Evaluation of future development strategies for Boeing and Airbus Seminar Paper Transportation University of Applied Sciences HTW Chur Dr. Oec. HSG Andreas Wittmer 15th January 2010 Wanner Marco, Haag Marius, Mader Liliane, Tinu Joseph & Schuler Christoph Table of contents 1 Introduction ………………………………………………………………………………………. 1 1. 1 Delimitation ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 1 Company Presentation………………………………………………………………………… 2. 1 Boeing……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 2 2. 2 Airbus…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 3 Boeing and Airbus become the major players ……………………………………….. 5 3. 1 Evolvement of Boeing……………………………………………………………………………… 5 3. 2 Evolvement of Airbus………………………………………………………………………………. Major Factors of the Airbus A380 …………………………………………………………. 9 4. 1 Development of the A380………………………………………………………………………… 9 4. 2 Seating Capacity of A380………………………………………………………………. ……….. 9 4. 3 A380 Cockpit ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 9 4. 4 Engines of the A380 ………………………………………………………………………………. 10 4. Materials Used ………………………………………………………………………………………. 10 4. 6 Performance ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 11 4. 7 Passenger Provisions …………………………………………………………………………….. 11 Major Factors of B747 ……………………………………………………………………….. 12 5. 1 A Brief History of B747 …………………………………………………………………………… 2 5. 2 Boeing 747 Variants ………………………………………………………………………………. 12 5. 3 Specifications of 747-8 …………………………………………………………………………… 13 5. 4 Airbus A380 versus Boeing B747 ……………………………………………………………. 14 Major Factors of the Airbus A350 and the Boeing 787 …………………………… 15 6. 1 Boeing 787 Dreamliner…………………………………………………………………………… 6 6. 2 Airbus A350 XWB ………………………………………………………………………………….. 17 6. 3 Advantages of the new aircrafts ……………………………………………………………… 18 6. 4 Fuel-conservation by consolidation vs. fuel-efficient aircraft …………………….. 20 Conclusion ………………………………………………………………………………………. 24 Reference List ………………………………………………………………………………….. 5 List of figures…………………………………………………………………………………… 30 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Seminar Paper Aviation Major Transportation 1 Introduction This assignment is part of the subject Air Transport Systems at the University of Applied Science in Chur. It represents important aspects in the field of new aircraft technology derived from changing customer needs. A variety of sources predict growth in global travel. With the globalization of business and the growing global migration, the need of travel abroad raises.
Additionally people become wealthier and travel costs become cheaper. On the other side, passengers become more price sensitive due to raising oil prices and they also become more concerned about environmental issues. More and more travelers are seeking responsible tourism. Because of the changing customer needs, the volatile travel industry needs to adapt constantly. (Spagnou, 2009) To meet the complex challenges facing the travel industry, new technological innovations come on the market. Aircrafts are becoming larger and through more efficient technologies, flying cleaner, quieter, further, and more fuel efficient.
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However, these two main goals disperse. Either a plane should be huge to allow greater travel comfort and increase the number of possible passengers, or it should be as ecological as possible to reduce noise and use of kerosene. Is there one of the development to be mentioned with a better future prosperity? This report is an attempt to find an answer to this question and to identify where opportunities might lie. In a first theoretical part of the seminar paper, the two companies constituting the duopoly in the airline industry, Airbus and Boeing, are presented.
In the following chapters, two different strategies in the aircraft technology are being critically analyzed and compared. In a final step the conclusion is drawn in chapter 7. 1. 1 Delimitation Although military aviation represents a considerable part of the production of both Boeing and Airbus it will not be emphasised in this paper in reference to its focus on civil aviation. Taking military aviation into the assignment would have exceeded the targeted volume. 1 Seminar Paper Aviation Major Transportation 2 Company Presentation
In this part of the assignment Airbus’ and Boeing’s history will be presented. Moreover, a brief insight into the companies’ missions and visions will be given as far as the available information allows doing so. Facts and figures, finally, are highlighted to complete this chapter. 2. 1 Boeing Brief History According to the official website of Boeing, the company was founded by William Edward Boeing in Seattle, Washington. The year of the enterprise foundation was 1916. Moreover, it is highlighted that the company has expanded enormously over the years.
One very crucial event, in 1997 Boeing merged with McDonnell Douglas, one of the major American aerospace manufacturer as well as defense contractor. Over the years Boeing evolved to the world’s leading aerospace company and the largest manufacturer of commercial airplanes and military aircraft combined. The company headquarter is based in Chicago, Illinois. The company’s shares are dealt at the New York stock exchange (Dow Jones). (Boeing e, n. d. ) Strategy, Vision and Mission Boeing has published a Vision 2016 paper on which some major bullet points can be found.
The main focus is on running a healthy business as well as open new frontiers which can be put on the same level as finding new customers respectively entering new markets. Moreover, leverage strengths should be converted into new products and services. Leadership, integrity as well as quality are mentioned as vital values within the company. Furthermore, customer satisfaction, working together and a high diverse workforce are highlighted as well. (Boeing f, n. d. ) Official strategy announcement can not be found online. But Newsweek online published a report in which the outsourcing strategy of Boeing is explained.
Hence, Boeing tries to benefit from cheaper and better labour worldwide. (Newsweek, 2006) 2 Seminar Paper Aviation Facts & Figures Major Transportation Boeing with all its divisions has around 160’000 employees and generated 60. 9 billion US dollar in 2007. In 2008 Boeing received orders for 662 airplanes and fell therefore behind Airbus. (Boeing e, n. d. ) 2. 2 Airbus Brief History Airbus SAS (Societe par actions simplifiee) is an important part of EADS (European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company). EADS was formed by three large European companies through a merger in 2000.
