Teachers Effects on Latino Students with Emotional Disturbance Gloria page-Gooding Immaculate university Abstract The objective of this study was to examine the progress of Latino students with DEED when assigned to culturally competent teachers in their school environment in addition to the other school supports they receive.
For the purpose of this research; cultural competence is defined as the process through which teachers are trained in the following areas: (a) awareness of one’s own cultural perspective, (b) awareness of attitudes towards cultural preferences, (c) development of cross cultural skills and ability to implement different cultural practices and interventions. In this experimental design a total of 20 participants who met specific criteria (a) ages between 9-1 1 years, (b) enrolled in DEED support classes, (c) enrolled in the 4th academic grade and (d) children of Latino/Hispanic ethnicity/descent were randomly assigned into two groups (n=l O).
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The instrument utilized in this study was the Woodcock- Johnson Ill achievement test. In the experimental group, Latino students with DEED received a school semester of instruction by culturally competent trained searchers in addition to other school supports they receive. In the control group, Latino students with DEED receive their instruction by teachers with no particular training in cultural competence in addition to other school supports they already receive.
Results of this study indicated that the group of Latino students whose teachers were trained in cultural competence showed significantly more academic progress than the group of children placed in a school setting without culturally competent trained teachers. These findings provide further evidence on the impact of cultural competence issues in the instruction of Latino children with DEED. Disturbance Chapter One – Introduction Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) defines emotional disturbance as the umbrella name for one of the thirteen disability categories of eligibility for special education services.
Children with emotional/behavioral disturbance (BED/DEED) present an array of behaviors that unfavorable affect their educational performance and cannot be explained by other physical or health deficiency as discussed in the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (Mooney, Epstein, Reid, , 2004). Furthermore, according to Kauffman in Mooney et al. ‘s article, children with DEED/BED are inclined to display problematic behaviors that hinder their ability to form and keep positive social relationships with peers, teachers and other adults and thus interfering with their successful adaptation to their community and society as well.
Although one of the most important features for students with DEED is the lack of cognitive impairment, recent research determined that students with DEED have low educational success in the most important academic areas and tend to stay the same or further deteriorate over time (Lane & Enemies, 2010). As pointed out in several studies, there seems to be serious concerns regarding the reduced number of research studies focusing on the development and improvement Of educational skills and effective interventions for students with DEED.
Regular school interventions may vary based on the type of emotional disturbance. Especially designed instruction and counseling is the most frequent type of school interventions available to children suffering from emotional disturbances. As stated in IDEA, the especially designed instruction for children with DEED is primarily based on their Individualized Education Program (PIE) which contains individualized objectives tailored to address student’s specific needs in order to help him/ her to achieve their educational goals.
Furthermore, according to research, most often interventions and treatments lack complexity, depth and thoroughness; thus failing to assist students with DEED to succeed (Mooney et 2004). While no causal relationship has been established between behavior and academic achievement; poor educational achievement has been stated as one Of the key components of DEED. According to research, children and adolescents with DEED, academically perform by at least a year behind their peers (Mooney et al. 2004). In McElroy and Walkers research, the U.
S. Department of Education has found a connection between students with DEED and poor employment opportunities and history. In addition, there seems to be a strong relation between low academic achievement and the start, incidence, and persistence of delinquency concerns in children and adolescents with DEED (McElroy & Walker, 2000). Hence, Latino students with Emotional Disturbance face especial and more complex challenges based on issues of culture, language and the way they are perceived in society.
In addition, the number and combination of socio- anemographic variables as family income, family structure, family size, region, English proficiency, education of the head of household, places multicultural families and children at a greater risk for failure in school and society as well (Tuttle & Booker, 2001). Statement of the problem The primary goal of this study is to examine the impact resulting from assigning fully trained culturally competent teachers to Latino students with DEED in school.
For the purposes of this study, cultural competence is defined as the process through which teachers are trained in the following areas: (a) wariness of ones own cultural perspective, (b) awareness of attitudes towards cultural differences (c) knowledge and development of cross cultural skills and implementation of cultural practices. This study includes an experimental group and a control group.
