The last part of the brain to fully develop is the Cerebellum Cerebral cortex Frontal lobe Thalamus 7. Specialization of the two hemispheres of the brain involves Brooch’s area Alternation The primary auditory cortex Wrinkle’s area 8. The last stage of Piglet’s developmental theory is Concrete operational Seniority Formal operational Scaffolding 9. Piglet’s basic blocks for thinking and memory are Actions Accommodations Adaptations Schemas 10. The two processes involved in learning theory are Accommodation and assimilation Assimilation and equilibration Equilibration and organization Social transmission and schema 1 1 .
Which one of the following is the clearest example of Piglet’s concept of assimilation/accommodation? Learning to speak a new language Learning to paint with a new type of brush Looking at teachers as they lecture Looking at a worm and thinking it is a snake 12. In Piglets theory’, the understanding of object permanence is acquired during what period Of development? Operational Operations Late Operations 13. According to Viscosity, a child’s cultural development is Co-constructed learning and shared experiences Created by emphasis on private speech Internalized by self-thinking
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Anthropologically determined 14. The role of cultural tools in cognitive development involves, according to Viscosity, Both real and symbolic tools Essentially real tools Predominantly symbolic tools Primarily psychological tools 15. The zone of proximal development is the area where students may solve a problem By themselves With no disequilibrium With support Without frustration 16. Application of Visigoths ZAP concept would include Making new tasks slightly beyond the student’s current level of ability Not introducing new tasks until the prerequisite tasks are satisfactorily mastered
Requiring the student to work completely independently, regardless of success or failure Using highly structure materials to introduce new content rather than semi-structured tasks 17. According to Erickson, id a child fails to resolve a crisis at an early stage, the child is apt to Encounter problems with resolution of crises Forget the crisis and progress normally Remain at the unresolved stage until the crisis is resolved Resolve the crisis at a later stage 18. Children experiencing the Erikson conflict of trust vs.. Mistrust are also in what Paginating stage? Concrete operations Formal operations
Operational thought 19. The difference between self-concept and self-esteem is that Self-concept is an affective reaction while self-esteem is a cognitive structure Self-concept is a cognitive structure while self-esteem is an affective reaction Self-esteem is a general concept while self-concept is specific to a given situation There is actually little or no difference between self-esteem and self-concept 20. Research suggests that the relationship between self-esteem and success in school is a Causal relationship Negative relationship Positive relationship Zero relationship 21 .
One of the most hotly debated criticisms of Kohlrabies moral reasoning theory is that the theory is based on a longitudinal study of only Adolescent females Adolescent males Adult females Adult males 22. A nuclear family consists of Stepbrothers and stepsisters plus grandparents Grandparents and biological parents Adopted children and step siblings with single parent Father, mother, children 23. The major difference between a disability and a handicap is that a disability is an inability to do something specific, such as being unable to hear or to walk, while a handicap Has both advantages and disadvantages
Is a disadvantage in certain situations Is a disadvantage in most situations Will become a disability 24. Which of the following statements is true about intelligence? It is generally regarded today to be a poor predictor of academic achievement? It is theorized to be a collection of abilities by many psychologists The first formal intelligence testing was conducted by Plato Throughout history there has been general agreement about its meaning 26. A deviation IQ score of below 70 Diagnostic tool for identifying mental retardation Must be combined with other maladaptive behaviors
Falls within the normal deviation or range Identifies students with learning disorder 27. A disadvantage of tracking is Children in lower ability classes may believe the they are less capable than other students Individual differences are too great to apply special programs Student performance in high ability classes tends to decrease Teachers find it more difficult to teach this type of class than traditional class 28. Current beliefs about teaching the gifted Clearly favor acceleration over enrichment Clearly favor enrichment over acceleration View both acceleration and enrichment as beneficial
View neither acceleration nor enrichment as beneficial 29. Inclusion, as it relates to special education, means that students will Be included in regular classrooms for each activity in the daily routine of the school Become involved in the development and implementation of his/her PEP Demonstrate normal ability within hisser handicapping condition Participate in the typical subject-matter lessons in the school’s regular classroom 30. Membership in what cultural group is the best predictor of cultural differences? Ethnicity Gender Race Social class 31 .
