Girls and Physical Education: Keetmanshoop, Namibia Assignment

Girls and Physical Education: Keetmanshoop, Namibia Assignment Words: 3826

Sport is a part of a development field in growth, when we talk about sport and development we talk about using sport to increase and remote participation in sport, development in sport and in other areas. According to Livermore (2008) sport is especially powerful through its ability to draw people’s attention and interest. This ensures that information on different critical issues reach their targets. “Through participation in sports, both physical and mental health improves, and might lead to a more healthy living.

Sports might give individuals in local communities better self esteem, leaderships skills, fair competition and they learn how work as a team and to respect each other. (I-evermore 2008). Sport is also used to build and trenched infrastructure in developing countries. “We talk about sport for health, sport for empowerment, sport for peace and reconciliation, for equal rights between man and woman, sport for economic growth and to use the media effect that sport has, to reach out cross border to communicate to/and mobile many people. ” (UN Resolution 58/5. 2003).

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Sport for children in Iambi is mostly build around the school sport, they have different semesters for different sport codes. Each class at all schools in Iambi are supposed to have at least 40 minutes Of Physical Education each week (Mr.. Clotted). In Statesmanship most of the schools have one teacher for girls in PEE and one teacher for boys. For the school I worked in they used to have one teacher for each gender. In the new school year of 201 1 it was decided, because of lack in staff members, that the learners would have one teacher taking care of all the PEE classes from 5th grade until grade 7.

Since the learners at SST. Matthias have had the experience of having Physical Education both separate boys and girls, and together. I figured that they (the learners) would have a perception and also a idea of how it is to have PEE operate and how it is to have it together boys and girls. The assignment is build up on research at SST. Matthias Primary School, more specifically at boys and girls perception of PEE and the importance of PEE, my main focus has been girls participating in PEE attitudes towards girls participating in PEE and girls having the same rights as boys in Physical Education.

In my research 16 learners at SST. Matthias have answered a questioner with two separate parts. In the first part I look at Physical Education in general. In the second part the learners had to agree or disagree o different Statements around sport and girls participation in sport. The learners are at their last year of primary, the selection was done together with the teachers that knew the kids very well. Together with the teacher we selected a wide range of learners from the ones that enjoys PEE, to the ones that seemed to not enjoy PEE, e. G the learners that never came to PEE wearing sport clothes. Also interviewed the deputy principle and the school principle, to see if there was any link between students attitudes and teachers attitudes towards girl participating in sport. 2. Background and history Most of the information in this section is taken from my own experiences, from what have seen and learned during my stay in Statesmanship, Iambi. Have also made use of the Deputy Principle at SST. Matthias Primary, Mr. Clotted. In addition I have searched the web (sportsman’s. Org), I have also found the assignment from a previous SCORE Volunteer that stayed in the same country in 2009/2010, very useful.

SST. Matthias Primary School is a Catholic School situated in the Bastard Location, Kremlin, Statesmanship. The learners ranges from the poorest in the community to lower middle classes. When I first arrived Statesmanship he school had one female teacher and three male teachers responsible for physical education (PEE). Boys and girls where separated, the boys had the big soccer field where they mostly played soccer. The girls had the netball field, where they played different singing and jumping games in addition to some netball. In my second trimester, the school had to make some changes.

Now there is only one teacher involved with the PEE classes. This teachers is also the only one with Physical Education as a minor subject from University. In most of his sessions the class would be double classes. This mean that the coacher is responsible for the learning outcomes of 60 learners. Looking at the time allocated to PEE and the length of the PEE-sessions, we can have an idea on how much PEE really means for the school and the Amphibian Government. The PEE-session is only 40 minutes including time for changes of clothes, this give approximately 20 – 30 minutes of play time.

Having one teacher also gives fewer opportunities for the girls to play their jumping and singing games, since the boys mostly have the stronger voice. Throughout my reading on the subject “girls/boys and PEE” it has been suggested that girls deed their activities like dance and less competitive games to increase their interest in physical activities. (WHO – R. Bailey 2007) 2. 2 Physical Education in Iambi – main focus Statesmanship Physical Education at the primary schools I work in is not very well organized and maintained.