In the experimental group, the Latino students with DEED receive a school semester long instruction with teachers fully trained in multicultural competent education, in conjunction with any other school services they already receive. In the control group, the Latino students with DEED received their school instruction by teachers with no reticular multicultural training in addition to other school services they receive. In both groups the children’s academic progress was measured at the end of the semester.
Chapter Two – Literature Review The literature review concentrated on the available research examining the influence of cultural competence issues in the school environment and instruction of Latino students with emotional disturbances. It is a fact that education and success are in hereunto connected, thus it becomes extremely important to help shape educational interventions in order to assist students tit emotional disturbances to succeed. Results of this review reflected how important aspects associated with culturally competent school instruction is directly related to the progress of Latino students with DEED.
These factors are: (a) school/teachers awareness of their own attitudes towards cultural differences (b) Latino students and the stresses caused the lack of cultural sensitivity and (c) the development of culturally consistent skills and culturally competent interventions in schools. School/teachers awareness of attitudes towards cultural differences All teachers in spite of their racial and ethnic aground need to be aware of their own culture and understand how their beliefs and biases can affect their teaching.
In the research regarding disproportionate minority representation, the researchers pointed out the need for school officials’ acknowledgement of culture as an essential aspect of learning in order for students to become more responsive to interventions grounded in culturally sensitive teaching and thus potentially reduce the number culturally and linguistically diverse students placed within the DEED category (Harris-Marry, King, , 2006). According to Southing,
Oswald, Best, and Foresees, (2002), students’ individual characteristics such as gender and ethnicity as well as community’s socio-demographic characteristics increase the chances of students being placed in the DEED category. According to research, living in an economically poor neighborhood was perceived as being connected with increased levels of problematic behaviors, regardless of family socio-economic position. Therefore, the authors stress the importance of exploring the idiosyncrasies of school districts’ criteria regarding students with DEED as well as the overrepresented of minority children amongst those students (Scouting et 2002).
Data review also shows that few research studies have focused exclusively on minority populations with DEED and few have reported comprehensive race and ethnicity documentation about minority populations; which can directly affect the way the data can be used and interpreted (Mooney, Epstein, & Nelson, 2004). Scouting et al. (2002) stated the results of the socio-demographic study also revealed that poverty is usually associated with DEED across gender and ethnicity. Scouting et al. 2002) stated that the overrepresented of culturally and linguistically diverse (CLAD) children do not exonerate the yester from adequately responding to bias and prejudiced actions by confronting the individual and community factors that produce it. In addition. Bogart et al. (2013) concluded that eradicating bias and discrimination in our society could significantly decrease mental health problems, Including challenging and problematic behaviors within the Latino youth.
Furthermore, the premise of this study is that a culturally positive and supportive class environment is crucial in the development of a higher level of academic performance. LATA no students and the stresses caused by lack of cultural insensitivity in school Cultural stress refers to the emotional impact or distress experienced as a result of the conflict between an individual’s own culture and the cultural environment in which he lives.
It refers to several issues including racism, discrimination or ethnic profiling. Cervantes, Fisher, Cordovan, and Napped (2012) in their study regarding Hispanic stress inventory, pointed out that despite the fact that Hispanics currently represent the largest ethnic minority in this country, the Hispanic youth remains at risk of experiencing higher level of stress related to community and acculturation issues.
In the research study discussing Hispanics issues with stress, the authors state that the disproportionate representation and inadequate educational experience of culturally and linguistically diverse (CLAD) students identified as having DEED is influenced by socio-political issues, unintended bias, issues of discrimination and environmental and socio-demographic influences (Scouting, Oswald, Best & Foresees, 2002).
According to Bologna, Young and Smith (2013), Latino students at risk of being diagnosed as DEED expressed that they would have better performance in school if teachers loud have less rigidity with deadlines, provide them with extra assistance through tutoring and communicate with them in a more caring manner. This would encourage a more inclusive/receptive school environment and promote an effective student-teacher relationship. Additionally, Reid et al. (2004) revealed the importance of culturally diverse studies regarding the relationship between placement settings and ethnicity for student with DEED.
