INTRODUCTION TO HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT Human Resource Management is a management function involving procurement of suitable human resources, train and develop their competencies, motivate them reward them effectively and create in them an urge to be part of the management team whose aim should be render, dedicated, committed service for the success and growth of the organization. The term human resources spell the total sum of the components (like skills, creative abilities) possessed by all employees and other persons (like employed, employees, owners etc. who contribute their services to attain the organizational objectives and goals. Human Resource Management is much broader compared to the term personnel management either at the component’s level or in coverage at organization level. The comparison personnel is Human Resource Management is presented. (C. B. Mamoria, S. V. Gankar) According to Byars and Rue, “Human Resource Management encompasses those activities designed to provide for and coordinate the human resources of an organization. According to Ivancevich and Glueck, “Personnel/human resource management is the function performed in organizations that facilitates the most effective use of people (employees) to achieve organizational and individual goals. ” HRM is a process of consisting four functions – acquiring, developing, and motivating and retaining human resources. The acquisition function starts with planning (for the number and categories of employees required) and ends with staffing. The development function has three dimensions-employee training, management development, and career development.
The motivation function includes identifying the individual motivational needs of employees and identifying ways to motivate them. The retention function is concerned with providing a conducive work environment to the employees and nurturing them to make them feel committed and attached to the organization. There is a vast difference between modern HRM and the personnel management that was prevalent decades ago. By the end of twentieth century, the managerial philosophy that has defined the personnel function has undergone radical changes.
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Over the past eighty years, the scientific management approach and the human relations approach appeared and then disappeared too. The human resource has gained prominence in the recent times. The scope of Human Resource Management is vast. All major activities in the working life of the employee from the time of his entry into the organization until he leaves, retires come under the purview of human resource management. The most important activities undertaken are: • Planning, job design, job analysis, procurement, recruitment, selection, induction, placement, training, and development. Compensation, rewards, benefits retrial, medical and health care. • Motivation- motivational aids, bonus, incentives, profit sharing non-monetary Employee Relations – grievance handling, participation, collective bargaining and other aspects of cordial relations conductive to manual understanding and trust. • Employee evaluation and performance improvement, Human Resource, audit; and Human Resource Accounting. (C. B. Mamoria, S. V. Gankar) Research Problem: Human Resource Management is concerned with the people dimension in management, who work in the organization to achieve the objectives of the organization.
It concerns with acquisition of appropriate human resources developing their skills and competencies, motivating them for the best performance and ensuring their continued commitment to the organization to achieve organizational objectives and goals. Recruitment and selection is the primary and foremost function in the process of human resource management to the organization. As human resources are believed as an asset of an organization, it is more important for the organization to acquire highly skilled and intelligent candidates only through by recruitment and selection.
The goal of recruitment and selection is to ensure that the organization is hiring the best capabilities in the market that are relevant to their business needs and strategies. With reasonable review of literature a thorough work in studying the effective functioning of recruitment and selection in cement industry is felt a necessary. In the explained circumstances recruitment and selection practices is chosen for study in Ultra Tech Cement Company Ltd, Tadipathri, Anantapur Dist, Andhra Pradesh. Need for the study:
Despite verifying available literature, it is observed that study of recruitment and selection procedure in manufacturing sector, that too cement sector is not satisfactory. Hence this study is taken-up. The need for studying recruitment and selection procedure in Ultra Tech Cement Company Ltd, is: To enlighten the knowledge of Recruitment and Selection practices those are following in the organization, To interact with officers and staff member, to get fair opinion about the study topic and To draft the report by collecting facts and figures of the organization Objectives: The following are the Objectives of the study: To know the process of recruitment and selection in Ultra Tech Cement CompanyLtd. • To arrive at empirical validation to draw conclusions and to suggest some workable measures for the betterment of the system. Hypotheses: The study relies and validates the hypotheses: 1. Effective recruitment and selection strategies have a bearing on organization. 2. Effective recruitment and selection strategies contribute to increased efficiency of the organization. Scope of the Study: The study aims to cover organizational policy, environment, workforce and job related aspects which have a bearing on the factors under consideration of the study viz.
Motivation, Training, Human Resource Planning and Development Reward Management and Quality of Work Life. The statistical analysis of the study infers about the delicate linkages between the mentioned factors, which determine the employee behaviour in the organization. Studies of this sort with scientific analysis aspects of the HRD will certainly help the overall individuals development which can be in the opinion of the author, be studies in detail to increase the productivity of the organization. Methodology:
In attempting to pursue this research study topic Qualitative as well as Quantitative approaches are undertaken. Sample Design: 1. The present study is a survey come analytical one. 2. To elicit the primary data for the proposed study a well designed questionnaire is used for respondents. The statements cover the aspects of recruitment and selection and associated issues. Personal interviews are taken with respondents to strengthen the information Data collection tools: To obtain the data for the purpose of present study the following tools are used. . Examination of secondary data. 2. Questionnaire and Interviews. Data analysis: The primary and secondary are analyzed using basic parametric techniques such as percentages, averages etc. where required. Sample size: The well structured questionnaire with a sample size of 50 employees is taken ( 1 Senior officer, 11 Officers, 6 Senior engineers, 23 Engineers and 9 Asst. managers ) LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY 1. Due to time constraint the study is confined. 2. The information may be biased.
Recruitment and selection, as a key HR practice in any organization, can contribute significantly to the organization gaining a competitive advantage. An attempt is made to understand and examine the role of personnel selection in knowledge acquisition, which could have an important role in the organization renewal and gaining a sustainable competitive advantage (Lyles and Inkpen,1996). The goal of recruitment and selection is to ensure that the organization is hiring the best capabilities in the market that are relevant to their business needs and strategies (Huber,1996). An excellent student affair staffing program begins with hiring the right people and placing them in positions with responsibilities that allow them to maximize their skills, knowledge and talents in the pursuit of student affairs purposes. The first commandment for student affairs administrators, therefore, is to hire the right people. The second commandment is to do it the right way” (Winston & Creamer, 1997). Recruitment and selection are used interchangeably. Recruitment is a broad term used to communicate the notion of getting some one into the organization.
