It Is the next step after Job analysis. It alms at outlining and organizing tasks, duties and responsibilities into a single unit of work for the achievement of certain objectives. It also outlines the methods and relationships that are essential for the success of a certain Job. In simpler terms it refers to the what, how much, how many and the order of the tasks for a Job/s. Job design essentially involves integrating Job responsibilities or content and certain qualifications that are required to perform the same.
It outlines the Job responsibilities very clearly and also helps In attracting the right candidates to the right Job. Further it also makes the job look interesting and specialized. There are various steps involved in Job design that follow a logical sequence, those that were mentioned earlier on. The sequence is as follows: * What tasks are required toe done or what tasks is part of the job? * How are the tasks performed? * What amount are tasks are required to be done? What Is the sequence of performing these tasks? I I All these questions are aimed at arriving upon a clear definition f a specific job and thereby make it less risky for the one performing the same. A well defined job encourages feeling of achievement among the employees and a sense of high self esteem. The whole process of Job design is aimed to address various problems within the organizational setup, those that pertain to ones description of a Job and the associated relationships.
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More specifically the following areas are fine tuned: * Checking the work overload. * Checking upon the work under load. Ensuring tasks are not repetitive in nature. * Ensuring that employees don not remain isolated. * Defining working hours clearly. Defining the work processes clearly. The above mentioned are factors that if not taken care of result Into building stress within the employees. DEFINITION Job design is the allocation of specific work tasks to individuals and groups.
Allocating jobs and tasks means specifying the contents, method, and relationships of Jobs to satisfy technological and organizational requirements, as well as the personal needs of jobholders. Increased productivity and efficiency. 2) Less need for close staff supervision, checking and control. ) More effective work teams. 4) Skilled and flexible workforce to meet work requirements. 5) Targeted training to maximize value for training investment. ) Improved talent management and succession planning. 7) Safer and healthier workplace. 8) Improved employee attraction, engagement and retention. I understanding of work expectations with supervisor. 3) Good team work, relationships and resources are clearly defined. 4) Opportunity to develop work skills and take up different challenges. 5) Targeted training to meet current and future Job needs. 6) Better career pathways and development opportunities 7) Support of work/ life lance. 8) Increased Job satisfaction and engagement.
Information about the design of the Job is needed for Job evaluation, which is the process of comparing the Job with other Jobs in an organization to determine the appropriate grade. * Recruitment and selection The process gives you a better understanding about the Job you want to fill and helps: the selection panel identify the Job requirements (selection criteria), write the job advertisement, develop interview questions, and assess the best applicant for the job applicants to decide if they should apply for the Job and to prepare for the selection process. * Career planning and development
The information helps staff to understand the requirements of their role, gain insight into the requirements of other roles in the organization and identify the capabilities needed for their chosen career paths. * Performance management Clearly defined roles allow managers and staff to develop shared understanding of work performance expectations. Capability benchmarks help them identify and meet their professional development needs. * Reward and recognition Clearly defined capability benchmarks make it easier to recognize work performance which is above expectations. * Workforce planning
When aggregated, all the individual roles in the organization should meet the organization’s capability needs. * Work allocation planning Managers can ensure that the work relates to the organization’s core business and is correctly allocated. * Decisions on training investments Individual and organizational training are better targeted. * Ensuring workforce safety The information may help identify hazardous conditions, unhealthy environments or unsafe work practices/processes which need to be addressed. It may also be used to and diversity The process may also identify ways of improving workforce equity.
KEY ELEMENTS OF In order to better understand Job design it is helpful to define some key elements and their relationship with Job design processes. * A task can be best defined as a piece of assigned work expected to be done within a certain time. It is important to strictly and thoroughly identify tasks that need completion. * Motivation describes forces within the individual that account for the level, direction, and persistence of effort expended at work. Individuals need to be compelled, excited, and passionate to do their work. Hence, it is essential to design Jobs that motivate employees.
Resource allocation occurs when organizations decide to appropriate or allocate certain resources to specific Jobs, tasks, or dilemmas facing the organization. Jobs need to be constructed so that efficiency of the worker or department is maximized. Organizations need to use the resources and creativity of their employees effectively and efficiently. In Job design it is necessary to identify and structure Jobs in a way that the company’s resources are being efficiently used. Appropriate resource allocation allows large organizations to foster and develop innovation in their workforce.
