitment processes and policies .

It further discusses the strategic link between Nestle’s performance management system and its development initiatives and examines Nestle’s approach to employee compensation and unique aspects of the benefits offered. Gbadosmosi (2003) sights HR arena which influences employee’s performance to maximize productivity in an organisation as a positive grounds for organisational commitment. “Committed employee behaviour is at the heart of HRM and is a central feature that distinguishes HRM from traditional personnel management” (Gbadosmosi, 2003:274). Question 1

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The key pillars of Nestles strategy include being recognised as a preferred corporate citizen, preferred employer, and preferred supplier of preferred product. Based on this strategy of being the organisations of choice, analyse how Nestle is able to integrate and align their HRM practices with the overall business strategy. Answer to Question 1 Preferred corporate citizen is an organisation that has a legal right to exist in a country and is appreciated by the people in the country. For example there are many organisations in South Africa, but Nestle is one of it that is being preferred by many.

That makes it a preferred corporate citizen. From Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary (International Student’s Edition) defined Employer as a person or company that pays people to work for them. Preferred employer can be viewed as an organisation that pays people to work for it and that it’s conditions and treatments glue the people to the company and attract others to its doors. Preferred supplier can be construed as an organisation whose distributions are always wanted and needed by the stake holders.

Nestle business strategy is that of becoming a high performance organisation with an increased profitability, increased market share and increased overall growth. Analysis of Nestle’s HRM practices with the overall business strategy. “HRM practices include analysing and designing work, determine human resource needs (HR planning), attracting potential employees (recruiting), choosing employees (selection), teaching employees how to perform their jobs and preparing them for the future (training and development), rewarding mployees (compensation), evaluating their performance (performance management) and creating a positive work environment (employee relations). “(Noe,R. A. , Hollenbeck, J. R. , and Wright, P. M. , 2008: 4). Business strategy “is the set of strategic alternatives that an organisation chooses from in order to compete most effectively in a particular industry or market. “(Nel et al. , 2008:560). Integrative Linkage Integrative linkage is of the levels of integration where by the business management team includes the HRM team in the formulation and implementation of business strategy. (Noe et al. , 2008:74).

Marrying HRM with business strategy directs Nestle as an organisation into a beautiful score, such that the complex human activities are effectively and efficiently managed. Integration of Business Strategy and HRM Practices : Formulation Phase The relationship between business strategy and HRM appears to be integrative, where HRM is fused in strategic meetings. HRM functions such as work force as resource for competitive advantage, outsourcing from Universities and giving training in line with the strategic business goals results in loyalty and commitment, rewarding employees produce high performance.

Establishment of good culture in terms of integrative linkage that Nestle took advantage of catapulted it to this acceptable peak, strengthening the pillar of being preferred employer of choice. As asserted by Noe et al. (2008) “fuse HRM with people related issues”. The components considered and established during the strategic formulation phase include: • Organisation’s mission which spells out the organisation’s reasons for existence, For instance the mission of Nestle include the mentioned key pillars and expanding globally, Organisation strategic goals which reveal what the organisation aims to achieve in the medium and long term. • External analysis which provides information as to the threats and opportunities which exist for the company within the external environment, example of opportunity is customer market, labour pool etc that has not been catered for, the threats include labour shortage, new competitors etc that might affect the company negatively, • Internal analysis which provides information of the strengths and weaknesses of the company’s resources. Strategic choice which is organisation’s chosen strategy and it indicates how the mission and the goals can be achieved. (Noe et al. , 2008: 74). Nestle appears to look into all these during its regular meetings . As indicated in the case “Nestles General Management Team(GMT) undertakes an organisational review on a regular basis and biannually reviews the organisation’s future direction and focus areas which will get the company to where it wants to be. ” Integration Of HRM practices with overall business strategy: Implementation stage After an organisation has chosen its strategy, it has to execute that strategy –make it come to life in its day – to – day workings. The strategy a company pursues dictates certain HR needs. For a company to have a good strategy foundation, certain tasks must be accomplished in pursuit of the company’s goals, individuals must possess certain skills to perform those tasks, and these individuals must be motivated to perform their skills effectively. ” (Noe et al. , 2008:7) In the quest for Nestle to be a preferred employer the HRM function has been made a core business by ensuring that various strategies are undertaken like: Overall cost leadership (becoming the lowest cost producer in the industry) which is achieved through the HRM by: 1. Investing in training in specific skills that yield efficiency to Nestle,(from the case study developing and training both employees and newly recruits from the universities is an area of focus of Nestle), all done to job specifics. 2. Promoting internally: As stated in the case “When it comes to recruitment process, Nestle’s policy is look internally first to fill vacancies. The HRM aims at avoiding in fighting and perpetual squabbles in the organisation as this may derail progress and success. 3. Seeking efficiency through worker participation: This notion is that of employees are partners rather than mere workers. (Noe et al. , 2008 : ) 1. Differentiation (creating a difference between the organisation’s product and service at its competitors. )(Noe et al. , 2008:84), which is achieved by: Nestle’s HRM practices are those of creativity, broad career paths through training employees and also staff developing employees on two years structured programmes .