As such, it covers every thing from advertising to induction. Selection is focused at the point where a decision is made about who to recruit. As such, it is more concerned with the instruments and methods used to access candidates (Robert Wood,1998). HRP helps to determine the number and type of people an organization needs. Job analysis and job design specify the task and duties of jobs and qualifications expected from prospected job holders then the next step is to hire the right number of the people of the right type to fill the jobs. Hiring involves two broad groups of activities: recruitment and selection. David James,1999). The success of an organization is defined by the quality of its people at the top. When it comes to choosing them, there can be no compromise. People drive organizations. That is why we believe in “the right person for the right role” is more than a business truism. It’s a guiding principle, and the most important contributing factor to a company’s success (Mercuri). “Many researchers over the last 30 years have confirmed that interviews are very bad predictors of job performance. In other words they are not a valid selection method” ( Smith, Gregg and Andrews,1989 ).
There was only one way to do a job-the right way. This led to the study of work, and the establishment of rule books that codified working methods ( Fredrick Taylor’s ,1991 ). Recruitment advertising is big business, which is governed by legislation and represents a major source of income to the media. Recruitment agencies are also governed by statute, have a professional code of practice and can be fiercely competitive. Nevertheless job descriptions and employee specifications continue to be used widely, and will probably be familiar to those who have some experience of recruitment and selection.
If they (and role profiles) are to be useful fully, they need to be written in such a way that both the requirements and candidates are assessed factually and comparatively (Margaret Dale). Over and over again studies have emphasized that employees are key to maintaining a competitive edge by a business ( Wagar, 1998 ; Bacon et al,1996 ; Deshpande and Golhar,1994 and Julien, 1998 ). To be successful in global market , a small firm needs a highly motivated, skilled and satisfied work force that can produce quality goods at low costs (Holt,1993).
However, there has been limited amount of research conducted into HRM practices of small and medium businesses. Research in HRM practices has often been restricted to large companies (Wagar, 1998; Storey , 1992). In the public sector (steel units), the major sources of recruitment in order of preference are : (1) Casual callers employment seekers (2) News paper ads (3) Scheduled tribes and Scheduled castes (4) Employment exchanges. In the private sector, the survey disclosed that the procedures, though formulated, were not institutionalized in character.
In some organizations, preference was given to sons and relatives of employees and to local people (C. B. Mamoria,2003). Selection practices in hiring skilled and managerial personnel are fairly well defined and systematically practiced. Specialist agencies are available whose services are retained for hiring technical and managerial personnel. Merit and not favoritism, objectivity and not subjectivity will be the criteria for such selection (K. Aswathappa,2003). Unisys corp. , and LSI logi corp. have all posted internet-based ” cyber-fairs ” to recruit for applicants.
Cisco systems Inc. , has a website with the Cisco employment opportunities page, Which offers links to such things as hot jobs, job descriptions for hard-to-fill positions ; Cisco culture-a look at Cisco work life ; Cisco college-internships and mentoring program information ; and jobs-job listing (Garry dessler). Campus recruitment is the major source of recruitment for prestigious companies such as HLL, Tata’s, L and the like. These companies looking for recruiting in global markets. Business schools in UK and USA are a source of potential candidates for them.
These candidates are indians who have come abroad for higher studies in management (K. Aswathappa). With reasonable review of a work which thoroughly studied the Recruitment and Selection aspects in manufacturing company context is found missing. Hence an effort is made to fill the gap. A manufacturing company Ultra Tech cement Ltd. is selected for the purpose of study. It is believed that study of this sort will definitely be helpful in identifying the various issues connected with Recruitment and Selection and in order to enhance the overall performance of the organization.
Taking this study as a base, an attempt to address the other HR issues may be even more helpful in understanding the HR dynamics of organization administration. INDUSTRY PROFILE Cement Industry has been decontrolled from price and distribution on 1st March 1989 and de – licensed on 25th July 1991. However, the performance of the industry and prices of cement are monitored regularly. Being a key infrastructure industry, the constraints faced by the industry are reviewed in the Infrastructure Coordination Committee meetings held in the Cabinet Secretariat under the Chairmanship of Secretary (Coordination).
The Committee on Infrastructure also reviews its performance. The industry is subject to quality control order issued on 17. 2. 2003 to ensure quality standards. Capacity, Production and Exports: India today boasts 129 large plants and over 300 mini cement plants with a capacity of 165 million tones and production of 134 million tones (2004-05). It ranks second in the world among cement producing countries, with per capita consumption at 118Kg compared to the world avg. of around 317. Per capita consumption is 366 Kg in Thailand, 626 Kg in China, 606 Kg in Malaysia and 1216 Kg in South Korea.
This indicates a huge potential for increase in consumption. The Cement Corporation of India, which is a central public sector undertaking, has 10 units. Besides, there are 10 large cement plants owned by various state Governments. Keeping in view the past trends, a production target of 133 million tons has been set for the year 2004 – 05. During the Tenth Plan, the Industry is expected to grow at the rate of 10% per annum and is expected to add capacity of 40 – 52 million tons, mainly through expansion of existing plants and use of more fly ash in the production of cement.
A part from meeting the domestic demand, the cement Industry also contributes towards exports. The export of cement and clinker during the last three years is as under:- Export of Cement (In million tons) |Year |Cement |Clinker |Total | |2001 – 02 |3. 38 |1. 76 |5. 14 | |2002 – 03 |3. 47 |3. 45 |6. 92 | |2003 – 04 |3. 6 |5. 64 |9. 00 | |2004 – 05 |3. 31 |4. 82 |8. 13 | |(Apr – Jan) | | | | Table 3. 1 Overview Of The Performance Of The Cement Sector The Indian Cement Industry not only ranks second in the production of cement in the world but also produces quality cement, which meets global standards.
