Introductory & Informative Unit 1 . Identify the major similarities and differences between public speaking and everyday conversation. Similarities I Differences I – Logical organization of thoughts (Message organized by a speaker)- Tailoring your message to your audience (explain something differently to a child than you would to a grandparent, or a peer)- Telling stories/relaying information for maximum impact (Build up, adjustment to punch line)- Adapting to listener feedback (react to verbal, facial, and physical responses from listeners) I -? P.
S is more structured (time imitations, one-sided, less conversational; requires planning & preparation)-? P. S requires more formal language (elevated, polished, special language, no slang)-? P. S requires a different method of delivery (avoiding vocalizes pauses or “clutter” words: great control over mannerism; vocal adjustment) I 2. Discuss methods of controlling nervousness and making it work for, rather than against, the speaker 1. Acquire speaking experience (make It less of an “unknown”; Improve Vial trial and error) 2.
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Prepare, prepare, prepare (Increases confidence, knowledge) 3. Think positively (convert negative thoughts to positive ones) 4. Visualize (create positive mental images) 5. Know that most nervousness is not visible 6. Don’t expect perfection (it’s an act of communication, not a performance; minor errors often unnoticed) 3. Identify and discuss the basic elements of the speech communication process 1 . Speaker: the person presenting an oral message too listener. 2.
Message: whatever a speaker communicates to someone else Includes intended as well as actual message; goal is for them to be the same 3. Channel: means by which message is communicated On-person, telephone; multiple channels for different audiences) 4. Listener: the person who receives the speaker’s . Importance of listener frame of reference – tailor your message to the message likely frames of reference of your audience members 5. Feedback: messages, usually nonverbal, sent from listener to speaker (applause, slouching) 6.
Interference: anything that impedes communication of a message c. Internal: individuals’ moods d. External: noise distraction 7. Situation: the time and place in which speech communication occurs – context e. Messages and delivery must be adapted to situation I. 5 minutes left to finish 7 minutes speech. 4. Define Ethnocentrism, and explain why speakers need to avoid it -? Ethnocentrism: The belief that one’s own group or culture Is superior to all other groups or culture. Unintentional, but nonetheless harmful) -? To avoid: adapt message to the cultural values and expectations of listeners. * Learn about audience Be alert to audience feedback Plato said “all public speakers should be truthful and devoted to the good of society’ * Your ethical decisions will be guided by your values, your conscience, your sense of right and wrong. * Sound ethical decisions involve weighing a potential course of action against a set of ethical standards or guidelines * Make sure you prepare lull, so that you don’t communicate erroneous information or misleading advice. . List and describe the five guidelines for ethical speechifying. * Make sure your goals are ethically sound * Worth goals * Ask ethical questions * Cannot escape assessing the ethical soundness of your goals * Be fully prepared for each speech * You have an obligation to yourself and your listeners * Being prepared for speech involves everything from analyzing your audience to creating visual aids, organizing your ideas, to rehearsing your delivery * Be fully informed on your subject. Get your facts rights. Be honest in what you say Most important part * “Words can be trusted and people will be truthful” * False statistics, quoting out of context, misrepresenting sources, portraying a few details as the whole story, and substituting half-truths for evidence and proof. Wrong * Ethically responsible speakers do not take credit of other people’s words * Avoid name- calling and other forms of abusive language * Name-calling: The use of personal language to defame, demeans, or degrade individuals or groups. This reinforces attitudes that encourage prejudice; hate crime, civil rights violation * Put ethical principles into practice Use ethics in your every day life 7. Identify and differentiate among Global plagiarism, patchwork plagiarism, and incremental plagiarisms * Global plagiarism * Stealing your speech entirely from another source and passing it off on your own. * Patchwork plagiarism * This is where a writer takes from two or three sources. * Incremental Plagiarism * Fails to give credit for particular parts or increments of the speech that are borrowed from other people. Most common with quotations and paraphrases * Common with quotations and paraphrases. 8. List and discuss the three basic guidelines for ethical listening * Be courteous ND Attentive * Give a speaker a same attention that you would like to receive * Sit up straight, no slouch, keep an eye contact, show supporting and encouraging attitude * Avoiding PREJUDGING the speaker * You don not have to agree with everything that the speaker is saying, but you should listen carefully to his/her ideas, assess the evidence and reasoning offered and reach an intelligent Judgment about the speech. Maintain the Free and Open expression of Ideas * Though disagree with the entire message, but show respect speaker’s right to * Hearing is a physiological process, involving the vibration of sound waves on our eardrums and the firing of electrochemical impulses from the inner ear to the central auditory system of brain. * Listening involves paying close attention to, and making sense of, what we hear 10.
