Student participation in the organization Of studies and Of he educational establishment they are attending should itself be considered a factor in civic education and an important element in international education. ” (UNESCO Recommendation concerning Education for International Countermanding, Co-operation and Peace and Education relating to Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, 1974. ) The government of Malaysia has considered the importance of teaching civic education in schools. As a subject called “Civics”, it first appeared in the primary school curricular after the country gained its independence in 1957.
In 2005, Civics and Citizenship Education was introduced as a compulsory object into the Malaysian school system (KBPS and KBPS). It is important for schools to educate the young generation to be active and participating citizens in this 21 SST century. This article discusses about the Civic and Citizenship Education implementation in school in Malaysia. INTRODUCTION Civics and Citizenship Education was introduced in the school system in Malaysia in stages at the two primary schools (Years 4 to Year 6) and all levels of secondary school (Form 1 to Form 5) for all students from 2005.
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Indeed Civics subject is not a bam subjects because these subjects ever had been armorial taught before implementation of the Integrated Curriculum for Primary Schools (KBPS) since 1982 and Integrated Curriculum for Secondary Schools (CICS) from the year 1988. Although civic education is not taught formally as a subject in the classroom since the implementation KBPS and because, according to the Cabinet Committee Report Review Committee on Education, Ministry of Education, 1979 (known as the Cabinet Report 1979), the teaching and learning of civic found to be performed satisfactorily.
Furthermore, according to the Cabinet Report 1 979, most of the teachers and students assume civic not important cause this subject is not a subject in public examinations. This subject also looked “not important” by some school (Cabinet Report, 1979, p. 74). In addition, the majority of teachers “not just do not know how to teach civics subjects even a negative attitude towards the subject. As a result the children were not attracted to this subject “(Cabinet Report, 1979, p. 74).
Nil 979 Cabinet Report realized the fact that civic and citizenship education is one of the important subjects to produce “the next generation of responsible and beneficial to the country” (Cabinet Report, 1979, p. 74). Since there are weaknesses in the subject and for the sake of civic and citizenship education improvement and the quality of civic education in schools, the report recommends that civic and citizenship education should be taught through the teaching of humanities, language, literature, co- curricular activities and day-to-day practice in schools.
This means that civics is not taught formally in the school system when KBPS was introduced in the early sass’s. However, in this new millennium, the development Of education and change whether that has happened in the country and globally has made civic and thespians education in the school system to be important (Already, Abram, ; Fleming, 2002; Arthur, Davison, camp; Stow, 2000; Arthur ; Wright, 2001; Beck ; Earl , 2000).
In Malaysia, the issues of unity and patriotism among Malaysian, especially the younger generation has become an issue that is often referred to and discussed by the country’s leaders, educators, people majority and mass media. No doubt the school has a role and responsibility to guide and create a generation that is responsible. Thus, the well being of society and the country will be continued and maintained. Therefore, beginning in 2005, the Ministry of Education has identified subject of Civic Education (AS) with a new name Civics and Citizenship Education (ASK).
This subject is taught twice a week in the fourth year classes in primary and secondary school Form One, was made the core subjects for all pupils and this subject will continue to be taught until Form Five. (CRITERIA) CIVIC AND CITIZENSHIP CURRICULUM IN MALAYSIA Civic and Citizenship Education goal is to bring awareness to students about the roles, rights and responsibilities in society and the country to produce embers Of society and citizens Of a united, patriotic and can contribute to the betterment of the community, the nation and the world (Ministry of Education Malaysia, 2005. There are three main objectives in Civic and Citizenship Education, which are Knowledge, Skills and Value. A) The knowledge in civic and citizenship in the civic and citizenship education syllabus are referring to:- * The basis information and ideas that students need to know. * The knowledge that can be applied by the students so that they become a responsible and active citizen. Knowledge include: * Self-development; Family relationship, school community, and civil society * Future challenges in the global and national levels.
