John Larger, national director of Hay Group’s Leadership and Talent Practice and co-leader of the Best Companies for Leadership Study, stated: “For organizations to succeed, they will need to understand what key leadership element are paramount in driving their organizations toward growth. It is more than just getting people to produce the right outcomes. It’s about getting them to be passionate about their work and grooming them to handle the challenges ahead” (SHIRR, 2010, p. 3) The main objective of this assignment is to explore the relation between Leadership and Motivation.
By using the relevant theories and concepts, this report will give an argument and explanation why these two are important for a manager to be aware. This report also will give some examples to illustrate situation where these both have and have not worked together successfully. In addition, the author will explain about the reflection of her own managerial capabilities related these both themes. All information is used to write this assignment has been collect from several books, external research, internet, personal experiences and eased on semi-structured interviews with some key informant stakeholders in APT.
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ECHO Indonesia. The structure of this assignment will be as follows: Section two reviews the literature on leadership and motivation theories and interlink between both themes. Section three will describe and explain some organizational examples related with both themes. Section four will explain the reflection of author about her own managerial capabilities. Conclusion of the report will be in section four. Then some recommendation will be suggested, including an action plan for improvement for organization and development of he author capabilities. 2.
LITERATURE REVIEW In this section, it will explain and explore some theories that related with motivation and leadership based on some literatures. 2. 1 Motivation Theories Employee motivation affects productivity and part of manager’s job is to chain motivation toward the accomplishment of organizational goal (Daft R. , 2003, p. 546). According to Burner et al, (2007), the level of performance of employees relies not only on their actual skills but also on the level of motivation, each person exhibits (cited by Louses S. , and Ay H. T. , 2009). What is motivation? According to Brooks (2009, p. ), motivation can be considered to comprise an individual’s effort and persistence and the direction of that effort. In simpler terms, motivation is the will to perform. Another definition from Daft, R. (2003, p. 546), motivation refers to the forces either within or external to a person that arouse enthusiasm and persistence to pursue a certain course of action. Daft (2003, p. 547) try to draft a simple model of human motivation – as seen in if 2. 1 – where people have basic needs, that translate into an internal tension that motivates specific behaviors with which to fulfill the need.
To extent the he behavior is successful, the person rewarded in the sense that the need satisfied. Rewards are two types: intrinsic rewards (are the satisfactions a pee receives in the process of performing a particular action) and extrinsic area (are given by another person, typically a manager, and include promotions pay increases, because of pleasing others). Figure 2. 1 A simple model of motivation. Source: Daft, R. L. , (2003, p. 547) The are several theories of motivation. Figure 2. 2 in below try to collect some of t most important theories of motivation in one key model, which structures a systematizes the many aspects of motivation.
Figure 2. 2 Outline of approaches to motivation. Source: Laggard J. Organize Theory, 2009, p. 45. Brooks, I. (2009, p. 81) describe the most models and approaches to motivation can be categorized as either content or process theories. Content theories attempt to identify and explain the factors which energies or motivate people, where process theories focus on how the two s of theories are compatible, in fact, when combined they provide considerable insight into motivation in the workplace. Figure 2. 3 A. Simple Classifications of Motivation Theories. Source: Brooks, 1. , Organizational Behavior, 2009, p. 2. The white paper highlights the follows theories that have shaped the concept of motivation in the workplace (SIR 2010, p. 4-5). O Expectancy theory: Victor H. Broom’s theory suggests that motivation is high when employees believe that high levels of effort lead to performance and high performance leads to attainment of desired outcome Mascots Hierarchy of Needs: People seek to satisfy five basic needs: physiological, safety, belongingness, self-esteem, and self-actualization nee Abraham Moscow placed these needs in a pyramid, with the most basic on t bottom and self-actualization at the top.
When the lower level needs are me ext higher level begins to motivate behavior. Figure 2. 4 Needs of hierarchies. Source: Brooks, l. Organizational Behavior, (2009, p. 88) C] Herbage’s Motivator – Hygiene Theory: This theory from Fred Herbert focuses on two factors applicable to the work place: 1) meeting baa expectations (hygiene factors) and 2) leading to increased performance (motivation factors). Examples of basic needs are comfortable working environment, adequate pay, good relationship with co-workers and effective supervision.