However, the Industry faces a number of constraints in terms of high cost of power, high railway tariff; high incidence of state and central levies and duties; lack of private and public investment in infrastructure projects; poor quality coal and inadequate growth of related infrastructure like sea and rail transport, ports and bulk terminals. In order to utilize excess capacity available with the cement Industry, the Government has identified the following thrust areas for increasing demand for cement: i) Housing development programs; i) Promotion of concrete highways and roads; iii) Use of ready – mix concrete in large infrastructure projects; and iv) Construction of concrete roads in rural areas under Prime Ministers Gram Sadak Yolanda. Technological Advancements Indian cement industry is modern and uses latest technology. Only a small segment of industry is using old technology based on wet and semi-dry process. Efforts are being made to recover waste heat and success in this area has been significant.
India is also producing different varieties of cement like Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC), Portland Pozzolana Cement (PPC), Portland Blast Furnace Slag Cement (PBFS), Oil Well Cement, Rapid Hardening Portland Cement, Sulphate Resisting Portland Cement, White Cement, etc. Production of these varieties of cement conforms to the BIS Specifications. It is worth mentioning that some cement plants have set up dedicated jetties for promoting bulk transportation and export. Infrastructure – Driven Demand Push The bulk of cement demand is from housing and commercial development of which metros account for a significant amount.
It is estimated that Mumbai, which consumes almost six million tones, along with pune, accounts for 45 percent of maharastra’s cement consumption, Bangalore consumes four million tones and Chennai around 3 million tones, “these are really the growth clusters. Today bulk of the demand is driven by housing and commercial construction and as infrastructure picks up, for example, Bangalore international airport, Hyderabad airport and modernization of Mumbai and Delhi airports. Another large consumer has been the roads sector. The off take was good when the NHDP programme was launched but there was a lull last year. Once again new orders have been placed and in 2006, the industry will pick up. The estimate is that from roads, demand is not more than 4-5 million tones but it makes a difference in the growth numbers”. Narrowing Demand-Supply Gap The industry has a capacity of 165 million tons and in Jan 2006, dispatches were at almost 100%. On an overall basis, the industry does not do more than 90-92% because of constraints such as transport and raw material. The industry has been adding capacity of 6-7 million per annum by Brownfield expansion and de-bottlenecking which is expected to partly cater to the equirement because it is growing by around 20 million tons per annum. Challenges Before The Industry Energy costs account for half of the cost of production of cement. Last year saw a 15-16% increase in coal prices and then diesel prices went up pushing up transportation costs. Freight problems The importance of freight for the cement industry cannot be emphasized enough. While in the last few months’ railways have been steadily losing freight to road sector they have been confined cement to market-is around Rs. 350-400 a ton or Rs. 20 and bag that could go as high a Rs. 800 for long leads.
This would only easy the first level of sale and additional costs are involved to take it further. Another issue, which will hit the industry hard, is that of logistics and a Supreme Court judgment on carrying capacity for trucks. Accordingly, a state govt. has been directed to enforce the discipline that trucks only carry a specified load. “Many states and already implementing this and there is already an increase in freight rates and in some cases, it has gone up by 50%. Also, the requirement for trucks to carry the same freight has nearly doubled and in many places the industry is being forced to move to railways. High Taxes: While the railways have had capacity to meet the requirement, it is expected that in March the commencement of peak season for the procurement of food grains, the railways would be constrained to provide adequate number of wagons. “So fright rates are up, railways cannot provide wagons and tucks are unlikely to be viable so there could be a serious dislocation of supplies going forward. According to the cement manufactures association total taxes and duties on cement come to around Rs. 900 a ton or Rs. 45 a bag. “So at a price of Rs. 50 a bag in the market, taxes and duties account for one third: which is high for such a basic product? This includes excise duty, sales tax and royalty on limestone. The importance of limestone can only be underscored as for every ton of cement produced. 1. 5tons of limestone is required. “For limestone, royalty is on a per ton basis at Rs. 40 whereas for most minerals it is a percentage of the pithead cost. Effectively we are paying Rs. 70 a ton for limestone as royalty. VAT is at 12. 5% without any justification and it should be in 4% category, excise is at Rs. 408 per ton when it should be around Rs. 00. Export Advantages From a modest beginning if 1. 6 lakh tons in 1989-90, Indian exports of cement/clinker have grown rapidly at about 30-40% and this year exports will cross 10 million tons. Major Cement Producers – Market Shares • Acc -12. 8% • Ambuja -10. 7% • Grasim-10. 4% • Ultra tech-9. 5% • India cement-6. 0% • Jaypee-4. 1% • Lafarge-3. 2% • Madras-3. 2% Overall, the industry is in a better state today than 2 years ago. “Cement prices even today are way below global levels. So setting up Greenfield capacities is not attractive, as prices will not give attractive returns on investment.
That is a minor reason why there is no Greenfield capacity coming up. It has to be born in mind that one third of the prices is accounted for by taxes and duties and nearly 20-25% by the freight component. So what produces earn at the factory gate is among the lowest in the world. ” This year 2006 has commenced on a good note and in fact, December was a very good month wit dispatches at 12. 5 million tons and January dispatches were in excess of 13 million tons. “This means capacity utilization is in the nineties which is healthy and will actually lead to firming up of prices.
It looks like sales could be 137 million a ton for 2005-06(125 million tons in 2004-05) and so far growth has been 10%. There are enough reasons to believe it will sustain. ” Plant Profile UltraTech Cement Limited was formed effective July 2004, with the demerger of Cement Division from Larsen & Turbo Limited, and was taken over by the Aditya Birla Group and got merged into A. V. Birla Group of Industries. UltraTech Cement Limited: UltraTech Cement Limited is a technology driven company with leading edge capabilities in fields related to infrastructure and basic industries. In terms of main stream criteria viz. sales, profit, assets and market capitalization, UltraTech Cement Limited ranks among top ten in India’s private sector. The company is also ranked high by less tangible yardsticks such as intellectual capital and brand-worth. UltraTech Cement Limited & its subsidiaries, has manufacturing facilities at 10 locations in India and 3 Terminals including one at Srilanka. Almost all the factories have secured ISO-9001, 14001, 18001 (OHSAS) and other certificates of the highest order. UltraTech Cement Limited’s distribution and services out-reach underlines its strong customer orientation.
