Over the last century many theorists have researched the concept of leadership. And The result is a a multitude concise, of assumptions hypotheses, however pure definition of leadership still eludes us. The first part of this essay draws comparison amongst the different ways scholars attempt to explain, define and examine leadership and what constitutes a leader. The second section is an evaluation of the behavior of two leaders in two different organizations. a critical assessment of how the leaders It includes guide the behavior of individuals, groups and teams.
A range of models and theories are applied to the style of both leaders. The third section is an analysis of two different leaders interviewed by the author. It focuses on how they perceive their roles and what has helped them develop as leaders. The final section is a summary of learning acquired from the assignment that is useful to the author’s own practice and development as an effective leader. Literature Review Introduction to Literature Review The essay classifies leadership into four key approaches: (1) trait approach, (2) behavior approach, (3) the situational or contingency approach and, (4) the leader-follower approach. Leadership most tidied and least understood topic of any in the social sciences’ Bennie and Anus (1997) An Introduction to Leadership What is Leadership? The term ‘Leadership’ is used in two main ways that encapsulate the beliefs and understanding of many. First it is regarded as a way of helping a group of people to work together. Secondly it is used to describe the ‘people at the top’ or in charge of a company, organization or team. Cotter 1990. Significant aspect of leadership ability followers to freely choose whether to follow the leader or not. Unless followers have some choice to follow or not follow, leaders cannot lead.
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Parade 2007 agrees with this and equates leaders without followers to that of a bicycle without wheels. Defining Leadership Leadership has been defined by traits, behaviors, influence, interaction patterns, role relationships, and occupation of an administrative position. Cotter 1990 emphasizes leadership as ‘coping with change by giving direction’ whilst Bennie W and Anus 1997 contrasts this with the idea of doing the right thing. The below demonstrates many variations leadership definitions over the past years. 8 Leadership is ‘the behavior of an individual… Erecting the activities of a group award a shared goal. ” (Hemophilia & Cons 1957, peg) Leadership is “the influential increment over and above mechanical compliance with the routine directives of the organization. ” (Katz & Kahn, 1 978, peg 528) “Leadership is exercised when persons… Mobile… Institutional, political, psychological, and other resources so as to arouse, engage, and satisfy the motives of followers,” (Burns, 1978, peg. 18) “Leadership is realized in the process whereby one or more individuals succeed in attempting to frame and decline the reality of others. ” (Smirch & Morgan, 1982, peg. 8) “Leadership is ‘the process of influencing the activities of an organized group toward goal achievement. ” (Reach & Belling, 1984, peg. 46) “Leadership is about articulating visions, embodying values and creating the environment within which things can be accomplished. ” (Richard & Engle, 1986, peg. 206) “Leadership is a process of giving purpose (meaningful direction) to collective effort, and causing willing effort to be expended to achieve purpose. ” Jacobs & Jacques, 1990, peg. 281) Leadership “is the ability to step outside culture… To start evolutionary change processes that are more adaptive. (Scheme, 1992, peg. 2) “Leadership is the process of making sense of what people are doing together so that people will understand and be committed. ” (Draft & Palls, 1994, PA) Leadership is ‘the ability of an individual to influence, motivate, and enable others to contribute toward the effectiveness and success of the organization… ” (House et al. , 1999, peg. 184) Table 1 – Yuk 2008: Definitions of Leadership These and other definitions recognize two key elements as critical to leadership; change and, (1) (2) efforts to influence the group and or facilitate preparing organization to meet future challenges.
Stodgily 1974; Bass 2008; Bennie & Anus 1997; Gibson, Evangelic and Donnelly 2000. 9 Academics, researchers and leadership experts agree that there is no single, ‘correct’ definition that captures the essence of leadership. Effective Leadership and Leadership Development In answering the question Want makes an effective leader’ there are a number of factors to consider. A common measure is the extent to which the performance of the team or business unit is enhanced and how well the leader has guided the process towards goal attainment.
Another indicator is the followers’ attitudes and perceptions of the leader. A third measure is the leader’s contribution to the quality of the group process in terms of cohesion, participation, cooperation and commitment of members. Effective leaders must consider five key aspects when making decisions – task, followers, situation, timing and process Conger and Origin (2006). 10 Bennie & Anus 1997 offer a different theory to most others, that of Self- management as a key aspect of effective leadership. It has three key components: 1 . Recognizing one’s strengths and compensating for weaknesses 2.
Nurturing one’s skills with discipline 3. Capacity to discern the fit between one’s perceived skills and what the job requires Another factor that determines a good leader is his/her ability to motivate others to perform Husking and Buchanan (2007). This requires him/her to have a general understanding of peoples’ needs and what motivates them Moscow (1 943; 1954; 1971). In his ERG theory Alder 1972 recognizes similar core needs but differs to the hierarchy proposed by Moscow. He (Alder) argues that these needs can be present at any one time.
He also notes that in the organizational setting one would tend to ‘regress’ to lower needs when attempts to fulfill higher needs failed. Souses Poster (2007) that propose remain five practices to exemplary relevant today’s leadership challenge. Existence, Relatedness Growth 11 Model the Way Inspire a Shared Vision Challenge the Process Enable Others to Act Encourage the Heart Bass (2008) other hand talks about ‘authentic leadership’ and posits that, rather than conform to a set of prescribed characteristics a leader’s authenticity should be applied to guide their leadership activities.