At the same time schools are the most important place for organized activities because of After School Activities run by the school is the only organized activity available for the children. Teachers are sometimes unwillingly to have PEE/activities/sessions/after school sport. They lack proper education in the field. After schools activities is not heavily organized and most of the schools have poor contributions to the field. It is only one of the local community primary schools in Statesmanship that run a proper and well maintained after school program.

Physical education is being increasingly challenged within the educational system in Iambi. In Statesmanship and in the rest of Iambi, the The Amphibian School Sports Union (NUNS) is responsible for each of the sport codes within the schools. Many of the schools in Iambi have their main focus on sports during the first trimester of the year, the time when athletics s in the main focus. The biggest issue for school sport in Iambi as see it, is that all effort put into sport codes during certain periods might be good, but it is a short term commitment by the teachers and the schools.

What happens is that after the first trimester none of the learners are offered practice opportunities, to prepare themselves for the competitions in the first trimester. At a basic level in Iambi the financial situation at the schools are poor, most of the schools lack qualified Physical Education teachers and the tradition of having different focus areas at different times Of the year. This means a lack of continuity in sports activity and hinders sustainable development within sports in Iambi. According to sportsman’s. Org, challenges for PEE at a worldwide level include a decrease in.

The amount of time allocated to physical education. Schools I work in only have a total time of 40 minutes once a week. And within these 40 minutes you have to change and prepare for the next classroom session. This means that in total you only have 25-30 minutes of mandatory physical training each week. The number of trained staff. Most of the teachers are not educated in in Physical Education, especially the eely educated teachers do not have any training or education in the field. They are only having the PEE-sessions because they are in charge of the class.

The only teachers that have any educational background is the guys educated before the liberation of the country. This also means that if you do not have an interest or a background in any sport as a teacher, you will might as well not show up for PEE, or you rather hold the kids in the classrooms during playtime. The amount Of training provided for physical education teachers, and spending on resources required to deliver physical education in schools is not there. This means that especially girls and young learners with disabilities face additional barriers, which limit (and in many cases prevent) participation in physical education. sportsman’s. Org 2009) 2. 3 Girls in the community and the school. In Statesmanship you will see boys and girls play from a very young age. Most of the time boys play soccer and you will see some girls play “children’s games” like “tag” and others. During PEE, there is a big difference between the girls that usually play a lot and the once that do not. The girls that do not play much, lack basic motoring skills like running and catching. Some girls are prohibited to play rough games like soccer and rugby. They also get less time to play because they have to take care of chores at home.

Some of the schools have girl soccer teams. These teams usually never have any practice at all, but they play games against other schools. In Iambi, the Amphibian Football Organization has a Girls Soccer Development Program, named: ‘Gal. and Goals’. This program is run by local representative, in Statesmanship this volunteer is Ms. Braun Goggle. Because of Ms. Goggle, the girls have seasonal leagues run during the winter, and this is the only way the girls have the usability to play matches against other girl teams during the whole year.

The big thing for girls in Africa generally, is said to be netball, during my whole year in Statesmanship never did see a netball match, it was only after Christmas that I started to see the schools having netball practice with the girls. In additional to very few possibilities to exercise regularly with after school activities, Ms. Goggle also explained to me that It is very difficult to run programs for the girls. It was difficult to get the teachers to send the girls to the games and being there with them. It was also difficult to get the players arenas to send their girls out to play, of safety reasons and because of chores at home.

This is why I believe that Physical Education at the schools are very important for the physical development for young girls in Iambi. 3 Theoretical Perspectives “physical education and sport have educational impact Sport and physical education is fundamental to the early development of children and youth and the skills learned during play, physical education and sport contribute to the holistic development of young people. ” (sportsman’s. Org 2009) Most of my reading on the subject comes from the sportsman’s. Erg amoebae, since this is a page for, and to “sell” sport and development as a product and a good thing, most of the attitudes will be seen in a positive view. At the same time many of their facts have been taken form the UN and the research that has been done to look at the effects of physical activity. For example the united Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, use sport as a means to encourage young people to attend school and to promote education. (thematic profile/sportsman’s. Org 4:2009). It has also been pointed out that “within schools, physical education is an essential component of quality education. Physical education programs promote physical activity, participants in such programs are also shown to have improved academic performance (sportsman’s. Org/thematic profile 3:2009). So physical education is important for the holistic approach that schools have or should have for young people to “improve their physical, social and emotional health”. Through physical activity learners will improve their skills, not only physically but also skills concerning their development of working together, learning by doing, they also learn about the importance of following rules to make things work smoothly in the society.