The network extends to virtually every district in the country. A concern for the environment is an integral part of the company’s vision. UltraTech Cement Limited is committed to growth in consonance with the ecology and the needs of the communities it serves. UltraTech Cement Limited is India’s largest cement producer, with a manufacturing capacity of over 16 million tones per year. UltraTech Cement Limited manufactures and markets • Ordinary Portland Cement – 43 grade / 53 grade • Portland Blast Furnace Slag Cement • Portland Pozzolana Cement Rapid hardening Portland cement • Sulfate resistant cement Ultra Tech Cement Plants are located at: 1. Awarpur cement works. Awarpur, Maharashtra 2. Hirmi cement works. Hirmi , Madhya Pradesh 3. Gujarat cement works. Kovaya, Gujarat 4. Andhra Pradesh cement works. Tadpatri, Andhra Pradesh Ultra Tech Cement Grinding Units are located at: 1. Jarsuguda Orissa 2. ArakkonamTamilnadu 3. Durgapur West Bengal Ultra Tech Cement Limited Subsidiaries: Cement Plants: 1. Narmada Cement Company LimitedGujarat Grinding Units: 1.
Magdalla Gujarat 2. Ratnagiri Maharashtra UltraTech Cement Terminals are located at: 1. Navi Mumbai Mumbai 2. Mangalore TerminalKarnataka 3. UltraTech-CeylincoSrilanka Andhra Pradesh Cement works The UltraTech Cement Limited, Andhra Pradesh Cement Works is located at 360 kms. South of Hyderabad in the state of Andhra Pradesh in South India. Along with the grinding unit at Arakkonam it has a capacity of 3. 6 million tones of cement per annum. The plant is ideally suited to cater to the markets in Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamilnadu and Kerala.
UltraTech Cement Limited selected TADIPATRI for setting up its Andhra Pradesh Cement Works (APCW) because there is a huge limestone deposit and the quality of limestone is considered to be extremely good. Also, other corrective/additive materials such as iron ore, latrite and gypsum required in cement production are available nearby. In addition, Tadpatri is well connected by railway line and roads. The Chennai-Mumbai railway lines run close to UltraTech Cement Limiter’s plant. A peculiarity of UltraTech Cement Limiter’s APCW is that its mines fall in Kurnool district while the plant is in Anantapur District.
The cement plant’s installed capacity is 2 million tones per annum (Mtpa). APCW project started with a prospecting license in March 1992 followed by a mining lease in June 1993. When various formalities were completed, action shifted from the drawing board to the project site with the first association commencing in November, 1995. Due to excellent co-operation from the Government of AP. APCW did not face much problems while setting up the plant. [pic] Figure 3. 1 This Plant has been set up with the coordinated efforts of all its business groups, which minimized the problems during the execution stage.
Even the acute shortage of power in the state did not hamper the construction activities. The construction was completed totally with the help of diesel generating sets. In view of the expected power shortage, APCW is provided with two diesel generator sets of 24. 6 MW (i. e. , 2×12. 3 MW) which is around 60% of total power requirement of the plant. Plant Capacity: Even though the plant has started with an installed capacity of 6,000 TPD, later on the capacity has been enhanced to 8000 TPD APCW caters to the cement users in the southern part of India. It is ideally located as far as the market is concerned.
Unique features of APCW: 1. Only cement plant in UltraTech Cement Limited, with a split location of entire main plant on top of a hillock and the packing plant down the hill. 2. One of the plants using minimum energy for cement manufacturing. 3. Only plant where the entire cement loading rake of 40 wagons can be place on one stretch constructed on engine on load concept. 4. The RCC chimney at the plant is the tallest in the Indian cement Industry. 5. It has two vertical raw mills (Atox 50) having a roller diameter of 5 M – these are the biggest mills in the country. 6.
First unit to implement computerized billing for cement loading. Cement Machinery: ? Complete range – from crushing to packing plants are supplied by Larsen & Toubro’s Machinery Division, in Collaboration with F. L. Smitdth & co. , Denmark. ? Presently the largest capacity of 8000 TPD in a single line production in India. ? Vertical roller mills for raw materials and cement grinding ? Fuel-efficient pyro-processing systems ? High pressure roller presses for cement mill for cement grinding ? Modern Duo flex burner for efficient flame control. ? Hydraulic drive coo lax cooler with new generation CIS cooler inlet. Efficient Pollution control equipments like ESP’s, Bag Houses and Reverse air Bag house at appropriate locations ? CEM scanner for kiln refractory management ? QCX for meal blending and quality control ? Fuzzy logic system for plant optimization ? Cool scanner for monitoring coo lax cooler The plant is certified by DNV of Netherlands as an ISO 9001, ISO 14001 and OHSAS 18001 company. APCW manufactures Ordinary Portland Cement, Portland Pozzolana Cement and Portland Blast Furnace Slag Cement, which is distributed through a wide network of Authorized Stockiest.
Man Power Based on requirement of individual departments, Head of that department is asked to give information to man power planning department regarding the number of persons required. The departmental heads assess their requirements based on the available departmental job description to ensure role clarity and to avoid role ambiguity. The Central Personnel Dept. carries out the recruitment process. The total employees in APCW are 345 covering all departments. There are nearly 500 contract labor working every day on casual basis. Grades of Employees Employees |Grades | |Wage Board Employees | | |Monthly Rated |I to VII | | Daily Rated |E to A | |Supervisory (S) |S1 to M1 | |Officers |M2 to M4 | |Deputy Manager, Senior Managers |M5 to M7 | |AGM-Sr. DGM |M8 to M10 | |JGM,GM,VP |M11 to M13 | Table 3. 2 Details of Manpower AET / SET- wise (updated upto 30. 07. 2005) |Sl. No. |AET / SET |Total | |1 |V. P’s.