Dan enters the classroom, puts his foot in the wastebasket, and drags it round the room to the delight of his peers. When the teacher insists that Dan continue this same behavior every day, the teacher is attempting the use Negative reinforcement Positive reinforcement Satiation Shaping (5 points) List six issues students in a lower SEES may encounter and how their academic life will be affected. Poor prenatal care: If a child isn’t given proper prenatal care there is a higher chance that they will not develop properly. This can lead to learning disabilities as well as physical ones.
The child’s brain may not develop properly, enabling the child to ever reach its full potential. Poor nutrition: When a child is not given a proper diet their bodies are not able to properly function. If the student is eating lots of sugary/fatty foods they are destined to “crash” throughout the day. They may be excited and full of energy one minute, and then falling asleep in their chair the next. Also, if a student is not eating enough food, the constant feeling of hunger may become distracting and lead the student to not focus completely on their work. Lack of medical care: If a student does not have access to proper medical care it is common for them to miss a lot of school. An obvious reason being hat if they are to become sick it will take them longer to become well because of the lack of medication. Not only may they be missing school, but if they attend class their full attention will not be on the lesson at hand. Environmental factors:These factors include pollution, lead, neglect, and abuse. If a child is not placed in a proper learning environment they will not reach their full potential.
An environmentally toxic environment consisting of pollution and lead can poison a child. This is an obvious distraction for the student and may cause problems in the child’s development and render them Stress: Causes of stress a student may experience are homelessness, discrimination, overcrowding, substance abuse, lack of utilities, teen pregnancy, and parental absence. When a student is stressed they tend to not focus so much on school but rather they problem weighing on them most. This may cause a student to have little interest in completing their assignments and cause them to feel overwhelmed.
Also, if a home is unstable the child may have a less than desirable study area and may not receive acceptable grades. Jobs: Sometimes a student may be required by their families to work a job after school in order to help provide for the family. If a student is working too much they may not be able to complete their assignments on time and will miss valuable points. They may also become too tired to fully pay attention in class and their grades will suffer because of that as well. (2. 5 points) Explain how cognition occurs using Piglet’s theory.
Pigged believed that there were three key aspects to all human learning. These are organization, adaptation, then equilibrium and dieses labium. These are shown in Piglet’s four stages of cognitive development, seniority, pre-operations, concrete operations, and formal operations. Seniority Stage: Cognition progresses from the exercise of reflexes to the beginning of symbolic functioning, mental representation of objects and events, and covert problem-solving. Pre-operational Stage: Thought is intuitive rather than logical and is egocentric.
Children have a difficult time taking the perspective of another. Concrete Operations Stage: Conversation is now mastered and a child can see things from anthers perspective. Formal Operations Stage: Students thinking now shifts from “what is” to “what might be”, and hypothetic-deductive reasoning sets in. Learners are blew to make and test hypotheses, allowing them to have and full understanding of the world around them. Students can now think abstractly. (2. 5 points) Explain how cognition occurs using Visigoths theory.
Bigotry’s coloratura theory of cognitive development states that certain activities occur in a cultural setting that may not be understood by those separate from these settings. Viscosity believed social interactive were more than just influences on cognitive development, they actually create our cognitive structures and thinking processes. To further a students understanding of a subject they must enter the Zone of Proximal Development. This is the area where learning occurs. Between that which the child has already mastered and that which is too difficult to learn.
By pushing the boundaries of their Max potential, they reach higher. (5 points) Case Study: Two Cambodia students who speak very little English move to your school three week after school begins, and are assigned to your already crowded and diverse classroom. Because a small Cambodia community has been established in the area, you already have several bilingual students. You are having difficulty communicating with them, and you suspect they are allowing very little of the material being taught. On several occasions, White students have been Seen taunting while the various other ethnic groups are ignoring the new students.
What are you going to do to adapt instruction, effectively overt bullying and create a positive environment? When students from a different cultural background are introduced into your class it is a good idea to educate your students about this culture and provide them with a better understanding of their differences and expressing them in a positive way. Also, by seating the students in pods consisting of efferent groups the students may get to know each other better and require the new students to not be ignored.