Learners might Also get an extra motivation by having physical education at school to stay at school, a study done in Iambi has shown that learners that do sport will more likely pass grade 10 than learners that do not participate in sport (sportsman’s. Org 4:2009). What is important when we talk about the benefits of sport and physical education is that we also understand that it needs to be done “in the right way’, giving the children the opportunities to get the good experiences out of sport.

Sport may decrease your motivation and make you feel insecure, having sport activities that focus on team building and cooperation instead of nominative games might be the solution. Teachers education has a crucial role in the development of children’s own development of empowerment and self-worth, it is not only the sport in itself but also the teachers ability to include everybody in the activities that might help to improve learning performance and to encourage learners to stay in school and succeed academically.

It is therefore a major issue and a big problem that even though sport has been recognized to have a positive impact on education, physical education has been challenged within educational systems all over the world. Time allocated to PEE, number of trained staff, the amount of training provided for PEE teachers and resources required to deliver PEE in schools. Sportsman’s. Org 2009). “Girls and people with disabilities’ have to deal with additional barriers which in many cases prevent participation in PEE and sport. ” (sportsman’s. Erg/thematic profile 6:2009) Recent stud ices have indicated that the normalization of physical education across the world is near universal. Which is interesting because studies has shown that by reducing academic curriculum time by 26%, replacing it with physical activities, yet academic results did not worsen, there were fewer discipline problems, greater attentiveness and less absenteeism. ” (R. Bailey 2007) Studies have also found improvements in academic performance when physical activity has been increased during the school day. (R.

Bailey, 2:2007) In Iambi and boys usually play separately during Physical Education, all over the world the school is the primary institution for socializing, in this sense school physical education has the potential to be a helpful way to increase a healthy lifestyle: “The potential of PEE to reach virtually all children makes it a uniquely important resource. » (R. Bailey 2007). According to Race, Politics and Gender – Woman’s Struggle for sport in South Africa sport for girls was irrelevant in South Africa. Instead of sport they had to fight for their sundial. Separate education for different groups was major force for instilling acceptance of institutionalized racism (Emerge 1986:3); and sport in school was a major means of instilling sexism. (Race, politics and gender – Woman’s Struggle for sport in South Africa) until 1 ass’s Iambi was a part of South Africa, therefore it is possible that these sentences also represent the conditions for Amphibian girls. When we imbibe the absence of sport facilities for girls in schools with poverty and a society controlled by men and white people, girls interest is low and the ability to actually do sports is absence.

When we now known that it has been proven that physical activity is as important for girls as it is for boys, it might be time to change this low interest from the girls and the low interest for teaching girls. (Race, politics and gender – Woman’s Struggle for sport in South Africa) “Evidence suggests a positive relationship between physical activity and host of factors affecting girls physical health, including diabetes, load pressure and the ability to use fat for energy.

Second physical activity could reduce the risk of chronicle diseases later in life. В» (R. Bailey and more 2007:1) Sport may also help girls focus on school and help them increase hope, dreams and ambitions towards a better life, “Girls who participate in sport are more likely to achieve academic success than those who do not play sport t… ) and in some cases are considerably less likely to drop out from school. ” WHO (200712) When we speak of girls and development work we often talk about empowerment. Saved (2008).

Empowerment is seen as a process in which person gives or gets power from another. В«Empowerment is also viewed as the gaining of strength, confidence and vision to work for positive change the qualitative elements of empowerment are organizational ability, social awareness and self-reliance. В» (the alternate development paradigm powering 16:2010). According to studies it has been suggested that sport participation can contribute to empowerment, it may also help adolescents to “develop a sense of ownership of their bodies. Bailey (2007) Even though sport and physical education is an important place for development for children, adolescents and youth. It is important to member that “PEE lessons do not necessarily promote physical activity in children. ” WHO – Bailey (2007) There is evidence against sport and physical education, where a narrow curriculum disaffect some students, especially girls. Having physical education which is based on “games for boys” and competitive team games fail to address the interests Of not only girls but also boys. WHO – Bailey 2007) В«Many girls reject overly competitive teaching climate, even the very able and physical education experiences are highly supportive of lifelong physical activity habits, inappropriate provision can actually harm such healthy raciest. WHO – R. Galley and more (2007) Another and maybe bigger issue or reason for girls to not participate in PEE and after school activities IS based on lack of an area for girls to change into sport clothes, in some cultural, and for (l believe) all girls period of menstruation might be a barrier for girls participating in School Sport and PEE especially if there is a lack of sanitary areas.