Office |03 | |2 |HR SET |38 | |3 |Finance & IT SET |23 | |4 |SCM SET |18 | |5 |Mines AET |84 | |6 |Raw Mill AET |20 | |7 |Kiln AET |32 | |8 |Quality AET |37 | |9 |Cement Mill AET |23 | |10 |Pkg. & Desp.
AET |23 | |11 |Despatch SET |11 | |12 |CPP AET |20 | |13 |CTC AET |10 | |14 |WCM Cell |03 | | |TOTAL |345 | Table 3. 3 Human Resources (HR) UltraTech Cement Limited probably is the first organization in India to introduce an integrated HRD system in the year 1975 with the introduction of “Performance Appraisal Feedback & Counseling System”. PA includes sub-systems like: ? Potential appraisal ? Training ? Employee counseling and ? Career Planning and Development.
People Management at UltraTech Cement Limited “Employee Delight is the key to Customer Delight” is the conviction of UltraTech Cement Limited. UltraTech Cement Limiter’s residential management development center offers employees the opportunities for Knowledge enhancement and learning through self-study and introspection. The faculty is drawn from India’s premier management institutes. UltraTech Cement Limited has also found a place for itself as the only “Asian member of benchmarking forum for American Society for Training & Development (ASTD). Self-learning facility comprising of programs on CD-ROMS enables employees to work at their own place. Recruitment & Selection
Recruitment sources include, advertisements given in newspapers and data banks, depending upon the manpower requirements as stated by departmental heads, depending upon the number of applications received, the qualification may be generalized (in case of very few applications). Then, the persons with required qualification are interviewed. The interviewing panel comprises of personnel officials in the department. If the applications are in large number they will be short-listed according to the norms of the organization. The wage board employees are assessed on factors like: • Technical Aptitude • English and • Critical Reasoning All employees are kept under probation for a period of 6 months after joining and before their services are confirmed on rolls. The O&S cadre employees will be assessed on factors like: • Management Aptitude • Leadership Behavior
The recruitment of Diploma Engineering Trainees (DET) and Graduate Engineering Trainees (GET) are done at Central Personnel Department once in a year through Campus Selections / advertisements in famous newspapers. The recruited candidates are kept under probation for a period of 2 years and then are absorbed to suitable cadre in the organization. During the probation period the absorbed candidates are sent to each department to get acquainted with the departmental activities and then they are sent to the other units of UltraTech Cement Limited for proper orientation in the respective fields. RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION PROCEDURE IN ULTRA TECH CEMENT WORKS Human Resource Planning Manpower” or “human resource” may be thought of as “the total knowledge, skills, creative abilities, talents and aptitudes of an organization’s work force, as well as the values, attitudes and benefits of an individual involved … It is the sum total of inherent abilities, acquired knowledge and skills represented by the talents and aptitudes of the employed persons. ” Of all the “Ms” in management (i. e. , the management of materials, machines, methods, money, motive power). The most important is “M” for men or human resources. It is the most valuable asset of an organization, and not the money or physical equipment. Human resource or manpower planning is “the process by which a management determines how an organization should move from its current manpower position to its desired manpower position.
Through planning, a management strives to have the right number and the right kind of people at the right places, at the right time, to do things which result in both the organization and the individual receiving the maximum long-range benefit. Coleman has defined h man resource or manpower planning as “the process of determining manpower requirements and the means for meeting those requirements in order to carry out the integrated plan of the organization. Stainer defines manpower planning as “Strategy for the acquisition, utilization, improvement, and preservation of an enterprise’s human resources. It relates to establishing job specifications or the quantitative requirements of jobs determining the number of personnel required and developing sources of manpower. According to Wickstrom, human resource planning consists of a series of activities, viz. , a) Forecasting future manpower requirements, either in terms of mathematical projections of trends in the economic environment and development in industry, or in terms of judgmental estimates based upon the specific future plans of a company; b) Making an inventory of present manpower resources and assessing the extent to which these resources are employed optimally; c) Anticipating manpower problems by projecting present resources into the future and comparing them with the forecast of requirements to9 determine their adequacy, both quantitatively and qualitatively. d) Planning the necessary rogrammes of requirement, selection, training development, utilization, transfer, promotion, motivation and compensation to ensure that future manpower requirements are properly met. NEED FOR HUMAN RESOURCE PLANNING Human resource planning is deemed necessary for all organizations for one or the other of the following reasons: i) To carry on its work, each organization needs personnel with the necessary qualification, skills, knowledge, work experience and aptitude for work. These are provided through effective manpower planning. ii) Since a large number of persons have to be replaced who have grown old, or who retire, die or become incapacitated because of physical or mentalalimensts, there is a constant need for replacing such personnel. Other wise, the work would suffer. ii) Human resource planning is essential because of frequent labour turnover which is unavoidable and even beneficial because it arises form factors which are socially and economically sound such as voluntary quit, discharges, marriage, promotions; or factors such as seasonal and cyclical fluctuations in business which cause a constant ebb and flow in the workforce in many organizations. iv) In order to meet the needs of expansion programmes human resource planning is unavoidable (it becomes necessary due to increase in the demand for goods and services with growing population, a rising standard of living – larger quantities of the same goods and services are required v) The nature of the present workforce in relation to its changing needs also necessitates the recruitment of new labor. To meet the challenge of a new and changing technology and new techniques of productions, existing employees need to be trained or new blood injected in an organization. i) Manpower planning is also needed in order to identify areas of surplus personnel or areas in which there is a shortage of personnel. if there is a surplus, it can be redeployed; and if there is shortage, it may be made good. PROCESS OF HUMAN RESOURCES PLANNING A) Objectives of Human Resource Planning The objectives may be laid down for a short – term (i. e. , for one year). For example, the short – terms objective may be to hire 25 persons form Scheduled Tribes or Backward Class for purposes of training. The long – term objective may be start a new industry, to expand the market, to produce a new product, to develop its own sales force rather than depend on distributors, or to have minority, group members eventually in position of middle and upper management cadres.