The three companies were the German DaimlerChrysler Aerospace AG (DASA), Aerospatiale-Matra which was based in France, and Construcciones Aeronauticas SA (CASA) of Spain. The focus in this work will be mainly on the Airbus SAS. (Airbus c, 2009) On www. airbus. com it is stated that in 1970 Airbus Industrie was established as an Economic Interest Group by a governmental initiative of Germany, France and the United Kingdom. As already mentioned above in 2000 EADS was formed whereas the British partner (British Aerospace) decided not to enter the conglomerate and left the alliance (BAE Systems, 2009).
Airbus’ headquarter is located in Toulouse, France. Moreover, Airbus flourished compared to Boeing and has become the main rival of the American counterpart. (Suddeutsche Zeitung, 2007) Strategy, Vision and Mission The Airbus’ Mission slogan is: “create the best and safest aircraft. ” Logically, the company tries to meet the customer needs as all customer-oriented enterprises try to. Moreover, equality and diversity are buzzwords within the company’s mission and value statement. A two-way flow is an important part of the statement as well, this means that Airbus counts on the views of the customers and their feedback. Airbus b, 2009) As well as Boeing, Airbus invests a huge amount into outsourcing a part of its production to Abu Dhabi. This enables the company to produce faster and to better conditions. The amount of the planned outsourcing is expected to be about 1 billion Euro. (Handelsblatt, 2009) 3 Seminar Paper Aviation Facts & Figures Major Transportation Airbus achieved a turnover of 25. 2 billion Euro in 2006 and employs an about 57’000 people strong workforce all over the world. The orders for Airbus planes rose in 2008 up to 777 aircrafts. Airbus c, 2009) Figure 1: Comparison of Boeing and Airbus Orders/Deliveries 4 Seminar Paper Aviation Major Transportation 3 Boeing and Airbus become the major players 3. 1 Evolvement of Boeing As mentioned the Boeing Corporation was founded by William E. Boeing in 1916 in Seattle, Washington. During the 20’s it acquired and merged with several small companies in the aviation industry. Boeing started off with seaplanes as one of their first products. In 1934, the US government prohibited airlines and manufacturers to be within the same company.
Thus, Boeing had to split up and one sub-brand was united airlines. Later in 1938, a service with the biggest airplane at that time started and was followed by the first only continental flights and a transatlantic flight to the UK. (Boeing History a, n. d. ; Boeing History b, n. d. ) The B707 had to become the first commercial jet airliner in the United States and was delivered in 1958. This was in response to British, French and Russian commercial jet airplanes which have been launched during that time. The launch of the B707 made Boeing and thus the US a serious market articipant in the competitive civil aviation market. In the 1960’s the B727 and its subsequent model the B737 have been put into service. The B737 developed as a passenger and cargo plane which has become the most ordered plane in aviation history. It is still produced today and seat capacity and range are under ongoing improvement. With the launch of the B747 in 1970 the era of ultra high capacity airplanes has begun. Dramatically enhancing demand for aircrafts and decreasing prices for air transport have led to the construction of the plane also known as “Jumbo Jet”.
Furthermore, two B747 models have been modified to serve as the Air Force One, the official plane for the president of the United States. (Boeing History c, n. d. ) During the crisis in the 70’s Boeing had to reduce staff by 50% due to lack of orders and the cancellation of the supersonic 2027 project which was sought to be in direct competition with the British-French Concorde. During the same decade, Boeing started into new fields such as rail vehicles like trams and water transportation. Competition in airplane industry increased, mainly due to Airbus which became highly competitive in the mid 80’s.
Boeing was forced to react and developed the single aisle 757 and the larger twin-aisle 767 as further improved versions of the 737. An important factor which led to economical upturn for Boeing was its participation in the prestigious space shuttle project and being the first contractor for the International Space Station. In the early 90’s Boeing launched its 777 model, a two engine wide range airplane, packed with the latest technology available. Later in this decade 5 Seminar Paper Aviation Major Transportation Boeing made a step towards expansion by merging with two major players in the US market.
The first company to be taken into the Boeing Corporation was Rockwell International Corporation’s defence and aerospace unit. This part of Rockwell was mainly chosen to strengthen Boeing’s position as the main contractor for the ISS. Secondly, it merged with McDonnell Douglas Corporation which was until then Boeing’s main competitor in both civil and military aviation. Due to the merger, several airplane models from McDonnell Douglas have either been rebranded as a Boeing model or abandoned. (Boeing History d, n. d. ) Undoubtedly, the events of September 11 faced Boeing with huge challenges.
It has put efforts into securing the flight process as a whole, however, focused on cabin safety and thus the avoidance of pilot cabin intrusion. In corporation with the airport authorities Boeing participated in enhancing on-ground security through explosive detectors and likewise devices. In the current decade Boeing was taking part in aerospace mission. E. g. the Mars Rover which was sent to explore the red planet. This vehicle was sent to Mars by a Boeing Delta II rocket. That said, several other satellites have been brought to space or are planned to by the same rocket. Boeing History e, n. d. ) 3. 2 Evolvement of Airbus The Airbus industry began as a consortium of European aviation companies to compete with American firms like Boeing and McDonnell Douglas. Although many European aircraft manufacturer were very innovative, their production lines were too small to compete. Hence, negotiations between many corporations were initiated which should lead to a collaborative approach to withstand US dominance in the market. Manufacturers along with their governments recognised that the risk was too high to take for one company and collaboration was necessary.