It is of no surprise at all why Nestles HRM decides to pay Nestles employees at above average rates so as to be different from the rest of the competitors around. • Concentration Strategies (Increasing market share, reducing costs or creating and maintaining a market niche for products and services)(Noe et al. , 2008 :86). Which is achieved by : 1. Training to maintain current skills 2. Compensating and retaining employees who have the required existing skills so as to achieve its goal of becoming a big market share, cost reduction etc. Mergers and Acquisitions: Which involves consolidation of organisation within or across industries (Noe et al, 2008:87). The joint initiative that Nestle engages with University of Cape Town and Agri – BEE initiative are perfect examples from the case study that indicates partnership. For strategy implementation then, there appears to be an integrative linkage between HRM practices and business strategy. (Noe et al. , 2008:74). Integration of HRM practices with overall business strategy : Evaluation stage As stated earlier Nestle has fused all those strategies to the company’s advantage.

Nestle expects it’s employees to be hungry for growth as well as performance and solution orientated so as a result of that the HRM and Strategic management seem to strategize a monitoring system to evaluate their performance for identification of problem areas and try to revise or device new ones. (Noe et al. , 2008: 90). By doing all these HRM aims at achieving Nestles business strategy of High performance organisation. Who is this Nestle in any case? According to Oxford Dictionary Nestle means “to be located in a position that is protected, sheltered, or partly hidden. ”

The name Nestle itself indicates that if you are under Nestle you are protected in all aspects. Given this Scenario, who else will shun away from Nestle’s Nespray powder Milk, a “preferred product”!! Question 2 HR practitioners carry the responsibility of identifying, attracting and selecting the correct applicants for appointment and of moulding co- workers into a team that is inspired by the corporate vision and strategy. Discuss how Nestle is able to manage this responsibility, by providing an evaluation of their recruitment processes and policies. Answer to question 2

From Oxford Advance Learners Dictionary (International Student’s Edition): Identification is “The process of recognising that something exist, or is important” Attraction is “a force that pulls things towards each other” Recruitment is “… the practice or activity carried on by an organisation with the primary purpose of identifying and attracting potential employees. “(Noe et al. , 2008: 202). Selection “involves choosing the best applicant to fill a position” (Grobler, P. , Warnich, S. , Carrell, M. R. , Elbert, N. F. and Hartfield, R. D. , 2006: 182).

Nestle’s responsibility of identifying correct applicants: This begins with the nature of HRM planning as stated by Snell and Bohlander (2007: 48) asserts that HRM planning is “the process of anticipating and providing for the movement of people into, within, and out of organisation”. On the other hand Nel et al. (2008 : 216) alludes that HRM ” ensures that a predetermined amount of employees with appropriate skills, knowledge, and abilities are available at a specified time in the future… HR planning therefore systematically identifies what is needed to be able to guarantee their availability”.