Explain why good listening is important to effective speech making * By having a good listening skills will allow you to hear accurate information, summarize the information well, recall the facts right, distinguish the main points from minor points easily. This will allow you to organize much easily, making it much easier for you make a speech. 11. Four major causes of poor listening * Not concentrating We can process a speaker’s words and still have plenty of spare “brain time”, we are tempted to interrupt our listening by thinking about other things. Listening too hard * Taking up too much information while hearing will end up obfuscates the facts. * Jumping to conclusion * Putting words into a speaker’s mouth. * We tend to think that we’re so sure with what they mean in that we don’t listen to what they actually say. * Prematurely rejecting speakers’ ideas as boring or misguided. * Focus on delivery and personal appearance * We sometimes Judge people by their appearance and don’t even pay close attention to what they say.
Major sources of interference in speech communication process. 12. Six ways to become a better listener * Take listening seriously * Practice and self-discipline * It’s a pure effort * Be an Active Listeners * Give undivided attention to the speaker * No distraction by internal or external interference * No procurement on speaker * Develop note taking skills * Resist Distractions * Make a conscious effort to pull your mind back to what the speaker is saying. Think ahead of the speaker * Review what the speaker has said and understand * Don’t be diverted by appearance and delivery Suspend Judgment * Respect speaker’s opinion, no show of disagreement while speaker is speaking * Focus Your listening * Listen for main points * Listen of evidence * Listen for technique * What attention device? Credibility and good will? Clear to follow? Accurate, clear? * Develop note taking skills * Focus a speaker’s main points and evidence. 13. Explain why effective use of language is vital to speech composition and public * Allow listeners to grasp your meaning immediately. Helps bring your speech to life (imagery, concrete language, simile and metaphor) * Able to adapt to any types of situations and environment 14. Explain four methods one can use when having trouble choosing a speech topic. * Personal Inventory * Make a quick inventory of your experiences, interests, hobbies, skills, beliefs, and so forth * Fashion a specific topic * Clustering * Make columns of various categories. * Ex) people places, things, events, processes, concepts, natural phenomena and so forth * Internet Search * Browse through a subject-based website, online encyclopedia or any reference portal. Topics that you know a lot about/ Topic that interests you/ Brainstorm for topics 15. Differentiate among the general purpose, specific purpose and central idea f the speech. * General Purpose – The broad goal of a speech; to inform/ to persuade (Two -word infinitive phrase) * Specific Purpose – A single infinitive phrase that states precisely what speaker hopes to accomplish in his or her speech * Shows what the speaker wants the audience to grasp at the end of the speech. Central idea of the speech – concise statement of what you expect to say * Thesis statement, major thought * Simple, declarative sentence that sharpens the specific purpose statement. 16. Formulate effective specific purpose statements and central ideas * Specific repose: to inform my audience about the effectiveness of Crossfire * Central ideas: Crossfire contains diverse, practical, and high intensity movement that includes weightlifting, gymnastics, and metabolic conditioning. *17.
Lucas’ five tips for formulating specific purpose statements and the five questions to ask about them * Specific Purpose: * Write the purpose statement as a full infinitive phrase, not as a fragment Not thought out fully then no effective * Express your purpose as a statement, not as a question * Gives no clear direction of the speech * Avoid figurative language in your purpose statement Too ambiguous * Limit your purpose statement to one distinct idea * Focus on one * Make sure your specific purpose is not too vague or general * Five Questions about Specific Purpose * Does my purpose meet the assignment? Be sure that you understand the assignment and shape your specific purpose * Can I accomplish my purpose and the time allotted? To meet it * Better off with limited purpose * Is the purpose relevant to my audience? * Make sure that you are truly interested in the topic the topic to your audience * Is the purpose too trivial for my audience? * Find a way to relate *18.
Discuss and apply the four guidelines for effective central ideas expressed in a full sentence * Should not be in the form of a question * Should avoid figurative language * Should not be vague or overly general *19. Discuss the four kinds of informative speeches * Speeches about objects * Speeches about processes * Speeches about events * Speeches about concept *20.
Explain and apply the five guidelines for informative speaking overestimate what the audience know * Explain thoroughly * Listeners are only vaguely knowledgeable * Relate this subject directly to the audience * Gain attention from the audience Show that you are interested * Should be * Don’t * “you” and “your” to relate it to their interests * Don’t be too technical * May be too specialized for the audience * Avoid abstractions * Description: a statement that depicts a person, event, idea, with clarity with vividness * Use comparisons to create concrete and familiar terms Compare/Contrast * Personalize your ideas * To present one’s ideas in human terms that can relate in some fashion to the experience of the audience * Be Creative * Constructing your informative speech creatively * Visual aids, props 21 .