B) While skills are referring to: * Students skills to engage in activities either inside or outside of the classroom; * Students skills to make decisions and to solve problems, increase civic awareness * Contribute to the development of family and community. C) Value refers to the values that should be owned by a good citizen with a good character and responsibility. These values include: * Tolerance * Respect the rights of others * Fair * Integrity: * Patriotism
The themes for the primary school level are love yourself, love your family, live together in families and communities, knowing Malaysian culture, Malaysia is my country and ready to face challenges. The themes for secondary schools are self-accomplishment, family relationship, colonization, heritage of Malaysia’s cultural diversity, Malaysia as a sovereign country and the challenges ahead. Another important component of the Civic and Citizenship Education is citizenship project in primary and community service projects in high school.
Practical work at least ten hours per year outside the school timetable set for he implementation of both projects. Through the practical work of this project, students are given the opportunity to apply the knowledge, skills and civic values learned in the classroom so that they will become a citizen who is able to participate actively in society. The teachers and the school have faced a new challenge with the implementation of this subject of how to implement them in an effective and meaningful. This leads to a new issue among teacher.
That is how they can teach Civic and Citizenship Education until the students can be actively involved in learning. All parties in the school should address this question rigorously. THE MAIN PURPOSE OF CIVIC AND CITIZENSHIP EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS * Schools should thoroughly examine the “informal curriculum,” or the governance of their school community and the relationships among those within it * Student participation in the governance of their classrooms and schools should be an integral part of civic education beginning in the earliest grades and extending throughout the span of their formal schooling.
Civic education should help students develop a reasoned commitment to those fundamental values and principles necessary for the preservation and improvement Malaysia constitutional democracy. Every student should become familiar with the nation’s fundamental documents through age- appropriate instruction. * Co-curricular activities that support and extend civic education should be encouraged. * The opportunity for school and community service should be made available to all young people as a part of their civic education. Community service should bring students into direct contact with government at every level and with sectors of civil society appropriate to their study of civics and government. * School should be more attentive to the professional development needs of beginning and less experienced teachers. These values may then help schools to structure and define the direction and aiming points of educational policy an practice. Schools should give their students access to, and the opportunity to acquire, practice and apply those bodies and kinds of knowledge, competences and attitudes, that will prepare them for life in today’s complex society. * Schools should have a concern for, and promote the value of, excellence and high standards of individual and institutional aspiration, achievement and conduct in all aspects of its activities. * Schools should be democratic, equitable and just.
Schools should humanism students and give them an introduction into and offer them opportunities for acquiring the values that will be crucial in their personal and social development. * Schools should develop in students a sense of independent and of their own worth as human beings, having some confidence in their ability to contribute to the society of which they are a part, in social, political and moral ways. * Schools should prepare our future civil society to conduct their interpersonal relationships with each other, in ways that shall not be inimical to the health and stability of society or he individuals that comprise it. School should prepare students to have a concern for the cultural vitality, as well as the economic enrichment, of the community in which they will ultimately play a part, promoting the enjoyment of artistic and expressive experience in addition to the acquisition of knowledge and its employment. * Schools should conjoin education for personal autonomy and education for community enmeshment and social contribution, enabling each student to enrich the society of which he/she is to become a part as a giver, an enlarger and an enhancer, as well as being an inheritor and beneficiary. IMPLEMENTATION) STRATEGIES FOR ACTIVE CITIZENSHIP IN SCHOOLS A) Negotiating school rules and policies by : * Class and school rules * Curriculum directories * New and reversed policies * Timetable frameworks B) Participating in school and community organizations by:- * Service clubs * Project clubs * Environment groups * Development and human rights groups * Youth clubs * Local issues groups C) Developing skills and knowledge in school subjects by: * Written and oral communication * Gathering and reporting information * Participating in forums * Meeting procedures Elections D) Decision-making in different settings within the school :- councils * School camping * Student * Representing students in school decision-making processes PUPIL PARTICIPATION APPROACH 1 . According to Print (2005) approach is used in teaching ACE can be categorized into three: * Passive-cognitive-based classes * Passive-school-based cognitive * active participation-based class and school. Passive-cognitive approach to classroom-based and school focused on strategies that teacher-centered where students are passive and just accept the knowledge that was taught teachers.