Given the above definitions, at Nestle the HRM does forecasting on whether there will be labour surplus or shortage or labour demand or labour supply, for particular job categories. Once the above survey has been done Nestle’s HRM starts the first phase of employee recruitment processes which is identification of potential candidates. From the case study, Nestle identifies its pool of employees internally and externally. Nestle’s Identification Internally Nestle adopts the system of filling vacancy from within, because of the following advantages it accrues to the company: • The organisation is familiar with the performance of the applicant The applicants have a better understanding of the organisation and the vacancy position if compared to outside applicants. • The filling of vacancies proves to be cheaper and faster (Noe et al. , 2008:207). For an organisation to promote internally means the organisation is satisfied with its employees and does not want them out. This asserts that the very first day employees are selected to work, Nestle starts monitoring their performance ,making them be on their toes, so anytime there are vacancies ,Nestle knows who fits the positions. This reaps a couple of advantages that hoist the company’s flag high. Internal staffing system provides both opportunities for advancement during growth and opportunities for stable employment during declining periods. “(Noe et al. , 2008: 203). Nestle’s External Identification Another way HRM in Nestle identifies potential candidates is from University of Cape Town as well as other universities with acceptable qualification. Nestle believes in referrals and the use of agents. The joint initiative with University of Cape Town and Graduate Development Programme born out of graduate unemployment provide Nestle with first hand information about the performance of the newly qualified graduates.

This identification gives Nestle a competitive advantage because graduates will be lured to the corporation, receive in training hence the corporation enjoys the pool of talented or skilled labour to invest in. How Nestle Attracts Correct Applicants The first attraction Nestle provides to candidates is by providing an attractive compensation as stated from the case study “All employees at Nestle are either on or above the minimum requirements of the salary scale. ”

The second attraction is provision of benefits such as pension, provident fund ,car allowance, car insurance scheme, medical aid and fully paid maternity and paternity, bursaries for children of its employees to undertake tertiary education, The third attraction is that Nestle is multinational company and this is an advantage to employees because they gain international experience. The forth is training at no cost The fifth one is that of diversity brought in by different graduates from different university to balance organisational culture. The sixth one is through agents, headhunting and referrals as echoed by Nel et al. 2008:225) “Referred employees tend to stay with the organisation longer and display greater loyalty and job satisfactory than other categories of new – hires . However, current employees tend to refer people who are demographically similar to themselves, which can lead to complexities especially if the organisation has an affirmative action hiring policy. ” The seventh one is that one of placing newly qualified graduates in acting senior positions. The eighth attraction is that of financial aid for employees to further their education. And the ninth one is employees’ children being offered bursaries.

Nestles Responsibility of Selecting Employees Yes is true that Nestle selects from the universities as indicated in the case study but it is not stated anywhere in the case as to how Nestle manages the responsibility of selection. It is assumed the company uses the three phases of selection process proposed by Nel et al. (2008:242 – 251), namely: Phase 1 :Preliminary Screening: This involves provisional interviews which last for 10 minutes and completion of company application form designed to meet the needs and requirement of the company(Nel et al. 2008:242) and provides information as to the applicants qualifications, experience, interest, etc. (Nel et al. , 2008 :243). Applicants judged to meet the minimum requirement proceeds to the next phase. Phase 2: Selection Methods: During this Phase selection methods such as tests, interviews, reference check, and medical exams are applied. Interview is the most widely used method because it provides face – to face communication and allows the interviewer obtains considerable information about the applicant’s background, experience, attitude, value, and interests. It also equips the applicants with information about the job. Nel et al. , 2008: 244). Phase 3: Appointment: Phase 3 is the final state where choice is made between applicants’ selection. (Nel et al. , 2008 : 251). Strategies like multiple hurdles where the applicants are suppose to pass each hurdle in the selection process(example provisional interview, application blank, etc ) and compensatory selection strategy where applicants are taking through each step before making the final decision. (Grobler et al. , 2008 : 199) In line with this Nestle selects newly qualified graduates from higher learning and employ them on permanent bases .