Reward systems also play a role in Job design. Reward systems include compensation bonuses, raises, Job security, benefits, and various other methods of reward for employees. An outline or description of reward packages needs to be established while constructing jobs. WITH THE ORGANIZATION HOW CAN JOB DESIGN HELP OF WORK? * work overload, * work undersold, * repetitiveness, * limited control over work, * isolation, * shiftiest, * delays in filling vacant positions, * excessive working hours, and * limited understanding of the whole Job process IS THERE A DIFFERENCE BETWEEN JOB DESIGN AND WORKPLACE DESIGN? B design and workplace design are often used interchangeably because both contribute to keep the physical requirements of a Job reasonable. Job design refers to administrative changes that can help improve working conditions. In comparison, workplace design concentrates on dealing with the workstation, the tools, and the body position that all influence the way a person does his or her work. Good workplace design reduces static positions, repetitive motions and awkward body positions. WHAT ARE FEATURES OF “GOOD” JOB DESIGN?
Good Job design accommodates employees’ mental and physical characteristics by eying attention to: * muscular energy such as work/rest schedules or pace of work, and * mental energy such as boring versus extremely difficult tasks. * allows for employee input. Employees should have the option to vary activities according to personal needs, work habits, and the circumstances in the workplace. * gives * includes training so employees know what tasks to do and how to do them properly. * provides good work/rest schedules. * allows for an adjustment period for physically demanding Jobs. Provides feedback to the employees about their performance. * minimizes energy expenditure and force requirements. Balances static and dynamic work. Job design is an ongoing process. The goal is to make adjustments as conditions or tasks change within the workplace. GOALS OF JOB DESIGN TASK VARIETY : Design Jobs to have a variety of tasks that require changes in body position, muscles used, and mental activities. Two methods are Job enlargement and Job rotation. For example, if an employee normally assembles parts, the Job may be enlarged to include new tasks such as work planning, inspection / quality control, or maintenance.
Alternatively, the tasks may include working in the same department, but changing tasks every hour. For example, in a laundry facility employees can rotate between various stations (sorting, washer, dryer, iron, etc) as long as it provides for a change in physical or mental expenditure. Rest breaks help alleviate the problems of unavoidable repetitive movements or static body positions. More frequent but shorter breaks (sometimes called “micro breaks”) are sometimes preferable to fewer long breaks. During rest breaks, encourage employees to change body position and to exercise.
It is important that employees stretch and use different muscle groups. If the employee has been very active, a rest break should include a stationary activity or stretching. When work demands physical effort, have an adjustment period for new employees and for all employees after holidays, layoffs, or illnesses. Allow time to become accustomed to the physical demands of work by gradually “getting in shape. ” Employees who work in extreme hot or cold conditions also need time to acclimatize.
Training in correct work procedures and equipment operation is needed so that employees understand what is expected of them and how to work safely. Training would be organized, consistent and ongoing. It may occur in a classroom or on the job. VARY MENTAL ACTIVITIES: Tasks should be coordinated so that they are balanced during the day for the individual employee as well as balanced among a group of employees. You may want to allow the employee some degree of choice as to what types of mental tasks they want to do and when.
This choice will allow the employee to do tasks when best suited to their ‘alertness’ patterns during the day. Some people may prefer routine tasks in the morning (such as checklists or filling in forms) and save tasks such as robber solving until the afternoon, or vice versa. Yes. Since most tasks are not done in isolation, Job design is very often used for a group of employees. In some cases, teams can be created that have an overall responsibility for larger task or set of tasks. It is up to the team to decide how the Job will be accomplished, which individual will do what tasks, and when.
In most cases, team members will have many skills which allow them to change Jobs from time to time. As with Job design for individuals, additional opportunities such as inspection / quality control, maintenance, and related tasks such as ordering supplies are often signed to the team in addition to their regular tasks. STEPS TAKEN WHEN CARRYING OUT A JOB DESIGN PROJECT? Although there are many ways to carry out Job design, the following stages are essential: DO AN ASSESSMENT OF CURRENT WORK PRACTICES. Is Job design needed or feasible?