However, the reasons why the US had took the leader position in terms of airplane production and developments are based on the grounds of two major factors. World War II has rocketed development in aviation and left the US technological and infrastructural advantages. Secondly, the geographical situation in the USA made the airplane the most preferable mode of transport, thus, high domestic demand was needed to be met. (Airbus Company Evolution a, n. d. ) At the Paris Air Show in 1956 European airlines discussed the requirements of an Airbus (this term was first used then) with a capacity of more than 100 seats.
By 1966 Deutsche Airbus (Germany), Airospitale (France) and Hawker Siddeley (UK) handed 6 Seminar Paper Aviation Major Transportation in a request for funding to the three governments. After a year the governments agreed to the funding and to proceed with the so called Airbus project. Due to delays in the production of the first Airbus A300, the UK government had withdrawn its money from the project. However, Germany took the opportunity and increased its financial support. Airbus was established on the record as an Economic Interest Group.
The name Airbus originally derives from a term used in the airline industry to describe an aircraft that can transport a certain amount of passengers and can operate within a certain range. (Airbus Company Evolution b, n. d. ) All three, the British, German and French sub-companies agreed to produce and deliver their parts for the plane. The first aircraft producing that way was the A300 which has operated its maiden flight in 1972. By the time the A300 went into construction, Spain with its company CASA and the Netherlands were also participating in the project, although with a much smaller share in the company.
However, before the plane actually could start to fly, severe problems occurred, both political and technical. In an agreement between France, Germany and Britain it was stated that Rolls Royce would be responsible for the engines of the future aircraft. (Airbus Company Evolution b, n. d. ) Due to the fact that the airline industry showed little support for a 300+ seat version the A300B with 250 seats was designed and built with engines from a former plane. The change of the engines reduced the costs dramatically due to the fact that the originally planned Rolls Royce engines were very costly.
Also was Rolls Royce not able to deliver on time since their production facilities were mainly occupied with the manufacturing of engines for the US competitor Lockhead. (Airbus Company Evolution c, n. d. ) After its maiden flight and the first deliveries in the early 70’s, Airbus had a rough start with little orders. However, sales started to increase mainly based on the marketing strategy of Airbus CEO Bernhard Lathiere. He targeted airlines in America and Asia. In the years after the launch of the A320 was another milestone in the history of Airbus and strengthened the consortiums position as a major competitor in aircraft manufacturing. Airbus Company Evolution d, n. d. ) During the 80’s Airbus Industry had internal problems due to its very loose structure as Economic Interest Group. All companies involved were both shareholders of the Economic Interest Group and subcontractors to it. And every firm was still focused on 7 Seminar Paper Aviation Major Transportation enhancing its own profit. Jean Pierson, who was CEO of Airbus in the 1990’s suggested that the current structure should be replaced and transferred into a conventional company.
Imaginable, integrating, and valuing all companies involved was of high difficulty. By that time Daimler-Chrysler Aerospace (the successor of Deutsche Airbus), Aerospitiale, British Aerospace and CASA (the Spanish company) were in possession of 100% of the shares. Thus the possible merger of DaimlerChrysler Aerospace with British Aerospace led the French company, Aerospitiale, to abandon the reformation of the company. It feared that with this merger the new company would overpower them and insist on a equal 50/50 share distribution. (Airbus Company Evolution e, n. d. )
However, British Aerospace abandoned negotiations with Daimler-Chrysler Aerospace and thus, merged with Marconi Electronic Systems and become BAE Systems. Given these events, Aerospitiale, Daimler-Chrysler and CASA formed EADS. To get a clear structure in the company EADS now owned Airbus France, Airbus Deutschland and Airbus Espana which was equal to 80% of the share capital. BAE Systems and Airbus agreed on a trade-off on one side transfer of all of BAE Systems production assets to a new company Airbus SAS. On the other side, BAE Systems received shareholdings in the new company. Airbus Company Evolution f, n. d. ) 8 Seminar Paper Aviation Major Transportation 4 Major Factors of the Airbus A380 4. 1 Development of the A380 The development process of A380 began in 1988 with a group of engineers led by Roeder. The main aim was to develop a ultra-high-capacity airliner (UHCA) in order to break the dominance that Boeing enjoyed in this market segment since the inception of the B747 (Airliners. net, n. d. ). Finally in 1990 at the Farnborough Air Show the commencement of the project was declared with the projected goal of 15% lower operating costs than 747-800 (Wikipedia a, 2010. . Airbus considered the numerous design configurations even single deck which would have seated 12 seats abreast, and finally settled upon the double deck configuration largely because of lighter structure required (Airliners. net, n. d. ). 4. 2 Seating Capacity of A380 A380 is initially designed in two models. The initial configuration that is A380-800 carry 555 passengers in a three class arrangements and in all economy configuration it would be able to carry 853 passengers, 538 on the main deck and 315 on the upper deck. (Wikipedia a, 2010. A planned stretched version can carry 656 passengers in two class arrangements (National Geographic, n. d. ). 4. 3 A380 Cockpit In order to reduce the new training cost Airbus designed the cockpit layout, procedures, and handling characteristics similar to previous Airbus aircrafts (Encyclopaedia a, n. d. ). The improved cockpit displays eight 15-by-20 cm liquid crystal displays, all of which are physically identical and interchangeable; comprising two Primary Flight Displays, two navigation displays, one engine parameter display, one system display, and two Multi-Function Displays (Wikipedia a, 2010).