They engage these graduates on a two year structured development programme where on completion they are placed into positions. There after these graduates through a Company Talents Development Solution are further selected according to high performance and are placed into higher position and into international exposure and into senior management position. These ensure that Nestle Corporation ultimately arrives at selecting the correct applicants for appointments . As these graduates move along these stages they would be going through the induction phases

Nestle’s moulding of co-workers into a team that is inspired by the corporate vision and strategy The HRM of Nestle undertakes the two – years structured programme in order to help the new employees to understand the social, technical, and cultural aspects of the workplace and speeds up the socialisation process . It is envisaged that in two years this training team would be systematically socialised into the team with the same vision and strategy. The creation of family days inculcates the spirits of oneness in the team. Year end functions further strengthens the bond of corporate team .

Back yard factory soccer teams create this oneness. All these promote one vision, one strategy. Communication is believed to be the backbone of the company and at Nestle the HRM encourages open communication which would lead to team work, team spirits, and team vision and team strategy. These would encourage coercive whole employees and inspired by the corporate vision and strategy. Nestle exercises the Employment Equity Act of south Africa which is a credit to the company and the society: An employment equity policy serves to prevent future discrimination in recruitment practices (Nel et al. 2008: 224) In south Africa, the legislature requires organizations that employ more than 50 employees to exercise an employment equity policy, and from the case study Nestle has more than 3400 employees. Question 3 It is evident that Nestle implements People Development System which is designed to ensure that learning and development align with both business strategy and employee career development. Provide an analytical discussion of the strategic link between Nestle’s performance management system and their development initiatives. Answer to question 3 WHERE EVER NESTLE IS NESTLE MONITORS!

It is evident that at Nestle there is a strategic link between performance management system and Nestles Development initiatives . It is imperative that we define the concept of performance management system in relation to Nestles community based development initiatives. Performance management is “the process through which managers ensure that employees’ activities and outputs are congruent with the organisation’s goals. “(Noe et al. , 2008: 343). It is therefore Nestles HRM involvement that sees the initiative of the Black Economic Empowerment (BEE) in the community where Nestle is operating from.

This is in line with Nestle’s Mission of Positively influencing the social environment. . Brinkerhoff (2006) asserts that increased capability in employees is the best result a company can achieve through training . The real value from training “comes when capability is transformed into improved job performance…training that is well learned, but never used , or poorly used , produces no value for the business that invested in the training…this issue is, in a nutshell ,the challenge for increasing the return on training investments”(Brinkerhoff,2006:303).

In other words, ensuring performance from improved capability is in effect a performance challenge. It is necessary that Training is implemented in conjunction with an aligned performance management system. (Brinkerhoff, 2006: 303). ” the reality is that…performance system factors are the principal determinants of impact from training and can, if they are not aligned and integrated ,easily overwhelm even the very best of training”(Brinkerhoff,2006 : 303). Analytical discussion of the strategic link between Nestle’s performance management system and their development initiatives

Nestle as an organisation is enveloped with people development system that pushes learning and development to align itself with both business strategy and employee career development. Business strategy is a mother that gives birth to employee career development. Employee career development is a strategy in the business strategy Development is argued to be focused on “Creating ongoing learning opportunities so that employees can improve over a longer period of time and learn skills other than those required in the current job. “(Kleynhans et al. 2007: 117). Nestle Development initiatives from the case study seem to be focussed on two areas: 1. Development of Employees of Nestle 2. Development of Community Projects Development of Employees of Nestle Nestle’s development initiatives should provide a platform for performance management to operate. Nestle’s Employees mapping out their own development programme and strong emotional attachment to the business is one indication of the link between performance management system and development initiatives as spelled out in the case study.