Instead, approach-active participation and school-based classes exceeding focused on strategies student-centered where students are actively involved in the learning process. Although all categories of teaching ACE have strengths and weaknesses but it can be improved by applying some other approaches such as active and interactive approach by * Already, Abram, and Fleming (2002), * Arthur, Davison and Stow (2000), * Arthur and Wright (2001), * Beck and Earl (2000), * print (2005) * Swanskins, Bordered, and Murphy (1999) Active and interactive approach to enable the student to experience and engage in the process of acquiring knowledge, skills and civic values and citizenship.
In other words, through active student participation approach and interactive gives students the opportunity to ask questions, communicate and interact with others in equal give and share their thoughts and ideas to understand and examine their role as citizens of Malaysia patriotic and responsible. Five strategies for active teaching and learning are: * Active Learning * Cooperative learning * Learning problem solving * Learning culture-friendly * Learning to serve the community Active learning in ACE would help students understand their roles and responsibilities as a responsible member of various social groups (family, school, friends, local community, religious, national, global).
This is because active learning involves student participation in the learning process hands- on and minds-on that is not passive and horizontal (Arthur ; Wright, 200 l; Laughlin ; Harrington, 1995; Rollick, Harder, Callahan, ; Gibson, 2001). Through active and interactive learning, students are given opportunities to develop aspects of the skills and values, as well as civic and thespians apply knowledge in everyday life. In applying active learning, teachers need to undertake learning activities ACE challenging, interesting, and relevant. This will cause mood can apply the results of learning activities to other learning environment, inside or outside the classroom. In other words, through active learning activities students learn something meaningful as they are given the opportunity to relate the knowledge, skills, and civic values and citizenship in a learning activity.
With reference to the ACE syllabus of primary and secondary schools, the umber of active learning activities that can be implemented in teaching and learning ACE including: * discussion or small group work such as buzzing; brainstorming, role play, simulations, debates and forums * cooperative learning group activities such as thinking in pairs or share games, role play, peer tutoring and jigsaw * Cyber learning activities such as seeking information through the Internet, building Web sites, exchange opinions via email With students from other schools within or outside the state * Demonstration by the teacher or students acting as their appearance in maintaining dignity or good and effective way to reject an invitation for friends to do the wrong things, such as smoking and illegal motor racing * Project proposed by the students themselves as having a show of traditional dress or folklore story telling competition * Learning self-reflection by keeping journals and diaries. WAYS ON HOW TO ENHANCE CIVIC AND CITIZENSHIP EDUCATION AT SCHOOL * Increase the amount of time that all students are involved in civic education at all levels of school. Infuse lessons about the responsibilities of citizenship into all subjects of the curriculum at all levels of schooling with facial emphasis in the social studies and literature courses. * Require students to read, analyze, and discuss cases and stories about people involved in the civic life of their communities in the past and present.
Establish cooperative learning experiences in which groups of students take responsibility for their own achievement of educational objectives. * Involve students in simulations and role playing activities about various aspects of civic responsibilities. Emphasize lessons about the civic values of our constitutional democracy at all levels of schooling through role modeling, eating and writing assignments, and open discussion of public issues and cue rent events. * School-based programs for performance of community service as a regular part of the civics curriculum. Make assignments that require students to write letters to government officials or newspapers to advocate opinions about public issues and policies. Make assignments that require students to participate in political activities outside the classroom. CONCLUSION Civics and Citizenship Education is a core subject in the Malaysian education system. However, to make the subject a continuous success, all parties such s policy makers, parents and especially teachers and students in schools need to play their roles. Policy makers need to be tactful to the diversified cultures and norms in the country when constructing and reviewing policies for this subject. Teachers have to be prepared to accept new paradigms, educate using the latest technology and understand the philosophy behind the rebirth of the subject.