The MultiFunction Displays are new with the A380, and enable pilots an easy-to-use interface to the flight management system, replacing three multifunction control and display units (Encyclopaedia a, n. d. ). They included a so called QWERTY keyboard layout, the standard keyboard used for computers in the US, and trackballs, interfacing with a graphical “point-and-click” display navigation system (Encyclopaedia a, n. d. ). Pointand-click is the action of a computer user moving a cursor to a certain location on a screen (point) and then pressing a mouse button, usually the left button (click), or other pointing device. Airliners. net, 2010) 9 Seminar Paper Aviation Major Transportation 4. 4 Engines of the A380 The aircraft is equipped with four 70000 lb thrust engines, either the Rolls-Royce Trent 900 or the General Electric/Pratt & Whitney Engine Alliance GP7200 (Aerospace Technology, n. d. ). Noise reduction was an important requirement in the A380’s design, and both engine types allow the aircraft to achieve QC/2 departure and QC/0. 5 arrival noise limits under the Quota Count System set by London Heathrow Airport (Wikipedia a, 2010. ). The Quota Count (QC) system was introduced based on aircraft noise.
Each aircraft type is classified and given a quota count (QC) value depending on the amount of noise it generated while landing and taking-off. The more quiet the aircraft the smaller the QC value. A380 has ten fuel tanks with a capacity of 131,000 litter of fuel and refuelling can be done in 40 minutes (Airlines and Airliners, n. d. ). A380 has demonstrated the possibility of a synthetic fuel comprising standard jet fuel with a natural-gas-derived element. In one of the test flight conducted, which lasted for three hours, one of the four engines used standard jet kerosene and gas to liquids (GTL), 60 and 40 percent respectively.
The aircraft required no alteration to use GTL fuel. Even though GTL fuel does not reduce CO2 emission but it had local air quality benefits since it contains no sulphur. (Wikipedia a, 2010. ) 4. 5 Materials Used Due to the colossal size of the A380 special attention was given to use lighter materials to reduce the weight of the aircraft. The new material GLARE (aluminiumglass-fibre laminate), which is lighter and has better decomposition and impact resistance as compared to aluminium alloys, is used in the upper fuselage and on the stabilizers’ leading edges (Airlines and Airliners, n. d. ).
Another advantage of this new material Glare is that it can be repaired using conventional aluminium repair techniques (Airlines and Airliners, n. d. ). Carbon-fibre reinforced plastics, glass-fibre reinforced plastic and quartz-fibre reinforced plastic are also used extensively in wings, fuselage sections and on doors. The A380 marks the first time that carbon fibre is used to make the central wing box of a commercial airliner. In order to enable laser welding manufacturing techniques newer weldable aluminium alloys are widely used resulting in a lighter and strong structure (Encyclopaedia a, n. d. ). 0 Seminar Paper Aviation Major Transportation 4. 6 Performance Maximum speed of A380 is Mach 0. 89, approximately 1020 km/h and the range is 15,200 with maximum number of passengers (Wikipedia a, 2010). The turnaround time at the airport terminal, including passenger disembarking, cleaning, restocking and embarking the passengers for the next flight is a minimum of 90 minutes (Aerospace Technology, n. d. ). 4. 7 Passenger Provisions Airbus’ initial publicity stressed the comfort and space of the A380’s cabin, anticipating installations such as relaxation areas, bars, duty-free shops, and beauty salons.
In a three class configuration (555-passengers) A380 offers 33% more seats than a 747-400 but 50% more cabin area and volume thus passengers have more space and better comfort. (Wikipedia a, 2010) As compared to many other airliners A380 has larger windows and overhead bins, and also 60 cm of extra headroom. A380 offers 48 cm wide economy seats at a 10 abreast configuration on the main deck. (Wikipedia a, 2010. ) The upper and lower decks are connected by two stairways, fore and aft, wide enough to accommodate two passengers side-by-side.
The A380 has higher cabin pressure equivalent to an altitude of 1500 meters (5000 feet) versus 2500 meters (8000 feet)) and produces less cabin noises, these characteristics of A380 reduces the effects of travel fatigue. (Webaviation, n. d. ) 11 Seminar Paper Aviation Major Transportation 5 Major Factors of B747 5. 1 A Brief History of B747 Boeing 747 became part of the history as a result of a letter from Pan America to Boeing in 1965 (Home. clara. net. n. d. ): “Dear Mr Boeing, Please build us a very big aeroplane soon.
If it is pretty as well that will be a bonus. We will buy lots of them. Yours sincerely, Pan Am”. In December, 1965 Pan American Airway’s president Juan Trippe and Boeing’s president William Allen signed a letter of intent to develop what would be the 747 (Centennial of Flight, n. d. ). In April 1966 Pan America formally ordered 23 passenger and two freight versions. On September 30, 1968 the first 747-100 rolled out of the Seattle Works and made its maiden flight on February 9, 1969 (Home. clara. net. n. d. ). . 2 Boeing 747 Variants Since its inception B747 has undergone various changes and modifications. There are several models of 747 and a few of them are described below. B747-100 is the first in B747 family, and is the world’s first jumbo jet. Boeing delivered 250 of them and the last one in 1986. (Boeing c, n. d. ) Boeing continued the legacy of 747 with B747-200 which was introduced in 1971, it had more powerful engines and higher takeoff weights than B747-100 and longer flying capacity (Encyclopaedia b, n. . ). The 747300 entered the commercial service in 1983 with an extended upper deck and improved engines with a reduced fuel burn of 25 percent per passenger. Additionally, 10% passenger capacity was increased by extending the upper deck and relocating the new straight stairway to the rear of the upper deck. (Boeing b, n. d. ) Latest completed model of the 747 family is the B747-400 and it is the longest ranging and best selling model. In 1989 it entered the commercial with Northwest Airlines.