B) Estimating the future Organizational Structure OR Forecasting the Manpower Requirements: Forecasting provides the basic premises on which the manpower planning’s is built . Forecasting is necessary for various reasons, such as: a) The eventualities and contingencies of general economic business cycles (such as inflation, wages, prices, costs and raw material supplies) have an influence on the short – range and long – run plans of all organizations. b) An expansion following enlargement and growth in business involves the use of additional machinery and personnel, and a re- allocation of facilities, all of which call for advance planning of human resources. ) Changes in management philosophies and leadership styles. d) The use of mechanical technology (such as introduction of automatic controls, or the mechanization of materials handling functions) necessitate charges in the skills of workers, as well as a change in the number of employees needed. e) Very often, changes in the quantity of quality of products or services require a change in the organization structure. Plans have to be made for this purpose as well. C) Auditing Human Resources: Once the future human resource needs are estimated, the next step is to determine the present supply of manpower resources. This is done through what is called ” Skills Inventory. A skills inventory contains data about each employee’s skills, abilities, work preference and other items of information which indicate his overall value to the company. D) Job Analysis: After having decided how many persons would be needed, it is necessary to prepare a job analysis, which records details of training , skills, qualification, abilities, experience and responsibilities, etc. , which are needed for a job. Job analysis includes the preparation of job descriptions and job specifications. This has been discussed in the later section of this chapter. E) Developing a Human Resource Plan: This step refers to the development and implementation of the human esource plan, which consists in finding out the sources of labor supply with a view to making an effective use of these sources. The first thing, therefore, is to decide on the policy – should the personnel be hired form within through promotional channels or should it be obtained from an outside source. The best policy which is followed by most organizations is to fill up higher vacancies by promotion and lower level positions by recruitment from the labor market. Human resource planning could be done by following any two methods. They are: 1. Corporate Planning 2. Unit Level Planning The management of AP Cement Works do manpower planning by Unit Level Planning.
It is an functional based while Corporate Planning is an Structured based. Job Analysis Developing an organization structure results in jobs which have to be staffed. “Work” is an organization’s primary function. The ‘basic work activities’ may relate to three categories – Data , People and things. Under Data are included synthesizing, co-coordinating, analyzing, compiling, computing, copying and comparing activates. People relate to monitoring, negotiating, instructing, supervising, diverting, persuading, speaking, signaling, serving and taking instructions. Things are concerned with setting up, precision working, operating – controlling, driving – operating, manipulating, feeding- off bearing and handling.
Job: A job may be defined as a ” collection or aggregation of tasks, duties and responsibilities which as whole, are regarded as a regular assignment to individual employees, Job Analysis: It is a procedure by which pertinent information is obtained about a job, i. e. , it is a detailed and systematic study of information relating to the operations and responsibilities of a specific job. The information that is collected for job analysis is: a) Work activities – such as cleaning, setting, selling teaching or painting This may why , when and how the worker perform each activity. b) Human behaviour – such as communicating, decision – making, writing include plus what the job demands like, lifting weights, walking etc. ) Machine Tools, equipment and other work aids – includes also products made materials, processed etc. d) Performance standards – required such as quantity, quality, speed of each job. e) Job context – includes physical working conditions, work schedules , incentives for doing the job. Job Description: It is a written record of the duties, responsibilities and requirements of a particular job. It ” is concerned with the job itself and not with the work. ” It is a statement describing the job in such terms as its title, location duties, working conditions and hazards. In other words, it tells us ‘what is to be done’ and ‘how it is to be done ‘ and ‘why. It is a standard of function, in that it defines the appropriate and authorized contents of a job. Job Specification: It is standard of personnel and designates the qualities required for an acceptable performance. It is written record of the requirements sought in an individual worker for a given job. In other words, it refers to a summary of the personal characteristics required for a job. It is a statement of the minimum acceptable human qualities necessary for the proper performance of a job. Job Design: It is the division of the total task to be performed into the manageable and efficient units – – positions, departments and divisions — and to provide for their proper integration.
The sub- division of work is both on a horizontal scale – with different tasks across the organization being performed by different people and on the vertical scale, in which higher levels of the organization are responsible, for the supervision of more people, the co-ordination of sub-groups, more complex planning etc,. JOB ANALYSIS (A Process for Obtaining All Pertinent Job Facts) |Job Description |Job Specification | |Statement containing items such as: |A statement of the human requirements for doing a job: | |a) Job Identification (job title, location, occupational code, |a) Physical make – up or characteristics | |alternative name in use, name of division, department and unit | | |where it exists. | |b) Job Summary (gives a quick capsule explanation of the |b) Psychological characteristics. | |contents of a Job, its hazards and discomforts. | | |c) Duties performed (says the what, how and why of a job; also |c) Personal characteristics. | |describes a worker’s responsibilities in regards to custody of | | |money, supervision of other worker’s training of subordinates, | | |etc. ) | | |d) Relation to other jobs (gives how many persons mya be |d) Responsibilities. | |supervised). | | |e)Supervision given /taken helps in locating a job in the job |e) Other factors of a demographic nature | |hierarchy). |(sex,age,education,language,ability to read,write and speak. ) | |f) Machines, tools,equipment (what type of tools/equipment | | |material is used). | | |g) Materials and forms used. | |h) Conditions of work Location – factory/ office / inside / | | |outside /overhead/under-ground /solitary gang;Time- day, night, | | |overtime, peak loads, uniformity of work; Posture – standing, | | |sitting, stopping, clinging, walking , reaching, lifting; Speed | | |– quick, moderate, slow; Accuracy – coarse, fine, exacting, | | |Health hazards – ventilation, illumination, nere strain, eye- | | |strain, physical strain, moisture , heat, dust, humidity, fumes,| | |acids, exposure to such disagreeable features as dirt, noise, | | |etc. | | |i) Hazards ( accident hazards). | | Table 3. 4 TECHNIQUES OF JOB ANALYSIS DATA
The determination of job tasks, the concomitant skills and abilities necessary for successful performance, and the responsibilities inherent in the job can be obtained through such methods or approaches as the following: i) Personal observation; ii) Sending out questionnaires; iii) Maintenance of log records; and iv) Conduction Personal interviews. i) Personal Observation: The materials and equipment used, the working conditions and probable hazards, and an understanding of what the work involves are the facts which should be known by an analyst . Direct observation is especially useful in jobs that consist primarily of observable physical ability, like the jobs of draftsman, mechanic, spinner or weaver. i) Sending Out Questionnaires: The method is usually employed by enginnering consultants. Properly drafted questionnaires are sent out to job – holders for completion and are returned to supervisors, However the information received is often unorganized and incoherent. The idea in issuing questionnaire is to elicit the necessary information from job – holders so that any error may first be discussed with the employee and , after due corrections. May be submitted to L the job analyst. iii) Maintenance of org. Records: The employee maintains a daily diary record of duties he performs, making the time at which each task is started and finished.