The development programme the employees map out will not be outside the business goals but congruent with it. Performance management system monitors their progress, establishing hardworking attitude in them, because their performance attract a kind of incentives and other rewards such as promotion, bonus, pay raises etc. Performance management system provide information which assists the organisation with administrative decisions relating to issues such as salary administration (pay raises), layoffs and promotions. (Noe et al. , 2008:347). Noe et al. 2008: 348) is with the view that performance management system should provide information about employee strength and weakness and in so doing identify developmental needs . From the case study “Developing its employees to reach their full potentials is an area of focus at Nestle . Nestle offers its employees formal training programmes which are specific to their jobs and aligned to their career development. ” This asserts that Nestles employees after being trained in line with strategic goal of the company are not left out without being monitored. Development of Community Projects

This includes Black Economic Empowerment which is in line with the South Africa Government Policy of helping the disadvantaged communities. As the mission at Nestle states “to positively influence the social environment. ” The partnership Nestle undertakes with stakeholders ensures performance management is being involved in monitoring the initiative. The performance management on the Agri – BEE Initiatives has been delivered through the HRM facilitations with other stakeholders in providing water, electricity, and roads in the community and this is in line with organisation strategy.

Nestle’s activities like leases of milk tanks, herd building, technical support, loans, and mentorship to the farmers explain how deeply rooted is Nestles performance management to the community. As a way of monitoring the initiatives Nestle does a lot of mentorship. Nestle has partnered with the government’s Umsobomvu Youth fund on a project called ICE CREAM ON WHEELS . This creates jobs for the youth and teaches the youth to become entrepreneurs. Nestles employees make sure that the projects move, so bikes, motor cycles, uniforms, and washing machine are bought for ice cream vendors .

In a way this shows that Nestles HRM is monitoring the projects. The other development initiatives done and monitored by Nestle are Environmental safety, preservation of natural resources and being ISO14001 compliant. All these Nestles activities in the community portray organisation goals or business strategy. Noe et al. (2008: 355 -375) came out with five approaches that Nestle may adopt the best one. 1. The comparative approach: This focuses on comparing employees’ performance with others . The techniques are: Ranking where subordinates are ranked from best performance to worst performance.

Forced distribution where employees are ranked in groups and paired comparison where an employee is compared with every other employee in the work group, given an employee a score of one anytime he or she performs higher. 2. Attribute Approach where employees attribute (characteristics or traits) necessary for organisation’s success is identified. Techniques of this approach include: Graphic rating scales where the subordinates are rated on particular traits and characteristics. Mixed Standard score where the supervisor rates the subordinate against relevant performance dimensions (Noe et al. 2008:360). 3. Behavioural Approach which defines behaviours needed for effective performance in a particular job ,these techniques include: Critical Incidents where records of specific examples of effective and ineffective performance on the part of each employee are kept, behavioural anchored rating scales which is designed to define performance dimension, behavioural observation scale which is a variation of Behavioural anchored rating scale, organisational Behaviour Modification which involves managing the behaviour through formal system. . Result Approach “Result approach focuses on managing the objective, measurable results of a job or work. “(Noe et al. , 2008 : 367). This include :Management By Objectives (MBO) where goal setting is brought down throughout the organization and the employees performance is measured against the goals, Productivity Measurement and Evaluation Systems(Promes) which focuses on motivating employees to higher productivity(Noe et al. 2008 : 367),Balanced scorecards, which is the first performance management approach that “links vision and strategy to employees’ everyday actions by translating the abstract strategy into clear strategic priorities and initiatives and relating these to clear tangible strategic outcomes the organisation and its employees have to strive for :… “(De Waal, 2003 : 31). Balance score card “makes strategy everyone’s job”(De Waal, 2003:31). Question four

Standardizing the treatment of similar employees (those with similar jobs) can help greatly to make compensation decisions – making more manageable and more equitable. Examine Nestle’s approach to employee compensation and unique aspects of the benefits they offer. Answer to question four This piece of work examines Nestles Approach to Employee compensation and the unique aspects of the benefits Nestle offers to the employees. For an organisation to get quality employees, it must have done a lot on its quarters of its compensation tendencies. Nestle’s Approach to Compensation

Noe et al. (2008 : 487 ) highlighted the influences of equity theory on compensation : Equity theory states that ” a person(P) compares her own ratio of perceived outcomes O ( e. g. pay , benefits, working conditions ) to perceived inputs ( effort , ability ,experience ) to the ratio of a comparison other (O). “(Noe et al. , 2008: 487). No change in employees behaviour occurs if an equity is perceived , if an employee compares his or her salary with others and are the same , he or she becomes satisfied and consider it as ,that’s how it suppose to be .

