The process of Job analysis helps In the preparation of Job description and job specification. 1 . Job Description This Is the objective setting of the Job title, tasks, duties and responsibilities Involved in a Job. 2. Job specification This involves listing of employee qualifications, skills and abilities. These specifications are needed to do the job satisfactorily. Job Description Job Specification A statement containing items such as: Job title Location Job summary Duties Machines, tools and equipment
Materials and forms used Supervision given or received Working conditions Hazards A statement of human qualification necessary to do the job, usually contains such items: Education Experience Training Judgment Initiative Physical effect Physical sickness Responsibilities Common skills Emotional characteristics usually sensing elements such as sight, smell and hearing Job analysis is the process of studying and collecting information relating to the specifications and responsibilities of a specific Job.
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It is systematic exploration of the activities within a Job. It is a basic technical procedure, one that is used to define the duties, responsibilities and accountabilities of a Job. STEPS IN JOB ANALYSIS 1. Collecting and recording Job information 2. Checking the Job Information for accuracy 3. Writing Job descriptions based on the Information 4. Using the Information to determine the skills, ablest and knowledge that are required on a job. 5. Updating the information from time to time.
Human resource planning Performance appraisal Recruitment and selection Training and Development Health and safety Employee discipline Work scheduling Career planning Job evaluation Remuneration Personal information Human resource planning determines how many and what type of personnel will be needed in the near future. The number and type of personnel are determined by the jobs which need to be staffed. Job related information is therefore important for Human Resource Planning. An understanding of the types of the skills needed and type of Jobs that may be open in the future.
Lack of support from top management 2. Single means and source 3. No training and initiative 4. Activity may be distorted JOB DESIGN Whereas Job analysis provides Job related data as well as skills and knowledge expected to discharge the Job, Job design involves conscious efforts to organize tasks, duties and responsibilities into a unit of work to achieve certain objectives. It integrates work content (tasks, functions and relationships), the rewards (extrinsic and intrinsic) and the qualification required (skills, knowledge and abilities) for each job in a way that meets the needs of employees and the organization.
The design of Jobs has a critical impact to the organization and employee objectives. From the organization’s perspective, the way tasks and responsibilities are grouped will affect productivity and efforts. For and employee, motivation and Job satisfaction are affected by the match between Job factors (content, qualifications and rewards) ND personal needs. Therefore thoughtful design of Jobs can help the organization and its employees achieve ether objectives. Organizational factors 1 . Characteristics of tasks: An individual may carry out one main task which consists of a no. F interrelated elements or functions. Tasks may be split among / between a team working actively together. 2. Workflow: The flow of work in an organization is strongly influenced by the nature of service or products which suggests the sequence. 3. Ergonomics:This is concerned with shaping the Jobs to fit physical abilities and characteristics of individuals so that they can be efficient. It is all about the location of tools and facilities and doesn’t alter the activities of the Job. 4. Work practices:They are set ways of performing work due to traditional of collective wishes of employees. 2. Environmental factors 1 .
Employee abilities and availability: Efficiency consideration should be balanced against the ability and availability of the people who are to do the work. We need to simplify tasks and do trainings. 2. Social and cultural expectations: Jobs must be designed to meet expectations of workers. Consider conditions of work, holidays, vacations, religious beliefs and cultural differences. Involves human needs and the necessity to satisfy them. People inspired by higher level needs to find Jobs that are challenging and satisfying. This Jobs are in this dimension: 1 . Feedback: Individuals must receive meaningful feedback about their performance. 2.
Autonomy: This is being responsible for what one does. Jobs that gives workers authority to make decisions will provide added responsibilities hence increase employees self esteem and recognition. 3. Use of abilities: the Job must be received by individuals as requiring them to use abilities they value in which to perform the Job effectively. 4. Variety: Lack of variety may cause boredom which leads to fatigue causing mistakes. Variety in Jobs then reduces errors. JOB DESIGN APPROACHES 1 . Job rotation This refers to moving of employees from Job to Job so as to add variety and reduce boredom by allowing them to perform a variety of tasks.
When an activity is no longer challenging, the employee would be moved to another Job at the same level that has similar skill requirements. It reduces boredom and disinterest through diversifying he employees activities. Employees with a wider range of skills give the management more flexibility in scheduling work, adapting to changes and filling vacancies. 2. Job engineering It focuses on the tasks to be performed, methods to be used, workflow among employees, layout of the work place, performance standards and interdependencies among people and machines.
It involves determining the time required to do each task and the movements needed to perform it efficiently. In Job design, ensure that: The output of the work is clearly defined and understood by employees Steps to perform a task are clearly defined and sequential The employees know where their responsibilities start and end in the work process The tools, facilities and information needed to perform the work are readily available and fully understood by employees. There is a process where employees can suggest improvements 3.
Job enlargement It refers to the expansion of the number of different tasks performed by an employee in a single Job e. G: a mechanic switching from only changing oil to greasing, tightening nuts and changing transmission fluid. An enlarged Job can motivate an individual for five reasons: 1 . Task variety: highly fragmented Jobs requiring limited umber of unchanging responses tend to be extremely monotonous. Increasing the number of tasks to be performed can reduce the level of boredom. 2.
Meaningful work modules: Jobs are enlarged so that one worker can complete a whole unit of work and this tends to bring Job satisfaction because workers feel they have contributed. 3. Ability utilization: workers desire greater satisfaction from Jobs that utilize their physical and mental skills better. Enlarged Jobs tend to fulfill this condition. 4. Worker paced control: workers feel less fatigued and are likely to enjoy their work more if they can vary the rhythm and work at their own pace. . Performance feedback: workers performing narrow Jobs with short performance therefore difficult to count the number of completed cycles.
The feedback therefore seems meaningless. Enlarged Jobs allow for more meaningful feedback and can be motivating if linked to evaluation of organizational rewards. 4. Job enrichment It simply means adding a few motivations to a Job to make it more rewarding. A Job is enriched when the nature of the Job is exciting, challenging and creative or gives Job holders more decision making, planning and controlling powers. An enriched Job has eight (8) characteristics: 1. Direct Feedback: Employees should be able to get immediate knowledge of the results they are achieving.
The evaluation of the results can be provided by the supervisor. 2. Client relationship: An employee who serves a customer directly has an enriched Job. Customers can be within the organization or outside. 3. New learning: An enriched Job allows an employee to feel that he is growing intellectually. 4. Scheduling of own work: Deciding when to tackle which assignment is an example for self-scheduling. Employees who perform creative work have more opportunity to schedule their assignments than those who reform routine Jobs. 5.
Unique experience: This involves visiting other departments or benchmarking other organizations. 6. Control over resources: one approach to Job enrichment is for the employee to have control over his or her resources and expenses. E. G. : having the authority to order supplies necessary to complete his Job. 7. Direct communication authority: This involves allowing the employees to communicate directly with those who use his/her output. 8. Personal accountability: This is being responsible for your results. It involves receiving praise for good work and blame for poor work.