Discuss the process with the employees and supervisors involved and be clear about the process, or any changes or training that will be involved. DO A TASK ANALYSIS. Examine the Job and determine exactly what the tasks are. Consider what equipment and workstation features are important for completing the tasks. Identify problem areas. DESIGN THE JOB. Identify the methods for doing the work, work/rest schedules, training requirements, equipment needed and workplace changes. Coordinate the different tasks so each one varies mental activities and body position.
Be careful not to under or overload the job. IMPLEMENT THE NEW JOB DESIGN GRADUALLY. You may want to start on a small scale or with a pilot project. Train employees in the new procedures and use of equipment. Allow for an adjustment period and time to gain experience with the new Job design. RE-EVALUATE JOB DESIGN ON A CONTINUAL BASIS. Make any necessary adjustments. You may also want to establish a committee to present the various groups involved. Job design should involve employees, unions, the health and safety committee and managers during the entire process.
Participation of all parties increases communication and understanding. Be clear that purpose of the Job design is to strengthen the operations and its workforce, not to eliminate Jobs or sets of skills Benefits of Job Design The following are the benefits of a good Job design: 1 . Employee Input: A good Job design enables a good Job feedback. Employees have the option to vary tasks as per their personal and social needs, habits and circumstances in the workplace. . Employee Training: Training is an integral part of Job design.
Contrary to the philosophy of “leave them alone’ Job design lays due emphasis on training people so that are well aware of what their Job demands and how it is to be done. 3. Work / Rest Schedules: Job design offers good work and rest schedule by clearly defining the number of hours an individual has to spend in his/ her Job. 4. Adjustments: A good Job designs allows for adjustments for physically demanding Jobs by minimizing the energy spent doing the Job and by aligning the process that is aimed at helping employees make adjustments with the changes in he workplace.
The end goal is reducing dissatisfaction, enhancing motivation and employee engagement at the workplace ISSUES FACED IN JOB DESIGN As we know, Job design is a systematic organization of Job-related tasks, responsibilities, functions and duties. It is a continuous process of integration of content related to Job in order to achieve certain objectives. The process plays a vital role as it affects the productivity of employees and organizations. However, there are a number of existing issues emerged recently while designing the Jobs in organizations.
These are alternative work patterns that are equally effective in middling organization’s functions. I * Telecommuting / Work from Home: Telecommuting or work from home is considered as the best alternative of working from the actual office. The concept of virtual office is gaining more and more popularity because of ease and convenience associated with it. By using computer networks, fax machines, telephones and internet connection, employees can communicate and perform the Job from home.
It eliminates the need of coming to office everyday and offers employees the convenience to work at the comfort of their home. Though there are lots of advantages associated with this working style but it offers from many limitations. It allows employees to stay at home and manage their job tasks and functions without actually being present in the office but it doesn’t allow them to communicate with other employees and establishing relationships with them. They only deal with machines whole day, thus lose creativity.
Moreover, it is a great hindrance in their way as it does not allow skill upgrading. * Job Sharing: It is the second most preferable alternative of traditional working styles where two or more individuals share the responsibilities of a full time Job. They divide the tasks, susceptibilities and compensation according to their mutual consent. This option is generally used by women who are on maternity leave or have family and kids to look after but want to continue their Job. These days, organizations are open to this kind of working style where two or more individuals can share a Job. Flexi-Working Hours: These days, organizations allow their employees to work according to the timings that suit them best. There are 3-4 working schedules and individuals can choose any one of them depending upon their availability. Employees can work in early hours as well as night hours. This is good for those individuals who have colleges or some other engagements during the day or specific hours of the day. The best part is that unlike telecommuting, flexi-timings give them chance to communicate with other employees too. Alternative Work-patterns: Companies these days allow their employees to work on alternate months or seasons. Though the concept is not that common in India but can be seen in European and American world of work. They also have the option of working two to three full days and can relax after that. According to the latest concept, employees can work for fixed number f hours and then can attend to their personal needs during the left days. Technologies: Technologies is the latest technology to keep a check on employees’ performance even when they choose to work from home.
Because of the introduction of new machines, there performance can be electronically monitored even when they are not aware of it. * Task Revision: Task revision is nothing but modification of a specific Job. FACTORS AFFECTING JOB DESIGN A well defined Job will make the Job interesting and satisfying for the employee. The result is increased performance and productivity. If a Job fails to appear compelling r interesting and leads to employee dissatisfaction, it means the Job has to be redesigned based upon the feedback from the employees.