Even though B747-400 is externally similar to B747-300, it is a significantly improved aircraft with an all new glass cockpit which dispensed with the need for a flight engineer, an increased span of wings with winglets (it was the first airliner to introduce winglets), revised engines, tail fuel tanks, all new interior, increased max. takeoff weights and finally fuel efficiency increased by 4% as compared to previous 12 Seminar Paper Aviation Major Transportation 747 versions. On November 14, 2005 Boeing announced a new model of 747, the 747-8 (prior to the launch it was referred as 747 advanced) which is the latest in the family of the 747. Encyclopaedia b, n. d. ) 5. 3 Specifications of 747-8 Boeing 747-8 is a wide body commercial airliner with lengthened fuselage, redesigned wings and improved efficiency. There are two versions of B747-8, freight and intercontinental which is a passenger version. As of 2009, the first 747-8 freighter is due to be delivered in 4th quarter 2010, with the passenger model scheduled for 2011. As of December 4, 2009, a total of 110 Boeing 747-8s were on order; 78 of the freighter version and 32 of the passenger version. (Wikipedia b, n. d. The 747-8 is the only large airplane that fits today’s airport infrastructure, using the same pilot type ratings, services and most ground support equipments giving airlines the flexibility to fly to more destinations (Boeing b, n. d. ). B747-8 will use the same engine and cockpit technology as the 787 and as a derivative of the already common 747-400; it has economic benefit of training of flight crew and interchangeable parts. In order to reduce the weight some carbon fiber reinforced plastic will be utilized in the 747-8’s airframe. (Plane Spotting World, 2007. )
B747-8i will be capable of carrying up to 467 passengers in a three class configuration and will be able to fly over 14,816 km at 0. 86 Mach (855km/h). B747-8i will carry 51 more passengers and two more freight pallets or containers with 26% more cargo volume than the 747-400. The 747-8 freighter will be longer than 747400F by 5. 6m and will have a maximum structural payload capacity of 154 tones with a range of 8,130 km. (Boeing b, n. d. ) Boeing claims that seat-mile costs for 747-8 are 13% lower than 747-400 with 2% lower trip cost and it is more than 10% lighter per seat than A380 and consumes 11% less fuel per passenger.
This results in 21% reduction in trip-cast and a seat-mile cost reduction of more than 6% compared to A380. (Boeing c, n. d. ) 13 Seminar Paper Aviation Major Transportation 5. 4 Airbus A380 versus Boeing B747 The wide body 747-8, as the latest modification of Boeing’s largest airliner, is in direct competition on long-haul routes with the A380, a full-length double-deck aircraft now in service. Airlines seeking very large passenger airliners for long haul routes one of these two are the best option. Most of the time these are considered direct competitor for each other.
What is the best option the Airbus A380 or the Boeing B747-8? (Wikipedia b, 2009) The A380 can seat many more passengers than the B747-8 and most of any commercial airliner ever created. In a three class configuration A380 can carry 555 passengers whereas the latest in the family of 747 can carry only 467 passengers in three class configuration. A380 has the maximum capacity of 856 passengers in a single class configuration. The cabin size of both airliners are different, A380 has a half a meter wider cabin than B747-8 which allows better headroom and better comfort. (Wikipedia a, 2010)
Boeing claims that 747-8 is more than 10 percent lighter per seat than A380 and Consumes 11 percent less fuel per passenger which will ultimately cause 21 percent reduction of trip-costs and more than 6 percent reduction of seat-mile costs as compared to A380. For the 747-8F’s empty weight is expected to be 88 tons lighter and 24% lower fuel burn per ton with 21% lower trip costs and 23% lower ton-mile costs than the A380F. (Wikipedia c, 2010. ). The cockpit of the A380 is placed between upper and lower deck of the aircraft because this position maximize the visibility from the cockpit (at round level). The A380s’ “hidden zone” ends 19. 8 meters in front of the cockpit (at ground level) whereas the “hidden zone” for B747 is 26 meters. (Dinsdale S. , 2006) The performance of A380 is much superior in regards to speed and range. Maximum speed of A380 is 1020 km/h with a range of 15200 km on the other hand B747-8i has maximum speed of 855 km/h with 14816 km range. (Encyclopaedia a, n. d. ) European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) of United States have authorized A380 to land on 45-meter wide runways (People’s Daily Online, 2007).
Even then in order to facilitate the operation of the A380 airport infrastructure has to be modified in accordance with the needs of the aircraft, for example many airports are widening their taxiways and hangars to fit the A380. On 14 Seminar Paper Aviation Major Transportation the other hand, B747-8 is the only large airplane with a capacity of more than 450 passengers that fits today’s airport infrastructure, giving airlines the high flexibility to fly to more destinations (Boeing d, n. d. ). 6 Major Factors of the Airbus A350 and the Boeing 787
There was just one question in the aircraft industry for years. Would Airbus with its new giant jet A380 be able to break the Jumbo-Monopoly of the rival Boeing? Nevertheless shortly after the first delivery of the Superjumbo A380 to Singapore Airlines in 2007, the attention of the airline industry concentrated on a less impressive but far more important market segment. According to Mr. Grossbongardt, a German airline expert, plays the real music in the mass market of the 200 to 300 seat aircrafts. The one who is ahead by a nose will be the market leader of the future. Handelsblatt, 2005) Airbus and Boeing expect a turnover within the next 20 years of almost 1000 billion Euro in this market segment – nearly as much as with the short-haul aircrafts Airbus A320/Boeing 737 and the widebody aircrafts A380 and 747 together. (WirtschaftsWoche, 2008) Future passengers of the new long-haul aircrafts in particular the Airbus A350 and the Boeing 787, also known as Dreamliner, can look forward to a level of comfort never seen before as a result of the doggedly challenge between Airbus and Boeing for the leader of this market segment.
