Classical Humanism had an impact during the Renaissance Era. An example of classical humanism is reflected through the Athens Acropolis. This is the trademark monument of Athens and of Greece. Surrounded by the new Athens, the Parthenon still stands proudly over it, a reminder of the old aura of the city. The Acropolis and its Parthenon are the ultimate achievement of the city’s classical architecture and symbol of greatness. Parthenon is a building which was burnt by Persians when it was under construction. It is basically a construction of a Greek temple dedicated to Greek goddess Athena Palls or Parthenon (virgin).
The Parthenon is a temple of the Doric order with eight columns at the facade, and seventeen columns at the flanks, conforming to the established ratio of 9:4. This ratio governed the vertical and horizontal proportions of the temple as well as many other relationships of the building like the spacing between the columns and their height. The most amazing fact about this perfect achievement is that its columns are made in a zigzag as to give the impression that its foundations are straight. The combination of Doric mottoes and the Ionic frieze on the walls are noninsured unique masterpieces.
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On the east side, the mottoes depict the fight of the Gods against the Giants, and on the east side, the Lappet battle against the Centaurs. The south side shows the triumph of the Greeks against the Amazons and the north the victory of the Athenian on the Trojan. The frieze that covers the sides of the temple depicts the most important religious festival in Ancient Greece, the Pantheon. The designs include the figure of Gods, animals, and more than 360 humans. The temple’s two pediments show the birth of Athena and the fight between her and Poseidon for the name of the city.
Elgin The Athens acropolis, Pantheon, was built during the classical period and dedicated to some aspect of the god Athena. The architecture and decoration was mirrored to reflect interests of the people of Greece and symbolism of greatness. Reference – www. Witticism. CBS. Du/crawlspaces/acropolis. HTML www. Goddess-Athena. Org/Masterfulness/Parthenon/ www. Ancient-Greece. Org/architecture/Parthenon. HTML Unit 2 writing assignment Question : Discuss the role of Christian monasticism in sustaining European civilization during the early Middle Ages.
Refer to specifically to monasticism contributions to the arts, learning, and education from the age of Charlemagne to Peter Ballard. Christian monasticism is a calling that very early believers pursued. All of the early believers had three essential vows: poverty, chastity, and obedience. They all believed that they are dedicating ones life to prayer and devotion to the sprit. Giving up on materials possessions provided a way to dedicating ones life to shadowing Chrism’s apostles was the road to salvation.
The first European area to adopt monasticism was Ireland and later spread to France. It spread of monasticism lead to great influences in the areas artistic expression, learning, and education. The early expression of monastic influence in architecture was seen in the building of the great Abbey of Carolingian Age which is known as the plan of SST. Gall. It was centered by the theme of a great church. The church was always the most imposing feature of a monastic complex. By its size and hierarchical complexity, it expressed many of the aspirations of the community to which it belonged.
It also gave some indication of the wealth and prosperity of the monastery and, inside, loud probably commemorate patrons who provided sustained support to the community. The most precious human remains in a monastic church were the relics of saints preserved in shrines behind the high altar. The Church became a center for learning, with the monks becoming cultural carriers transmitting the written treasures of the past by preserving and copying ancient texts. An example of this would be Horsiest. Horsiest wrote books about Christian legends and wrote Roman dramas with an Christian spin to it.
Often, the only literate members of society were the monks/priest. It was the monks who made and transmitted written copies of the Bible and other ancient works from generation to generation. They organized some of the first libraries. They conducted scientific and other research to benefit the surrounding communities. They were expert farmers who were able to pass on the benefits of their expertise to peasants on the large manors. Monasticism has played a vital role in the creation, preservation, and transmission of culture. This is especially true of the Christian Monasticism during the Middle Ages.
References: http://www. Misapplications. Org/ http://en. Wisped. Org/wick/Monastic_shoo Adventures in the Human Spirit, Philip Bishop Unit 3 writing assignment Question #2: Define three essentials elements of the baroque style in the arts and illustrate these elements with three details examples of baroque art. Choose your examples from two different artistic media (painting, music, architecture, sculpture etc) The term baroque has been widely used since the nineteenth century to describe the period in Western European art music from about 1600 to 1750.
The Baroque period is a style that uses excessive motion and simply interpreted detail to produce drama, tension, exuberance, and grandeur in sculpture, painting, architecture, literature, dance and music. The desire to evoke emotional states by appealing to the senses in dramatic way is the basic principle of the baroque period. One of the best illustrations of the baroque period is through music. Contrast is an important ingredient in the drama of a baroque composition. The differences between loud and soft, solo and ensemble, different instruments and timbres all play an important role in many baroque compositions.
Composers also began to be more precise bout instrumentation, often specifying the instruments on which a piece should be played instead of allowing the performer to choose. Also unity of mood is another key to baroque music. What is happy will be happy throughout and what is sad continues to the end. Composers molded the musical language to fit mood. Some definite rhythms and melodic patterns are used to define certain moods and expressions. The prime exception of this characteristic to this baroque principle of the unity of mood is drastic changes of emotions in the text may inspire corresponding changes in music.
But even in such cases, the certain mood will continue for quite some time before it changes to another. Images are direct, obvious, and dramatic. Another illustration of the elements of the Baroque period is through Art. The Baroque art shares the all the same principles of its era. It tries to draw the viewer into the scene and is emotionally intense in its depictions. It will be physically and psychologically real while using dramatic use of color and contrasts of light to dark. The Crucifixion of Saint Peter is exemplifies the elements of the baroque period. In this painting, SST.
Peter is being crucified. He asked to be hung from his cross upside-down as not to imitate his Lord. The divine light shines on Peter while the faces of the Romans are masked by shadows. The architecture in the Baroque period was used in two main ways, churches and palaces. Complex architectural plan shapes, often based on the oval, and the dynamic opposition and interpenetration of spaces were favored to heighten the feeling of motion and sensuality. Other characteristic qualities include grandeur, drama and contrast (especially in lighting), rounded, and twisting elements.
Architects like to apply bright colors and vividly painted ceilings. An example of this is shown through the new SST. Pall’s Cathedral in London. The Baroque period was extremely influential in this time period and has been shown throughout the various artistic medias. References: http://en. Wisped. Org/wick/;arouse_architecture http://www. Bilbo. Org/whom/paint/glow/baroque/ Unit 4 writing assignment Question #2: Evaluate modernity as a shaping force in nineteenth-century Western Civilization, noting both its positive and negative effects as reflected in the works of artists and thinkers of the industrial age.
Modernism began in the nineteenth century and it has closely been known with industrialization and arbitration. During 19th century, the world observed the rapid progress in science, technology, mass communication and many other different areas. This had a profound influence in artists and thinkers of this era. Many artists set aside the traditional limitations of art and began to depict Contemporary life through experimental forms and new ways. These new attitudes were reinforced by scientific discoveries of the time that seemed to question the solidness of the real world and the liability of perception.
The nineteenth century saw the development of synthetic pigments for artists’ paints, providing vibrant shades of blue, green, and yellow that painters had never used before. This is seen through several artists. An example would be Manatee’s Boating. Almost all the modern artists tried to move away from reality and move towards pure color or ideas. An example of this is shown through the work of Malachite’s Black Square. Through abstract art, they could convey a message of artistic beauty and vision. Another positive influence of modernity was from the philosophical winkers like Freud.