Three ways to Avoid abstractions * Use description Use comparison * Use contrast 22. Why is it important for speeches to be organized clearly and coherently? Speech organization is important and closely connected to critical thinking. * you gain practice in the general skill of establishing clear relationships among your ideas. * Using a clear specific method can boost confidence and improve your ability to deliver the message fluently * Higher comprehension from the audience * Higher opinion of the speaker * Coherence is key because speakers only have one chance to get the point across 23. Five strategic methods of organizing main points in speech * Chronological
Order * Follow a time pattern * Narrate series of events in the sequence * Spatial Order * Top to bottom, left to right, front to back * Causal Order * Shows a cause and effect relationship * Two main points * Problem-solution Order * Divided into two main points * First shows the existence and seriousness of a problem solution to the problem * Topical Order * Second shows the * Main points divide the topic into logical and consistent subtopics, which becomes a main point. 24. Guidelines for organizing main points * Keep main points separate * Each main point must be clearly independent of others * Try to use the same tatter of wording for main points * Consistent pattern of wording * Improves… Increase… Teaches * Parallelism * Balance the amount of time devoted to main points * Doesn’t have to be exact, Just close 25. Four kinds of speech connectives * Transitions * Words or phrases that indicate that the speaker has Just completed one thought and is moving on to next one * Internal Previews * Let the audience know what is going to come up next. They are much more detailed then transitions * Internal Summaries * Remind listeners of what they have Just heard * Signposts * Brief statements that indicate exactly where you are in the speech First, second, third cause * Use questions 26. Four objectives of a speech introduction 1. Get the attention and interest of your audience 2. Reveal the topic of your speech a. Clearly state your topic 3. Establish your credibility and good will. B. Respect audience’s value * EX) c. Qualified to speak on a given topic and of being perceived as qualified by your listeners d. Credibility: the audience’s perception of whether a speaker is qualified to speak on a given topic e. Goodwill: the audience’s perception of whether the speaker has the best interests of the audience in mind. 4. Preview the body of the speech f.
Thesis statement, summarize what will come up in body paragraph 27. Seven methods that can be used to gain attention in an introduction * Relate topic to the * People pay attention to the things you say that affect them directly. * Relate the topic to your listeners by using words: “you” and” your”. * State the Importance to your topic * Why should the audience listen to your topic? How important is your speech? * Demonstrate the significance of the topic, so that the listeners will know why they should think so. * Startle the Audience * One of the interesting ways to arouse the audience’s attention is to startle them tit an intriguing statement. BUT, when you make a strong opening simply to just shock people and then move on to different topic, the audience will be lost in the middle. * Arouse the Curiosity of the Audience * Everyone is curious about everything. * Build suspenseful mood to your introduction * Question the Audience * Ask a rhetorical question: “A question that the audience answers mentally rather than out loud. ” * This will help the audience to draw in and be more focused on your speech. * BUT, you must make a small pause to give the audience a moment to think about the question. * Begin with a Quotation Another way to engage the audience is to start with a fascinating quotation. Quotation from literature, poem, song, or film or from a person’s speech. * Tell a Story * Engage audience with a quick anecdote relevant to your topic. * People like hearing stories. * Keep it short 27. Major functions of a speech conclusion * To let the audience know you are ending the speech * To reinforce the audience’s understanding of, or commitment to, the central idea. 28. Methods for fulfilling the functions oaf speech conclusion * Signal the end of the speech * Crescendo ending: a conclusion in which the speech builds to a zenith of power ND intensity * Dissolve ending: a conclusion that generates emotional appeal by fading step by step to a dramatic final statement. To reinforce the central idea * Summarize your speech – quickly go over the main ideas in your manuscript * End with a quotation – end with a quotation that captures the audience’s interest * Make a dramatic statement – use a powerfully closing line to end your speech Refer to the introduction – go back and re-iterate the central idea that you made clear in the introduction 29. Preparation outline vs.. Speaking outline Preparation Outline I Speaking Outline I A detailed outline developed during the process of the speech preparation that includes:Title, specific purpose, central idea, introduction, main points, sub-points, connectives, conclusion, bibliography of a speech I A brief outline used to Jog a speaker’s memory during the presentation oaf speech. | 30.