So far the pleasure of flying was limited due to tiny windows, too small overhead compartments, dry air, high air pressure and a high noise level. All those grievances will change with the new generation of airplanes. But not just the passengers can look forward to a new flying experience; also airline managers can be satisfied. Industry insiders expect a decrease in kerosene consumption up to 20 percent of current operating planes. (WirtschaftsWoche, 2008) The following pages will not only give an overview of the new concepts of the main competitors Airbus and Boeing but also show their strengths compared to previously build aircrafts.
It will furthermore be the basis for the comparison of the two prime concepts ‘fuel-conservation by consolidation’ (Airbus) and ‘more efficient aircrafts’ (Boeing). 15 Seminar Paper Aviation Major Transportation 6. 1 Boeing 787 Dreamliner The Boeing 787 Dreamliner (Figure 2) is Boeing’s newest airliner passenger aircraft. A midsize twin-engined widebody jet with 200 to more than 300 seats and primarily intended for long-haul flights. In its final version, the aircraft will replace the Boeing 767 which does not meet today’s customer needs anymore.
Boeing believes that the future of long-haul flights is in smaller aircraft connecting secondary cities and far less in concentrating on flights with very large aircraft flying between major hubs. (Newairplane, n. d. ) Figure 2: First flight Boeing 787 in December 2009 The 787 was originally designated 7E7 (E stood for ‘efficient’) and it uses much of the technology intended for the Sonic Cruiser project, a proposed futuristic airliner. This project was cancelled in the wake of the 9-11 assaults in 2001 and Boeing started to work on a more conventional, but very state-of-the-art type of airliner. Airlinergallery b, n. d. ) Boeing is developing three versions of the Dreamliner. The first version to fly is the 787-8, which will carry 210-250 passengers over long distances up to 14,200 or even 15,200 kilometres. The second version for 250-290 passengers is the 787-9, which can fly 14,800 to 15,750 kilometres. The third and so far last 787-family member will be the 787-3, a short-range version accommodating 290-330 passengers and optimized for routes up to 4,600 to 5,650 kilometres. (Boeing a, n. d. ) 16 Seminar Paper Aviation Major Transportation
The aircraft was originally scheduled to enter service in May 2008, but production had been delayed multiple times. In August 2009, the scheduled service entry date was pushed back to the fourth quarter of 2010. The aircraft’s maiden flight, originally planned for September 2007, took place on December 15, 2009. The 787-8 landed at Boeing Field in southern Seattle after three hours in the air. (Die Presse, 2009) By the end of November 2009, the Boeing 787 was ordered 840 times by 56 different customers (Boeing a, 2009). The average list price of a 787-9 is about 200 million USDollars (WirtschaftsWoche, 2008). . 2 Airbus A350 XWB The Airbus A350 XWB (Figure 3) is a mid-size widebody airliner with 270-350 seats, under development by Airbus. The aircraft is intended as a replacement for the A330 and A340 and will compete with both the Boeing 777 and 787 Dreamliner. (Croft, J. , 2005) Figure 3: Airbus A350 XWB computer rendering Airbus management publicity admitted that it was caught sleeping with the sales success of the Boeing 787. At first, Airbus thought that it could counter the 787 with improving the A330 and the first attempts to design an A350 were ‘warmed-up’ versions of the A330.
After much criticism from the airlines, Airbus decided to make an all-new design called ‘A350 XWB’ (Xtra Wide Body). The body is a little wider than that of Boeing’s 787 and also wider than the earlier Airbus widebodies based on the A300 fuselage section. (WirtschaftsWoche, 2008; Airlinegallery a, n. d) 17 Seminar Paper Aviation Major Transportation The maiden flight of the A350 is scheduled for 2012 and the introduction into airline services will be one year later (Airlinergallery a, n. d. ). Since Airbus decided to build an all-new aircraft, the development costs almost doubled to about $9 billion-$10 billion (Croft, J. 2005). Airbus is developing three versions of the A350. The A350900 seating 314 passengers in a three-class layout and a range of 15,000 km which is planned to enter commercial service in 2013. The shorter body A350-800 with 270 seats and a range of 15,400 km is about to enter commercial operations in 2014 and the stretched A350-1000 for 350 passengers and a range of 14,800 km, which should be service-ready in 2015. (Airlinegallery a, n. d. ) Until November 2009 Airbus had totally 505 orders from 30 different airlines and leasing companies (Airbus a, 2009).
The average list price of an Airbus A350-900 is about 240 million US-Dollars (WirtschaftsWoche, 2008). 6. 3 Advantages of the new aircrafts Use of composites There has been a strong trend recently to replace traditional materials, especially aluminium, with composites, as illustrated in the Airbus A350 and Boeing 787. Composites are materials created from two or more components like for example carbon-fibre reinforced plastics or glass-fibre reinforced plastics (Science, n. d. ). Composite materials confer several major design advantages.