But this system is incomplete, for it does not give us any desirable data on supervisor relationship, the equipment used, and working conditions. Moreover, it is time- consuming. iv) Personnel Interviews : may be held by the analyst with the employees, and answers to relevant questions may be recorded. But the method is time- consuming and costly. 1. Time Study Time study is concerned with the determination of the amount of time required to perform a unit of work. It consists of the process of observing and recording the time required to perform each element of an operation so as to determine the reasonable time in which the work should be completed.
Time study is defined by ILO as follows: “Time study is a work measurement technique for recording the times and rates of working for the elements of a specified job carried out under specified and for analyzing the data so as to obtain the time necessary for carrying out the job at a defined level of performance. Objectives of time study: The main objective is ‘to determine by direct observation, the quantity of human work in a specified task and hence establish the standard time within which an average worker working at a normal pace should complete the task using a specified method. The other objectives are: a) To furnish a basis of comparison for determining operating effectiveness. b) To set labor standard for satisfactory performance. ) To compare alternative methods in method study in order to select the best method. d) To determine standard costs. e) To determine equipment and labor requirements f) To determine basic times/normal times g) To determine the number of machines an operator can handle. h) To balance the work of operators in production or assembly lines i) To provided a basis for setting piece rate or incentive wages j) To set the completion schedules for individual operations or jobs k) To determine the cycle time for completion of a job. 1. Time Study By Stop Watch: The steps involved are – I. Select the job to be studied The reason for selecting a job for time study are- ) New job taken for production. b) Change in manufacturing method. c) Design change. d) Change in raw material or components used for a job. e) Complaint about inadequacy of allowed time. f) For bottle neck operations. g) When labor cost is high. h) To establish standard time as a basis for incentive scheme. i) When new tools, jigs and fixtures are used. II. Select the worker to be studied The ideal worker would be the qualified worker as defined earlier in this chapter. Since the ideal worker or qualified worker may not be available in the organization, the best available worker is chosen and his rating is determined as compared with the qualified worker. III.
Conducting stop watch time study In this step, the various activities involved are – a) Obtain and record all information available about the job, operator and working conditions. b) Record the method of doing the job and break down the job into elements. c) Examine the various elements to ensure that the most effective motions are used in the elements of job performed. d) Measure the actual time taken by the operator perform each element of the job, using a stop watch. e) Assess the effective speed of working of the operator with respect to the time study observer’s concept of the speed of working of the qualified worker who is assumed to have a standard rating. ) Determination of normal or basic time: Once a particular rating scale is chosen and the rating of the worker under observation is assessed as compared to the standard rating of the qualified worker ( for e. g In a 75 – 100 scale , the qualified worker’s rating is 100 ), Normal or Basic time = Observed time x Rating factor Observed rating = Observed time x ——————– Standard rating g) Determine the relevant allowances: Once the basic time per cycle required by the qualified worker to perform each element at standard rate or working is determined, the next step is to determine the time allowance to be given to the operator for relaxation, fatigue, contingency etc. Usually these allowances are taken as a percentage of basic or normal time.
The various type of allowances are: i) Relaxation allowance (RA) : This is also known as personal, fatigue and delay allowance (PFD allowance), This allowance is given to the worker to overcome the fatigue due to physical exertion , posture, concentration, working condition and personal needs such as going to toilet, drinking water, attending phone calls etc. , it usually varies from 10% to 20% of normal or basic time. ii) Contingency allowance (CA) : This allowance is given for infrequent or non-repetitive activities such as obtaining special materials from stores, sharpening of tools, getting a special tool from the tool stores, and consultation with the supervisor. It is usually about 5% or normal or basic time. ii) Process allowance: Allowance given to the worker to compensate himself for enforced idleness due to the nature or a process or operation, for e. g . , working on automatic machine, electroplating etc. , during which the worker is forced to be idle during a part of the work cycle. , iv) Special allowances: a) Interference allowance given to a worker when he / she is looking after 2 or 3 machines. One machine may idle when the worker works on another machine for a short period and allowance has to be given to the worker for this loss of production. b) Periodic activity allowance : for activities carried out periodically during a work cycle. e. g. , setting up a tool on the machine. 2. Motion Study
Motion study is the science of eliminating wastefulness, resulting from using unnecessary; ill – directed and inefficient motion. The aim or motion study is to find and perpetuate the scheme of the least waste methods of labor. Micro motion study provides as valuable technique for making minute analysis of those operations that are short in cycle, contain rapid movements and involve high production over a long period of time . For example, sewing of garments and assembling small parts. Micro motion study may be used for the following purposes in addition to its primary use for job analysis work: i. To study the inter – relationship among the members of a work group. ii.