In the research study regarding gender and socio-demographic, the authors alls stated that even after socio-demographic effects were explained, a clear association between ethnicity and gender and the likelihood Of being identified as having DEED was established (Scouting et al. 2002). Therefore, in order to consider how Latino values may influence students’ performance; school psychologists can facilitate and implement ongoing professional development for teachers to focus on multicultural sensitive issues relevant to the children they teach.
Cultural competent practice Cultural competent practice is intrinsically related to cultural identity. It impacts child’s view of him/herself as belonging to a specific cultural group. This cultural group may be defined by a number of factors including race, religion, ethnicity, geography or lifestyle. According to Bologna, Young, and Smith (201 3), there is a need for school psychologists and teachers to take into account students’ perceptions in order to avoid misconceptions when they present culturally consistent behaviors.
Furthermore, in the article Reducing Disproportionate Minority Representation in Special Education Programs for Students With Emotional Disturbances, the authors strongly recommend that school professionals become aware of students’ language ND culture before the implementation of academic and behavioral interventions. This would help reduce the disproportionate number of minorities in the Special Education category of Emotional Disturbance and would provide students with more opportunities for success (Harris-Murmur, King, & Rosenberg, 2006).
Therefore, a very important area in the development of effective interventions and outcomes for Latino students with DEED is the awareness and acknowledgment of the importance of culturally tailored interventions in the classroom environment and the availability of culturally and language competent teachers. Furthermore, in the investigation of the characteristics of K-1 2 students, the researchers’ identified the need for systemic changes in ascertaining how specific cultural values may influence student’s behaviors in a safe and culturally sensitive environment (Nelson, Banner & Rogers-Atkinson, 2013).
Moreover, the creation of culturally responsive classrooms includes the development of culturally competent teachers, able to introduce culturally effective instructional approaches for culturally and linguistically diverse students (Cartridge, Gondola, Koura & Lifelike, 2008). According to Harris et al. 2006), adding culturally receptive “Respond to Intervention” (ART) eligibility criteria model to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) can be used as a method for decreasing the overrepresented of minorities in Special Education Programs for students with DEED.
Culturally fair evaluations should convey to educators the value and consistency of their instructions and should allow them to modify them as needed in order to increase and improve students’ outcomes (Cartridge & Koura, 2008). In conclusion, the role of the school psychologist working with Latino students with DEED should include to help design helpful culturally responsive Interventions and to work towards supporting systemic changes to address the needs of this population.
Statement of Hypothesis The incorporation of culturally sensitive assessments and interventions for Latino students with DEED at every level of their educational curriculum provides a higher level of success for minority students and helps avoid the catastrophic consequences related to the human and financial costs of permanent disabilities, school drop-outs and potential delinquency associated with this population. Furthermore, the role of the school psychologist as the professional assisting teachers in understanding cultural diversity and designing culturally competent interventions is essential in achieving these objectives.
In this study it was hypothesized that Latino students with emotional disturbance who receive special education instruction by trained cultural competent teachers would make more academic progress than Latino students with DEED receiving special education by teachers without culturally competent training. Chapter Three ? Method Us objects Participants included 20 elementary school Latino students with DEED (14 joys, 6 girls); receiving especial education and recruited from an elementary school located in a town near Philadelphia, PA.
These 20 Latino students were randomly selected from a larger school sample (N= 53). The following inclusion criteria were used to select the participants: (a) children between the ages of 9 and 11 (b) enrolled in DEED support classes, (c) enrolled in the 4th academic grade and (d) children of Latino/Hispanic ethnicity and/or descend. Parental informed consent and child assent to participate in the study were obtained in all cases. Interpreters were provided for parents who did not peak English. Participants were randomly assigned into two groups that consisted of 10 subjects each (n=1 0).
Group one represented the experimental group (EXPO) in which the Latino children with DEED were thought by cultural competent trained teachers for a school semester. Group two was the Control Group (ACT) in which the Latino students were thought by teachers with no particular training in cultural competency for a school semester. Instrument This study utilized one instrument, the Woodcock-Johnson Ill Achievement Test (WAS-III), scoring profile that provides a total achievement score including academic achievement broad cluster scores in reading math and written language.