Apart from being very light and very strong, they don’t corrode and they aren’t subject to metal fatigue. (Livescience, 2007) Comparing two recent aircrafts and their relative composite composition with the new Boeing 787 and the Airbus A350, the Boeing 777 consists of 12 percent and the Airbus A380 of 25 percent composites while as much as 50 percent of the primary structure – including the fuselage and wing – on the 787 is made of composite materials. With 53 percent the share of composites on the A350 will be even higher than the one of its main competitor. (Boeing a, n. d. ; Airbus a, n. d. WirtschaftsWoche, 2008) Employing composites to a greater degree will make airliners more reliable, letting airlines fly them more while keeping maintenance costs down. It will also make airliners lighter, reducing fuel costs and allowing them to carry more passengers and cargo or fly longer distances at their maximum takeoff weights. (Livescience, 2007) Nevertheless highly loaded parts such as engine mounting or landing gear will be made out of metals like titanium or steel also for the next couple of years as they better bear up against uneven tensile forces which can occur during heavy storms or during landing. WirtschaftsWoche, 2008) 18 Seminar Paper Aviation Major Transportation Passenger benefits Tomorrow’s largely composite airliners also will improve the flying experience for passengers. While metal-made commercial aircrafts are typically limited to cabin pressurization altitudes of about 2000 to 2400-meters in order to reduce cyclic fatigue on the structure, the 787’s and A350’s more robust composite cabin allows for a 1800meters altitude on every flight. Passengers will feel less dehydrated and do not find themselves gasping for breath. Livescience, 2007) In a joint study with Oklahoma State University, Boeing says participants in a 20-hr altitude chamber test simulating an airline cabin at five different altitudes reported feeling ‘less achy, more relaxed, and more comfortable with an 1800-metres cabin altitude compared with higher levels (Croft, J. , 2005). Additionally, not only does the 787 cabin environmental control system employ HEPA (high-efficiency particulate air) filters to keep the air free of particles as small as viruses, but Boeing also has incorporated a gaseous air purification system to scrub out even smaller molecules, to keep the air aroma-free.
Since outside air at high altitude is very dry but people generate humidity, Boeing 787 pilots will tell the aircraft’s computers how many people are on board and the computers will manage cabin humidity levels by drawing in greater or lesser amounts of air from outside. The humidity level in the new jets will be about 20 percent instead of the today’s common 5 percent. As a consequence passengers will face less throat, eye and nose irritations. (Boeing a, n. d. ; Airbus a, n. d. , Aerospace America, 2005) The passengers will also benefit from less noisy engines and quieter air conditions.
According to Boeing and Airbus engineers, the ambient noise during the flight will be reduced by at least one third compared to today’s operating planes. Wider fuselages provide a spacious sense of space. The oval structure leads to about ten centimetres more headroom and allows the installation of larger overhead compartments. Parts of the kitchen and toilets will be moved to the aircraft belly while the crew rest will be replaced to the so far not used area above the cabin. Passenger windows will be much larger, too.
Each 787 window is some 30 percent bigger than today’s cabin windows and window-height difference is particularly noticeable. The 787’s windows will extend above seatback height, so passengers sitting between the aisles can look across and see outside. Building on these advantages, Boeing has adopted other technologies to make passengers feel comfortable on 787s. It is using LED lighting to create a cabin lighting environment that can vary with the time of day from a restful 19 Seminar Paper Aviation Major Transportation pastel-colored glow at dawn and dusk to brighter daytime lighting and a subdued midnight-blue shade in late evening. Boeing a, n. d, Airbus a, n. d. , WirtschaftsWoche, 2008) Efficiency and economics Perhaps most important to airlines is how much it will cost to operate their nextgeneration aircraft, particularly with sustained higher prices for fuel. Boeing claims that the 787 will be 7 percent more efficient than the company’s computer-designed 777 and as much as 20 percent more efficient than its replacement the 767. The increase in efficiency comes mainly from better performing engines and an improved aerodynamic design. Airbus claims similar improvements for the A350.
The company calls the -800 model the smallest economically viable aircraft for long-range commercial operations and puts the -900 as the winner for miserly seat-mile costs – the overall amount an airline spends to fly one seat for 1 mio. Airbus attributes these gains to the new engines and to significant airframe weight savings resulting from new technology and detailed aerodynamic tailoring. (Boeing a, n. d. , Airbus a, n. d) Boeing developed for every model of the 787 a special wing design to minimize the aerodynamic drag and reduce the kerosene consumption.
On the other hand Airbus delivers all versions of the A350 with the same, significantly strong bended, wings. Although the waiver of an adapted wing shape increases the fuel consumption slightly, in return the airlines need less spare parts on hand and the maintenance cost decrease. (WirtschaftsWoche, 2008; Croft, J. , 2005) In the area of good-neighbour improvements, both companies Boeing and Airbus seem to be on a good way. The combination of advanced engine technology and optimized aerodynamic should lead to a minimized noise footprint at airports.
This is an increasingly important factor as nearby communities, particularly in Europe, demand quieter takeoffs and landings. Other environmental improvements for both aircrafts include lower emissions and fewer wasted raw materials. (Croft, J. , 2005) 6. 4 Fuel-conservation by consolidation vs. fuel-efficient aircraft The following part will compare the two different concepts of Boeing and Airbus. Due to the fact that just few parts of the Airbus A350 XWB are constructed so far and the newest version of the Boeing 747 passenger version is still not delivered, the following comparison will concentrate on the one hand on the Airbus A380, the 0 Seminar Paper Aviation Major Transportation commercial aviation worlds new heavy-weight champion and on the other hand on the Boeing 787 Dreamliner, Boeing’s new flagship in the 200-300-seat market. Figure 4: Comparison Boeing 787 and Airbus A380 One is big and fat with all the polish of a portly dowager. Critics describe it as a ‘dinosaur’. The other is sleek, pretty, and quick, and capable of long outings, but derided as incontrovertibly ‘plastic’ (Smarttravelasia, 2009). Within one of the larger duopoly industries, the Boeing-Airbus aircraft battle wages on with Boeing’s 787 Dreamliner and Airbus’ A380 (Figure 4).
Marred by production delays and rising fuel prices, the rivalry is as intense as ever. These two companies compete for market share in commercial and military planes, with demand far exceeding each company’s manufacturing ability, and both have a long order backlog. While they fill these orders, both companies must keep innovative Oil prices continue to soar after the collapse of prices in the second half year of 2008 (Tecson, 2010), and airline companies struggle with tight margins, planes that fly faster, fit more passengers, and consume less fuel are at a premium.