Researchers have documented that in sub-Sahara Africa “lack Of sanitary products, clean, girls-only latrines and water for washing of hands results in a significant numbers of girls not attending school” (C. A Goggles 2008). 4. Methodology, empirical work and analysis In this assignment I have based my empirical work on a questionnaire given to 16 learners at SST. Matthias Primary School, in addition I have had private talks and interviews with the Principle, The Deputy Principle and the Teacher that run the PEE lessons at the school.

I have divided the methodology chapter in to pros and cons concerning quantitative and qualitative research and I have given space for the presentation of my empirical work. In the first section of my presentation of the empirical research did, you will see the questionnaire that I made for the learners and then I will try to give a short introduction to what I have found in the research in addition to a short summary of the interviews. In the second section of the presentation I will give my own analyze of the empirical research.

The interviews that took placed were based on the idea on holding an open interview, with a basic pre-structure in advance. This was done because I had some elements that needed answers to. During the course of the interview realized that some of my pre-structures questions was not as relevant as I iris thought. So I moved over to follow up the answers got with more questions. That made me able to get more thorough and relevant answers. Conducting the interviews was partially challenging because of my role as a SCORE volunteer. I had to make clear the distinction with me as a volunteer and as a student doing research.

I also feared that that the interaction between interviewer and interviewee may influence the conversation leading the interviewee towards giving me certain answers, he would think wanted to hear, for me to be able to offer assistance in the future. It was also aerobatic to be very critical in fear of ruining the good relationship had towards the school and deputy principle. Having a mixture of both closed quantitative and open more qualitative approach to the research gave me a broader aspect of the whole picture, and the situation I wanted to learn more about.

The children that I was working with was very young, and therefore it would have been more difficult, in my view to get good and to the point answers in a qualitative approach. Having a quantitative approach towards the children also made the task of working with the answers and analyzing them more precise than what it might have en if had used the qualitative approach, especially considering I was looking for tendency and attitudes towards sport and girls participating in sports, and not in aspect of “how and why? “. «Qualitative research gives less restraints on the answers from the respondents. В» (Jacobsen, D. 2003). In this case I decided to give some restraints and have a underlying idea of what kind of answers wanted to get from the respondent At the same time, the openness of the interview is controlled by the respondent. “It is the situation the researcher observe or the people they interview that controls the information. (Jacobsen, D. 2003). Qualitative research will give greater type of correct understanding of a phenomena, and it is more flexible.

Qualitative is a time consuming type of research, so you might end up with few respondents you have time to interview. This might lead to a problem with the representative aspect. “Are the respondents representative for anybody but themselves? ” (Jacobsen, D. 2003) Interviewing someone close to you, might also decrease your ability to think and act critically to the respondent’s answers. You might start being afraid of asking critical questions because of the close relationship between you and he respondent, you might feel like you are stepping on somebody’s toes.

Being close to the interview object might also give you better answers and more trust worthy answers than when you speak with somebody that you do not know. For a stranger it might be easier to not talk the truth and put their work in a better light. Qualitative research might help give a nuanced description of the of the subject you want to find an answer to. “It will help clarify something unresolved”. (Jacobsen, D. 2003) This is also the reason I choose to have qualitative and quantitative research. You might find some answers you could not find with qualitative and “visa versa”.

With quantitative research you will have an easier time generalizing the information and make the information useful. For me it was important to have as many of respondents my ability and my background would allow, through that have a representative assortment of respondents. This gives the research a “high extern validity” (Jacobsen, D. 2003). The quantitative approach helps give a precise answer to what I want to find out. A quantitative research helps me say more a about the attitudes and the coherence within the attitudes.

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