Employees tend to restore equity through, for example reducing the amount of efforts they exert if they perceive inequity and this affects the organisation’s productivity negatively. Nestle tries to eradicate the problem of inequity in the organisation which may result in loss of employees; high production cost that may create low income to the organisation, by providing internal fairness and equity in its remuneration, Nestle seems to borrow the ideas from the above quotations.

Snell and Bohlander (2007: 384 – 388) identified external and internal factors that influence the organisation’s choice of compensation system. And these include: 1. Labour market: Nestle is with the vision of stabilizing its labour movement in order to solve the problem of labour shortage and labour surplus in the organisation ,by helping the employees financially to upgrade themselves ,they become satisfied with the treatment and thus may not want to leave. The higher the supply of labour within the job market the lower the salary and the lower the supply of skilled labour within the job market the higher the salary. Snell and Bohlander, 2007: 387). 2. Economic conditions : Due to the unique benefits Nestle provides to its employees (maternity leave ,pension funds ,insurance ,medical aid) it is at a competitive advantage to other industries ,organisations may provide employee benefits and services to keep the organisation competitive in attracting and retaining human capital ,to improve employee performance, to fulfil agreements with trade unions, and comply with legislation (Nel et al. ,2008 ). Nel et al. 2008) emphasise that the reward environment is thus the starting point for adding value to the organisation and it would result in lower labour turnover , lower absenteeism and better public relations. The higher the competition within the industry, the higher the pay and vice versa. 3. Government influences: Organisation with more than 50 employees in South Africa cannot do without the legislation, what the law says is what is to be obeyed. For example the law determines the minimum wage / salary and overtime pays and Nestle has no option than to pay on or above it.

It is revealed in the case that Nestle evokes intense brand loyalty and employees have personal and emotional attachment to the business, this asserts that employees have a kind of satisfaction with the benefits and that are not prepared to compare with outsiders, this implies that the benefit obtained satisfies their needs better than their competitors (Snell and Bohlander, 2007; Noe et al. , 2008). Compensation Structures and levels: When Nestle was developing his compensation structure and levels, it considered: • Current market pressures, which consist of product market competition and labour competitions.

This is seen from the case study that a market survey is made in other to benchmark their compensational system. • Employees as resources (rather than just a cost): Analysing from the case study, employees are worth to the organisation. This means Nestle values the employees and consider them as the engine of the company and thus need to be given favourable fuel that will make them function well in line with the organizational goals. Other approaches of Nestles employees’ compensation include the following: Nestles salaries are made competitive because they are benchmarked against peers.

All employees on management receive a performance bonus. All sales employees get incentives. Flexible working hours for all those in management levels. Annual reviews of salaries done through surveys. Unique Aspect of Benefits Nestle Offers Nestle offers both Mandatory and Voluntary employee benefits • Mandatory employee benefit: In South Africa, mandatory employee benefits and services are the benefit the legislation enforces the organization to embark. The organisation (Nestle) is obliged to provide for the employees. These include : • Leave: Leave refers to time off from work which may be paid or unpaid (Grobler et al. 2006: 376). Legislation provides for the following leave benefits within the South African context: What the basic conditions of employment Act of 1977 concerning expecting female employees specifies is that “An employee is entitled to at least four consecutive months maternity leave (section 25[1] and Nestle nicely addresses that and even included four months fully paid paternity leave. The rest are Annual leave, sick leave and family leave. • Unemployment Insurance and compensation for injuries and Disease are the other two mandatory employee benefits.