To study the relationship between an operator and the machine which he operates. iii. To obtain the time for an operation. iv. To establish a permanent record of the method of doing a job. The usual procedure of performing a micro – motion study is to take motion picture of the operations, analyze the film and to prepare a SIMO chart from the results of the film analysis. In analyzing the film, very small time values (commonly 1/2000 minute) may be obtained by reading a clock (micro – chronometer) that appears in each of the motion pictures. The film is analyzed by breaking the job cycle into micro motions or therbligs which indicate the basic body motions of the worker.
Thebligs indicate the basic motions consisting of three parts, viz; i. when the motion begins. ii. The nature of the motion iii. When the motion ends. The examples of therbligs are 1. Search (Sr) : That part of the cycle during which, the eyes or the hands are hunting or groping for the object. Search begins when the eyes or hands begin to hunt for the object and ends when the objects have been found. 2. Select (St): The choice of one object from among several. Select refers to the hunting and locating of one object from among several. Example: Locating a particular pencil in a box containing pencils, pens and miscellaneous articles. 3.
Grasp (G): Taking hold or an object, closing the fingers around it, preparatory to picking it up, holding or manipulating it. 4. Transport Empty (TE) : Moving the empty hand in reaching for an object. 5. Transport Loaded (TL): Moving an object from one place to another 6. Hold (H): Retention of an object after it has been grasped, no movement of the object taking place. 7. Release Load (RL): Letting go of the object. Release load begins when the object starts to leave the hand, and ends when the object has been completely separated from the hand or finger. 8. Position (P): Turning or locating an object in such a way that it will be properly oriented to fit into the location for which it is intended.
Example: Lining up a door key preparatory to inserting it in the key hole. 9. Pre- position (PP): Locating an object in a pre – determined place or locating it in the correct position for some subsequent motion. 10. Inspect (I): Examining an object to determine whether or not it complies with standard size, shape, color or other qualities previously determined. 11. Assemble (A): Placing one object into or on anther object with ;which it becomes an integral part. 12. Disassemble (DA): Separating one object from another object of which it is an integral part. 13. Use. (U): Manipulating a tool, device or piece of apparatus for the purpose for which it was intended 14.
Unavoidable Delay (UD): A Delay beyond the control of the operator. , 15. Avoidable Delay (AD): Any delay of the operator for which he is responsible and over which he has control 16. Plan (Pn): A mental reaction which precedes the physical movement, i. e. , deciding how to proceed with job. 17. Rest for overcoming fatigue (R): A fatigue or delay factor or allowance provided to permit the worker to recover form fatigue incurred by his work. 18. Find (F): Mental reaction at the end if search. Man power Based on requirement of individual departments, Head of that department is asked to give information to man power planning department regarding the number of persons required.
The departmental heads assess their requirements based on the available departmental job description to ensure role clarity and to avoid role ambiguity. The Central Personnel Dept. carries out the recruitment process. Recruitment and Selection Process RECRUITMENT Recruitment forms the first stage in the process, which continues with selection and ceases with the placement of the candidate. It is the next step in the procurement function, the first being the manpower planning. Recruiting is the discovering of potential applicants for actual or anticipated organizational vacancies. In other words, it is a ‘linking activity’ bringing together those with jobs and those seeking jobs. Recruitment is a process to discover the sources of manpower to meet the requirements of the staffing schedule and to employ effective measures for attracting that manpower in adequate numbers to facilitate effective selection of an efficient working force”. Accordingly, the purpose of recruitment is to locate sources to manpower to meet job requirements and job specifications. Recruitment has been regarded as the most important function of personnel administration, because unless the right type of people are hired, even the best plans, organization, charts and control systems would not do much good. INTERNAL RECRUITMENT Internal sources are the most obvious sources. These include personnel already on the pay – roll of an organization, i. e. , its present working force.
Whenever any vacancy occurs, somebody from within the organization is upgraded, transferred, promoted or sometimes demoted,. This source also includes personnel who were once on the pay – roll of the company but who plan to return or whom the company would like to rehire, such as those on leave of absence, those who quit voluntarily, or those on production lay-offs. METHODS OR TECHNIQUES OF RECRUITMENT Dunn and Stephens summarise the possible recruiting methods into three categories: direct, indirect and third party. DIRECT METHODS These include sending traveling recruiters to educational and professional institutions, employee’s contacts with public, and manned exhibits.
Direct methods is that of sending of recruiters colleges and technical schools Most college recruiting is done in co – operation with the placement office of a college the placement office usually provides help in attracting students, arranging interviews, furnishing space, and providing student resumes. For managerial, professional and sales personnel, campus recruiting is an extensive operation. Persons reading for MBA or other technical diplomas are picked up in this manner. For this purpose, carefully prepared brochures, describing the organization and the jobs it offers, are distributed among students, before the interviewer arrivers. Sometimes directly solicit information from the concerned professors about students with an outstanding with an outstanding record. Many companies have found employees’ contact with the public a very effective method. Other direct methods include sending recruiters to conventions and seminars, etting up exhibits at fairs, and using mobile offices to go to the desired centers. Advertising in newspaper, on the radio, in trade and professional journals, technical magazines and brochures. The classified advertisement section of a daily newspaper or the Sunday weekly edition of The Hindustan Times, The Times of India, The Tribune, The National Herald, The Free Press Journal, The Pioneer, Amrit Bazar Patrika, The Economic Times, The Hindu, The Indian Express etc. , carry advertisements for all types of positions. Such advertisements enable prospective candidates to screen themselves in order to find out whether they are fit for the job for which the advertisement has been issued.
Employee Referrals: Friends and relatives of present employees are also a good source from which employees may be drawn. When the labour market is very tight, large employers frequently offer their employee’s bonuses or prizes for any referrals who are hired and stay with the company for a specific length of time. Some companies maintain a register of former employees whose record was good to contact them when there are new job openings for which they are qualified. This method of recruitment, however suffers from a serious defect that it encourages nepotism, i. e. , persons of one’s community or caste are employed, who may or may not be fit for the job. SELECTION PROCEDURE
The selection procedure is concerned with securing relevant information about an applicant, this information is secured in a number or steps or stages, the objective of sele