Broadly speaking the various factors that affect a Job design can classified under three heads. They are: 1 . Organizational Factors 2. Environmental Factors 3. Behavioral Factors I ORGANIZATIONAL FACTORS Organizational factors that affect Job design can be work nature or characteristics, work flow, organizational practices and ergonomics. * Work Nature: There are various elements of a Job and Job design is required to classify various tasks into a job or a coherent set of Jobs. The various tasks may be planning, executing, monitoring, controlling etc and all these are to be taken into consideration while designing a Job. Ergonomics: Ergonomics aims at designing Jobs in such a way that the physical abilities and individual traits of employees are taken into consideration so as to ensure efficiency and productivity. * Workflow: Product and service type often determines the sequence of work flow. A balance is required between various product or service processes and a Job design ensures this. Culture: Organizational culture determines the way tasks are carried out at the work places. Practices are methods or standards laid out for carrying out a certain task.
These practices often affect the Job design especially when the practices are not aligned to the interests of the unions. 2. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS Environmental factors affect the Job design to a considerable extent. These factors include both the internal as well as external factors. They include factors like employee skills and abilities, their availability, and their socio economic and cultural prospects. * Employee availability and abilities: Employee skills, abilities and time of availability play a crucial role while designing of the Jobs.
The above mentioned factors of employees who will actually perform the Job are taken into consideration. Designing a Job that is more demanding and above their skill set will lead to decreased productivity and employee satisfaction. * Socio economic and cultural expectations: Jobs are nowadays becoming more employee centered rather than process centered. They are therefore designed keeping the employees into consideration. In addition the literacy level among the employees is also on the rise. They now demand Jobs that are to their liking and competency and which they can perform the best. . BEHAVIORAL FACTORS Behavioral factors or human factors are those that pertain to the human need and that need to be satisfied for ensuring productivity at workplace. They include the elements like autonomy, diversity, feedback etc. A brief explanation of some is given one that contains fear. It promotes creativity, independence and leads to increased efficiency. * Feedback: Feedback should be an integral part of work. Each employee should receive proper feedback about his work performance. Diversity: Repetitive Jobs often make work monotonous which leads to boredom.
A Job should carry sufficient diversity and variety so that it remains as interesting with very passing day. Job variety / diversity should be given due importance while * Use of Skills and abilities: Jobs should be employee rather than process centered. Though due emphasis needs to be given to the latter but Jobs should be designed in a manner such that an employee is able to make full use of his abilities and perform the job effectively SCIENTIFIC APPROACHES TO JOB DESIGN TAILORING Tailoring, also known as scientific management is a foundation for systematic Job design.
Frederick Taylor developed this theory in an effort to develop a “science” for every Job within an organization according to the following principles: * Create a tankard method for each Job. * Successfully select and hire proper workers. * Effectively train these workers. * Support these workers. THE SOCIO-TECHNICAL SYSTEMS APPROACH The Socio-Technical Systems Approach is designed around the evolution from individual work to work-groups. This approach has the following guiding principles: * The design of the organization must fit its goals. Employees must be actively involved in designing the structure of the organization. * Control of variances in production or service must be undertaken as close to their source as possible. * Subsystems must be designed around relatively elf-contained and recognizable units of work. * Support systems must fit in with the design of the organization. * The design should allow for a high quality working life. * Changes should continue to be made as necessary to meet the changing environmental pressures.
CORE CHARACTERISTICS MODEL Another modern Job design theory is the Core Characteristics Model, which maintains five important Job elements that motivate workers and performance: * skill variety * task identity * task significance * autonomy * Job feedback The individual elements are then proposed to lead to positive outcomes through here psychological states: * experienced meaningfulness * experienced responsibility * knowledge of results HERBAGE’S CHECKLIST Herbage’s other major contribution to the development of ideas in the area of Job design was his checklist for implementation.
This is a prescription for those seeking success in the enrichment of Jobs: * select those Jobs where technical changes are possible without major expense; * Job satisfaction is low; expensive; * examine the Jobs selected with the conviction that changes can be introduced; * ‘green light’ or ‘brainstorm’ a list of possible changes; * screen the list (red sighting) for hygiene suggestions and retain only ideas classed as motivators; * remove the generalities from the list retaining only specific motivators; * avoid employee involvement in the design process; * set up a controlled experiment to measure the effects of the changes; * anticipate an early decline in performance as workers get used to their new Jobs.