Guidelines for an effective preparation outline * State the specific purpose of your speech * Identify the central idea * Use a consistent pattern of symbolization and indentation framework * State main points and sub points in full sentences * Label transitions, internal summaries, and internal previews bibliography * MEAL / PAPA * Give your speech a title * Be brief * Attract the attention * Encapsulate the main thrust of your speech 31 . Three major advantages of using visual aids in a speech * Clear visual * Attach a * People will find a speaker’s message more interesting * Easier to understand * Retain it longer when it is presented visually as well as verbally 32. Discuss the kinds of visual aids available for seen speeches * Objects and Models * Photographs and drawings * Graphs * Charts * Takes a large block of info and summarizes it * Video * The speaker * Use your body and demonstrated it firsthand Power point * Don’t let it dominate your presentation * Don’t read directly from the slides * Plan ahead on your slides 33.
Guidelines for preparing visual aids * Prepare visual aids well in advance * Keep visual aids simple * Simple, clear, and to the point * Make sure visual aids are large enough * Use a limited amount of text * Keywords * Use fonts effectively * Choose clear ones * Don’t use all caps * Use color effectively * Don’t use a color that will confuse the audience * Uses image strategically * Don’t add photos Just to fill space * Use concrete ones that help get your point across Guidelines for presenting visual aids * Display visual aids where listeners can see them * Avoid passing visual aids the audience * Display visual aids only while discussing them * Explain visual aids clearly and concisely * Visual aid cannot describe itself. So describe * Talk to your audience not your visual aid * Don’t lose eye contact while showing your visual aid reaction to the item * Practice with your visual aids * Practice when you will show it * Check the room and equipment * Gage audiences’ * Check if the equipment will work correctly ex. Powering, video 34.
Why good delivery is important to successful speaking It conveys what the speaker wants effectively. * Helps get across the ideas clearly, interestingly, and without distracting the audience * Audiences want formality with the attributes of a conversation: Directness, spontaneity, animation, vocal and facial expressiveness, and a lively sense of communication. *35. Four methods of delivering a speech * Reading from a manuscript * Must be delivered word for word * Make sure you sound vibrant and natural * Reciting from memory * Entirely from memorization * Speaking impromptu * Take notes and pay close attention to the other speakers, so that you will be dead * 1. State the point you are answering * 2. State the point you wish to make * 3.
Support your point with appropriate statistics or examples Summarize your point * Speaking extemporaneously * Carefully prepared, rehearse speech * Gives more precise control over thought and language spontaneity and directness than does speaking from memory situations * Offers greater * Adaptable to wide * “Conversational quality’: presenting a speech so it sounds spontaneous no matter how many times it has been rehearsed *36. Explain the eight aspects of voice usage that are crucial to public seeking * Volume Loudness of softness of the speaker’s voice * Adjust to the size of the room * Pitch * Highness or lowness of the speaker’s voice * Use inflections(varieties) in your a voice as you speak something important, or a question, or how something makes you feel. NO MONOTONE * Rate * Rate at which the speaker speaks * The best rate to use depends on many things occasion * Pause * A momentary break in the vocal delivery of a speech * Pause can signal the end * Give time to sink in * Vocal variety * Changes in a speaker’s rate pitch and volume * Gives the voice variety and expressiveness * Pronunciation Accepted standard of sound and rhythm for words * Practice maybe in front of your friends/family to correct any mispronunciation. * Articulation * The physical production of particular speech sounds * Poor articulation is usually due to laziness not pronunciation Dunn, haft, want * Dialect * Ana, Otto, * A variety f language distinguished by variations of accent, grammar, or vocabulary 37. Why nonverbal communication is important to the speaker * Posture facial expressions, gestures, eye contact all affect the way listeners respond too speaker * Kinesics – the study of body motions as a systematic mode f communication * Has significant impact on the meaning communicated by a speaker * “people trust their ears less than their eyes” 38.
Four most important aspects of nonverbal communication * Personal appearance * Dress according to the occasion, or any situation * Makes a good first impression * Movement * Lots of movements come from nervousness * When going to the podium appear calm, and confident * Don’t lean on the podium * When closing, maintain eye contact for a few moments * Gestures * Motions of a speaker’s hands or arms during speech * Should appear natural and spontaneous * Help clarify and reinforce your ideas Gain more attention * Avoid too much gestures * Eye contact * Making direct visual contact with the eyes of another person * Audience looks at eyes to gauge a speaker’s truthfulness, intelligence, attitudes and feelings 39. Method for effectively practicing delivery * Go through your preparation outline aloud to check how what you have written is translated smoothly to your spoken discourse * Prepare your speaking outline * Practice the speech aloud several time using only the speaking outline. * Begin to polish and refine your delivery * Check for volume pitch rate pauses and vocal variety * Try it out on friends