Grobler et al. (2006:374) identified. • Voluntary benefits: This type of benefits within South African context is where the company includes in the benefit package to motivate employees. Voluntary benefit include : • Pension funds : Nestle provides this funds in order to ensure that after employees retirement, employees have a continued source of income in order to maintain approximately the same standard of living as before. (Nel et al. , 2008 : 300). • Insurance : Nestle also provides car insurance and car allowance for its employees Medical Aid Schemes: Nestle provides 50% medical aid scheme for its employees. Employers and employees both contribute to the cost of the medical aid scheme. (Grobler et al. , 2006 : 377) • Education Expenses: Another unique aspect of benefit of Nestle is the provision of financial support for employees’ study fees (Grobler et al. , 2006 : 378 ) • Child care programmes: Nestle also provides bursaries for the children of the employees to do tertiary education, as echoed by (Grobler et al. , 2006: 378) employer will either subsidise child care cost or provide child care facilities.

It is recommended that other employee benefits like food services, Transportation programmes and house subsidy should be included in Nestles employment benefit package. In conclusion, the compensation tendencies implemented by Nestle provide a constructive build up in terms of employee retention and employee competitiveness so as to achieve organisational strategic objectives, culture, philosophy, and growth. REFERENCES 1. Brinkerhoff. R. O. (2006) “Increasing impact of Training investment: An Evaluation strategy for Building Organisational Learning Capacity . ” Industrial and Commercial Training. Vol. 38, No. 6, pp 302 – 307. . De Waal, A. A. (2003) “The Future of the Balanced Scorecard: An Interview with professor Dr Robert S. Kaplan. ” Measuring Business Success. Vol. 7, No. 1, pp 30 – 35. 3. Gbadamosi,G. (2003) ” HRM and the Commitment Rhetoric : Challenges for Africa. ” Management Decision. Vol. 41,No. 3,pp274 – 280 . 4. Grobler,P. ,Warnich,S. , Carrell,M. R. ,Elbert,N. F. and Hatfield, R. D. (2006) Human Resource Management in South Africa. 3rd Ed. London: Thomson. 5. Nel, P. S. , Werner, A. , Haasbroek, G. D. , Poisat, P. , Sono, T and Schultz, H. B. (2008) Human Resource Management. 7th Ed. Cape Town: Oxford University Press Southern Africa. . Noe, R. A. , Hollenbeck, J. R. , Gerhart, B. And Wright, P. M. (2008) Human Resource Management: Gaining a competitive Advantage. 6th Ed. New York: McGraw – Hill. 7. Joanna T. ,Diana Lea. , Dilys P. , Ben F. , Suzanne W. , Victoria B. , Michael B. , Michael A. (eds. )(2010) Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary. International Student’s Edition. Cape Town: Oxford University Press Southern Africa. 8. Snell and Bohlander, G. (2007) Human Resource Management. Mason: Thompson. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Brinkerhoff. R. O. (2006) “Increasing impact of Training investment: An Evaluation strategy for Building Organisational Learning Capacity . Industrial and Commercial Training. Vol. 38, No. 6, pp 302 – 307. 2. Gbadamosi,G. (2003) ” HRM and the Commitment Rhetoric : Challenges for Africa. ” Management Decision. Vol. 41,No. 3,pp274 – 280 . 3. Grobler,P. ,Warnich,S. , Carrell,M. R. ,Elbert,N. F. and Hatfield, R. D. (2006) Human Resource Management in South Africa. 3rd Ed. London:Tondon : Thomson. 4. Nel, P. S. , Werner, A. , Haasbroek, G. D. , Poisat, P. , Sono, T and Schultz, H. B. (2008) Human Resource Management. 7th Ed. Cape Town: Oxford University Press Southern Africa. 5. Noe, R. A. , Hollenbeck, J. R. , Gerhart, B.

And Wright, P. M. (2008) Human Resource Management: Gaining a competitive Advantage. 6th Ed. New York: McGraw – Hill. 6. Joanna T. ,Diana Lea. , Dilys P. , Ben F. , Suzanne W. , Victoria B. , Michael B. , Michael A. (eds. )(2010) Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary. International Student’s Edition. Cape Town: Oxford University Press Southern Africa. 7. Snell and Bohlander, G. (2007) Human Resource Management. Mason: Thompson. 8. De Waal, A. A. (2003) “The Future of the Balanced Scorecard: An Interview with professor Dr Robert S. Kaplan. ” Measuring Business Success. Vol. 7, No. 1, pp 30 – 35.

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