Thus, each company has designed its own new super-plane – for Airbus, the A380, and for Boeing the 787 Dreamliner. The Airbus plane has already debuted in October 2007 while Boeing could announce a successful maiden flight in December 2009 after several delays. (Thesimplifiedinvestor, n. d. ) Boeing and Airbus have split ways on their fuel-conserving strategies. With the monstrous size of the A380, Airbus aims for a new level of airborne mass transit as it opted for two decks each with dual isles and a total carrying capacity of an average of 21 Seminar Paper Aviation Major Transportation 25 seats. The A380 family is designed for longer trips and more passengers, seeking fuel-conservation by consolidation. On the other hand, Boeing explored a handful of roles for its three 787 Dreamliner planes. While the 787-3 is modelled for large capacity but short distance, the 787-8 and 787-9 provide a smaller capacity for longer distance aircraft. (Wikiinvest, n. d. ) The niches of the A380 family and 787 Dreamliner group do not overlap. Boeing’s 787-3 is closest in statistics to the A380, yet the A380 has over one and a half times the capacity and nearly three times the range.
Moreover, with the smaller and more fuel-efficient planes 787-8 and the 787-9, Boeing avoided direct competition with the A380. (Wikiinvest, n. d. ) Reason for two concepts The similarities in the growth forecast of Boeing and Airbus surprise. While Boeing predicts a construction of 28,600 aircrafts until the year 2026, Airbus expects a demand of 22,700 aircrafts until 2025. The two companies calculate with a yearly growth of the passenger volume of 4,8 (Airbus) and 5,0 percent (Boeing). Even though the numbers are quite similar, the conclusion out of the numbers couldn’t be more different at all. Die Zeit, 2007) “Airlines grew because they offered more flights to even more different places and not due to increased aircrafts within their fleet. ” (Randy Tinseth, Head of Marketing from Boeing, n. d. ) “Boeings attitude is irresponsible. The A380 can carry more than twice as much passenger as the Dreamliner. Bigger Aircrafts are the future of the aviation. Less takeoffs and landings leads to, less fuel consumption”. (John Leahy, Chef Sales from Airbus, n. d. ) Leahy (n. d. ) believes in the big hubs like Peking, Dubai and Bangkok.
According to statistics, already today almost 8 out of 10 passengers of long-haul flights start or land in one of the 32 big hubs. The A380 is made for such people for a list price of 320 million Dollars. The giant should connect the big cities and Airbus expects a market for more than 1200 of these planes (Die Zeit, 2007). Boeing believes a little differently. ‘Hub and spoke’ service will never disappear but it would make more sense to have an aircraft that is more flexible in its use. With security delays, airline 22 Seminar Paper Aviation Major Transportation elays and the cost of air travel getting more expensive, the company believes people just want to get to their final destination as quickly as possible (Newairplane, n. d. ). Independent aviation experts assume that the market for the new Super-Jumbos is more likely to be about 800 units. The biggest concern with the A380 is cost. First off, the plane itself costs about 320 million Dollar. Second, there are just few airports large enough to handle this aircraft without spending millions of Euro in upgrades to handle the logistics of the aircraft.
Airports have to invest in double jet ways to handle passengers alighting and boarding, wider taxi shoulders to minimize turbine ingestion of debris and wider gates to make certain the wings don’t hit another parked aircraft. The 787 is far more economical in terms of costs. First the 787 costs around 200 million Dollar depending on equipment. Second, can not only major airports like London, New York and Los Angeles handle this plane but also smaller airports such as Manchester, Orlando and Seattle. The best part is that airports don’t have to make any major overhauls or spend money on upgraded gate and taxiway design to handle this aircraft. Die Zeit, 2007; Daymarkaviation, 2007) 23 Seminar Paper Aviation Major Transportation 7 Conclusion Indeed, most of what is either written in Airline journals or said by several airline experts are just assumptions. Only when Boeing will deliver its first 787 to the customers scheduled in the end of 2010, the industry will probably see in which direction the future technology goes. Considering that Airbus with the A350 is already developing a similar aircraft to the Boeing 787 and Boeing is steadily improving the established but ageing Jumbo-Jet, it is more than likely that there is a market for both products, big and small.
An evolution that both companies have put their attention on is the use of new materials. We believe that the ongoing development of new materials is crucial for a successful future of the airline industry and especially for the two manufacturers Airbus and Boeing. Due to the increased awareness of the global warming, the industry gets more and more under pressure, even if the aviation impact on the environment is considerably lower than the one of other industries. Several measures like for example the emission trading, determined by the European Union, are planned to force the airlines to more climate protection.
Therefore the manufacturers have to invest in new technologies such as composite materials to make the aircrafts more efficient. Furthermore, potential for development shows also the design of the planes. Seeing that the Boeing 777 in 1995 was the first fully digitally designed jetliner, we think that with the enormous changes in the computer and software industry during the past years, there should be some additional improvements possible for next generation aircrafts. Some first benefits out of the use of such graphical programs can already be seen if we compare the shape of the wings of the Boeing 787 with previous planes.
Besides Airbus and Boeing, also the large suppliers of engines like General Electrics and Rolls-Royce are forced to invest in new technologies. The aircrafts manufacturing business can of course not be examined without considering further influencing factors. The progress of the economic crisis will play a major role for the whole aviation industry. If the worldwide economy recovers steadily but fairly slow, the airlines will probably postpone their orders for new aircrafts or even cancel them. Nevertheless, the history shows that people’s needs for transportation continuous to increase.
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