It tests cognitive abilities by utilizing both the Standard Battery and the Extended Battery. The Standard Battery includes test 1 through 12 tests that provides a broad set of scores. The 10 tests in the Extended Battery provides a more in-depth diagnostic information on specific academic strengths and weaknesses. Test taking time varies, but it took about 5 minutes per test. For this study, the participants were randomly selected from a group Of Latino students formally identified as having DEED receiving special education.
The WAS-III has proven to possesses sound validity as it has a high level of accuracy and strong reliability of . 80 or higher. Research Design This experimental design comprised a pre-test/post-test construct comparing the academic results of Latino students with DEED between the experimental group (EXPO) and the control group (ACT). In the experimental group, Latino students with DEED received a semester long instruction by cultural competent trained teachers while in the control group the Latino students received a semester long instruction by teachers with no particular training in cultural competence.
The level of academic performance by the Latino students with DEED was measured for both groups at the beginning of the study and again at the end Of the school semester using the Woodcock- Johnson Ill instrument. Design: Group Selection Pre-test Treatment Post-test EXPO (n=10) Random Assignment WAS-III* Culturally competent trained teachers instructing Latino students with DEED W] ACT Not culturally competent trained teachers instructing Latino students with DEED WI-ill* *Woodcock-Johnson Ill Achievement Test Figure 1. Experimental Design Procedure This study was conducted in compliance with the Institutional Review Board.
In addition, the researcher formally requested and obtained permission from the school in order to approach the Latino students and their parents to ask for volunteers to participate in the study. The school also agreed to host the study and allowed researchers to search students’ school records for each prospective student to collect information on ethnicity and establish the level of special education they require. After conversation with the school authorities (principal and psychologist), researches explored volunteers during a visit to the school.
Twenty students were randomly selected from he original group of 53 prospects that met the following inclusion criteria: (a) student’s ages between 9 and 1 1, (b) enrolled in DEED support classes (c) enrolled in the 4th academic grade, (d) student of Latino ethnicity or/and descent. Permission was requested and given from parents/custodians of the students and assent was also obtained from all the participant children. The 20 students selected were randomly assigned into an experimental group (EXPO) and a control group (ACT), with each group formed by 10 students.
All Of the students selected went through a baseline Woodcock-Johnson Ill assure, applied by a licensed psychologist. Participant students in both groups attended special support instruction. Children’s were instructed by qualified teachers on their curriculum. However, children in the experimental group were assigned teachers fully trained in cultural competency and diversity issues. These teachers training addressed a) awareness of one’s own cultural perspective; b) awareness of attitudes towards cultural differences, c) development of cross-cultural skills and implementation of different cultural practices.
At the end of the semester the licensed psychologist that performed the initial (baseline) test, administrated the Woodcock-Johnson Ill measure for the second time and the results were analyzed. Chapter Four Results In order to test for the mean differences between the two randomly selected groups, a t-testator independent samples was used. Table 1 shows the mean, standard deviation and t-value for the experimental and control groups. Table 1 Pretest and Posters Means, Standard Deviations, and t-value for Experimental and Control Groups Groups Test EXPO ACT M 17. 22. 9 SD 2. 14 2. 46 *UDF- 38, p As stated by the hypothesis; Latino students with emotional disturbance, who receive their by trained cultural competent teachers, make more academic progress than Latino students with DEED receiving instructed by teachers without culturally competent training. These findings are consistent with Harris-Murmur, King, and Rosenberg, 2006 who in their study, found that teachers who recognize that culture is central to learning, encourage students to become more responsive to interventions and thus positively affecting their growth and progress.
Furthermore, the implementation of culturally responsive approaches has the potential to reduce the misunderstanding of culturally diverse students within the DEED category. Overall, this study has significant implications in the field of Psychology, and there disciplines as well. However, several limitations were found in the implementation of this study. First, due to the fact that DEED support classes are designed for a small number of children in a classroom this study relayed in a random sample of 20 students.