PSYCHOLOGICAL EMPOWERMENT THEORY Psychological Empowerment Theory posits that there is a distinction between empowering practices and cognitive motivational states. When a person is aware of the impact they are having, they benefit more than if they cannot attribute positive impact to any of their actions. JOB REDESIGN Restructuring the elements including tasks, duties and responsibilities of a specific job in order to make it more encouraging and inspiring for the employees or workers is known as Job redesigning. The process includes revising, analyzing, altering, reforming and reshuffling the Job-related content and dimensions to increase the variety of assignments and functions to motivate employees and make them feel as an important asset of the organization.
The main objective of conducting Job redesigning is to place the right person at the right Job and get the maximum output while increasing their level of satisfaction. I JOB REDESIGN PROCESS * Revising the Job Content: Job redesigning process involves recollecting and revising Job-related information to determine the inconsistency between person and the Job. * Analyzing Job-related Information: Once the Job analyst is through with recollecting and revising the Job content, analyzing the discrepancies is the next step. It is done to determine the hindrances in performing Job-related tasks and duties and investigate why an employee is not able to deliver the expected output. Altering the Job Elements: The next step is to amend the Job elements. It may include cut back on extra responsibilities or addition of more functions and a higher degree of accountability. The basic aim of altering the Job content is to design a Job in such a manner that encourages employees to work harder and perform better. * Reformation of Job Description and Specification: After altering the Job elements, a job analyst needs to reform the Job description and specification in order to make sure that the worker placed at a particular place is able to deliver what is expected of him. * Reshuffling the Job-related Tasks and Duties: Next is to reallocation of new r altered tasks and functions to employees.
It may be done by rotating, enriching, enlarging and engineering the Job. The idea is to motivate the performers while increasing their satisfaction level. ADVANTAGES OF JOB REDESIGNING enhances the quality of their work life. It increases their on-the-Job productivity and encourages them to perform better. * Increases Organization’s and Employees’ Productivity: Altering their Job functions and duties makes employees much comfortable and adds to their satisfaction level. The unambiguous Job responsibilities and tasks motivate them to work harder and give their best output. Not only this, it also results in increased productivity of an organization. Brings the Sense of Belongingness in Employees: Redesigning Job and allowing employees to do what they are good at creates a sense of belongingness in them towards the organization. It is an effective strategy to retain the talent in the organization and encouraging them to carry out their responsibilities in a better fashion. * Creates a Right Person-Job Fit: Job Redesigning plays an important role in creating a right person-Job fit while harnessing the full potential of employees. It helps organization s well as employees in achieving their targets or goals. Therefore, the purpose of Job redesigning is to identify the task significance and skill variety available in the organization and reallocating the Job-related tasks and responsibilities according to the specific skills possessed by an employee.
Job evaluation as evident from the word itself aims at evaluating the Job and not the person. It is a process of evaluating and determining the value of the Job for an organization. The evaluation is always in relative and not absolute terms. The idea is valuate a certain Job against other Jobs in the organization so that a fair compensation system against various bands or levels can be established. Organizations use various ways to evaluate Jobs for arriving upon a compensation scheme. They vary with the size of the organization and the kind of industry they operate in. Job ranking, pair comparison and benchmarking are the various ways of evaluation.
The simpler or the easiest to perform is the Job ranking method. In this method the Jobs are taken as a whole and ranked against each other. The Jobs are ordered according to perceived seniority. Such method is easier to apply in a small organization but gets complicated once used for large corporations. The other method is the pair comparison method where Jobs are compared in pairs. It is more structured approach to comparing Jobs. Yet another method is benchmarking where certain Jobs are slotted and then examined in detail. These are then used as benchmarks in evaluating various Jobs. In addition Point Factor Analysis is also used to evaluate various Jobs. The method is an old and tested one.
In this method Jobs are broken down into various factors such as skills required, experience, education required. A set of questions is framed against each factor and the response determines the score. Each factor is allotted a certain weight. efinition: Jobs must be clearly defined such that they are identifiable and easily distinguishable. These Jobs must then be part of the Job description. * Evaluation: A Job evaluation scheme must be arrived upon and used as a standard and all Jobs in the organization must be evaluated as per that scheme only. * Job Understanding: Job evaluators need to have deep insights into the Job design process.