Motivation factors for high job satisfaction include opportunities recognition, advancement and professional growth. C] Miscellany’s Needs of Achievement, Affiliation and Power: In this theory from David McClellan, EAI person has three needs: achievement (strong desire to perform well), affiliate (being liked, having positive interpersonal relationship) and power (the ext which an individual desires control or influences on others. People have the needs to varying degrees. O Equity Theory: Formulated by J. Stacy Adams, the theory is about people’s perception of fairness of their work outcomes in reel to their work inputs.
It suggests that motivation is influenced by comparing own outcome/input ratio with others’. If an individual feels that the ratio is u e. G. Underrepresented, paid less), that individual’s performance may decrease. In contrast, where equity is perceived, employees are more motivated to continue contributing their current levels of input for their current level of outcomes. Motivation is usually the highest when employees perceive that they are treated with equity. D Goal-Setting Theory: Deed Locke and Gary Lethal are the leading researches of this theory.
The focus is on motivating workers to contribute by meeting goals set to improve the overall performance of the organization. They suggest that goals that employees work to meet are prime determinants of their titivation and therefore performance. Goals need to be both specific (quantitative and measurable) and difficult (hard, yet not impossible). According to SHIRR Research Quarterly (201 0, p. 5-6), in addition to classic motivational theories, a number of recent writings contribute new ideas to the literature on workplace motivation.
One of them is written by Coleman (1998), which explained about emotional intelligence includes a critical facet applicable to motivation: relationship management/inspiration. “Leaders who inspire both create resonance and move people with a compelling vision or shared mission. Such leaders embody what they ask of others and are able to articulate a shared mission in a way that inspires others to follow. They offer a sense of common purpose beyond day-today task, making work exciting. Please see Appendix C for detail about five component of emotional intelligence. . 2 Leadership Theories Management means getting things done effectively through people to achieve the desired results (Balloon, J. , 2005; Eng, L. C. , 2011). This requires a combination of leadership, communication and people skills. A manager without any leadership skills is like a ship sailing on high seas without a compass and a gyroscope. The manager, in that case, is merely a bureaucrat pushing paper and administering the daily chores and directives of higher-ups – a glorified order- taker (Eng, L. C. , 2011, p. 3) What is leadership? According to Daft (2003, p. 514), leadership occurs among people, involves the use of influence, and is used to attain goals. Influence means that the relationship among people is not passive and is designed to achieve some end or goal. Thus, leadership are defined is the ability to influence people toward the attainment of goals. What is different between a manager and a leader? According to Brooks (2009, p. 161), managers reform function in organizations and hold a particular, formal, title and/or fulfill a role.
Leaders, on the other hand, aim to influences and guide others into pursuing particular objectives or visions of the future and to stimulate them into wanting to follow. Daft (2003) stated that management and leadership are both important to organizations. Effective managers have to be leaders, too because there are distinctive qualities associated with management and leadership that provide different strengths for the organization, as illustrated in Figure 2. 5. One of the major differences between manager and leader qualities relates to the resource of power and the level of compliance it engenders within followers.
Power is the potential ability to influence the behavior of others. Management power comes from the individual’s position in organization, where leadership power comes from personal sources that are not as invested in the organizations, such as personal interests, goals and values. Figure 2. 5 Leader and Manager Qualities. Source: Daft (2003, p. 514) According to Brooks (2009, p. 165), it is possible to divide leadership research into three broad schools: trait, behavioral and situational approaches. Please see Appendix A f explanation for some other theories. Figure 2. 6 Leadership research: three phases of development.
Source: Brooks (2009, p. 166) Daft (2003) describe that according to the path-goal theory, the leader’s responsibility is to increase subordinates’ motivation to attain persona and organizational goals. The leader increases their motivation by either (1) clarifying the subordinates’ path to the rewards that are available, or (2) increasing the rewards that the subordinates value and desire. Figure 2. 7. Leader role in the Path-Goal Model. Source Daft (2003, p. 528) Jim Collins, which is calls Level 5 Leadership – as describe in his book, Good to Greg searches another theory about leadership: Why Some Companies Make the Leap… And Others Don’t. Level 5 Leadership refers to the highest level in a hierarchy of manager capabilities. Has a key characteristic is an almost comply lack of ego, Level 5 leaders have a fierce determination to do whatever it takes produce great and lasting results for their organizations. Level 5 leaders build organization with many strong leaders who can step forward and continue the company s success. These leaders want everyone in the organization to develop to their fullest potential (Daft, 2003, p. 534-535). Figure 2.
The Level 5 Leadership Hierarchy. Source Daft (2003, p. 535) Adair (2004, p. 121), describe there are certain generic leadership traits and seven important ones – as describe in figure 2. 9. Figure 2. 9. Seven Qualities of Leadership. Source Adair (2004, p. 121) 4. REFLECTION OF MANAGERIAL CAPABILITIES Learning about Managing People and Organization, gave a clearly understands knowledge and some experiences for the author about management and leadership, organization culture, national culture, structure, motivation and change.
Related with leadership and motivation, she tries to understand and et clear pictures the different theories and concepts. It will help her to see different leadership style of each person’s – and kind of factors that influence him or her. After completed Bellini’s team style inventory, she could see that her team type is “Shaped’, which is, not really surprise her or her colleagues. She could admitted that she often tried to treating and welcoming all potential contributors – and be objective. However, she realizes that in some cases she c be impatient woman and try to control the situation by herself.
By understands the type of team, she believes that she can learn to understand her positive ululates and weaknesses. She thinks that she will try to implement this to her teams to understand the type of each member and try to cover each other. The author also tries to reflecting these leadership and motivation concepts to her organization. Managing two training centre in Production area – Upper Training Centre and Full Shoe Training Centre with total 15 instructors – she thinks she needs to select appropriate leadership style to make her become more effective manager and also motivated her teams.
As training centre is support department, which is not get “the performance result” directly as production rear, she thinks that she should encourage her instructors always do the best training and development program for the employee / production area as a customer. For future, she set up a plan to develop a leader within her organizations, since she believes that her organization will grow up / getting bigger and of course, the company will need a future leader who can step forward and continue the company’s success.
By doing this, is also give a to motivate her subordinate to grow, develop and get higher position with organization.. 5. CONCLUSION To be successful, organization need high performing individual. To get high reforming individual, organization need to provide people with mean work and rewards – this is one of motivation, Positive and supportive lead clearly makes the difference for an engaged and motivated workforce. A g manager will take the time to consider ways to motivate employees, whet the performance levels are good or need improvement.
For the leader, it i beneficial to take a step back and consider, on personal level, what is mot oneself. Employees often motivated differently. To develop a work environ that promotes motivation, organization need to know what is important t employees and then to emphasize these factors. RECOMMENDATIONS Based on the conclusion in above, the following concluding recommendation organizations and the author herself. For organization: 1. Continue to implement Performance Evaluation and Performance Management, to all level of management. This could be great motivation f employee to work and achieve the goals with better performance.
In audit ensure that the process of performance evaluation will be conducted clean transparent, fair and objectives. 2. Conduct a employee satisfaction serve find out the level of motivation of and the needs of employees 3. Provide leadership training for middle level of management. With the fast growth company, it will help the organization to have future leader that will take a step of company’s success. 4. Implement the Coco’s Five Leadership Prince throughout the organization. Therefore, the company will have common approach related with leadership. For the author: 1.
Continue to study and learn about managing people and organization especially related with leadership, motivation, problem solving and decisive making – to get better understanding and ability to implement in real word 2. Participating in the presentation skill course to enhance communication related with persuading and influencing skill. 3. Implement the Bellini’s tea styles inventory to the team member to find out the style of each member Discuss and inform to the whole member so each of team member can understand each other better and could cover the weaknesses of others.