Demonology Emmanuel Kant, the father of demonology 1724-1804: groundwork of metaphysics of morals, 1785. Two ethical approaches: demonology (=moral duties) and intentionality Internationalism: “It is impossible to think of anything at all in the world, or indeed even beyond it that could be considered good without limitation except a good will. ” Demonology: (Demon-?duty) -Absolute and universal moral duties regardless of consequences I. E. It is absolutely wrong to kill innocent human beings, to bribe or to tell lies.
Universalism and absolutism: Universalism: moral principles apply to all people at all times under all resistances Absolutism: there is a set of actions that are always morally right regardless of consequences and intentions While Demonology is universal and absolute, consequentiality is universal but argues that no moral rule is absolute An absolute moral law, the cornerstone of demonology Reasoning dictates the universal moral law in the categorical imperative: Act only in accordance with the maxim through which you can at the same time will that it becomes a universal law.
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Associated moral principle: “so act that you use humanity, whether in your own person or in the person of any other, always at the same time as n end, never merely as means. ” (child labor could be Justified by this principle, in that the child’s condition outside the workplace would be worse) Applying demonology in practice Very abstract and difficult to use this in a practical system. How do I figure out what the moral law dictates?
You ask yourself what would happen if everyone were to X when deemed beneficial Kant argued that the moral law is above the legal law, because the moral law is universal, whereas the legal one is created by man, and man is imperfect and immoral. Comparing demonology and consequentiality Demonology Consequentiality Respect for individuals Yes Respect for welfare No Yes By anagram Absolutism Universalism Certainty Critique of Demonology: obeying our moral duties may cause horrible consequences.
Is lying always morally wrong? (Charlatanic, Nazi Germany, 9-10 November 1938) Applying demonology to business ethics: business codes of conduct have a strong deontological basis Business needs a consequentiality corrective: Following moral duties may lead to sub-optimal consequences. Egg. Stop using child labor may cause more harm to the children Rule-utilitarianism: a promising position: Rule utilitarianism, like demonology, holds that there are types of actions that one should always perform or refrain from.
However this principle is only valid so long as it produces optimal consequences Virtue Ethics Father: Aristotle. (384-322 SC) The Mechanical Ethics: -Morally right actions determined by the character and intentions of the agent – Virtues: Justice, kindness, courage Basic principle: -The moral status of an action is always determined by the character and motivational structure of the agent. Your underlying motivation is the key) Consequences don’t count per SE, nor do duties Virtues are cultivated dispositions to CT -Genetic dispositions (personality) ; Static ; Maintain identity over time ; Not sensitive to cultural and social context -Educational dispositions (character) ; Dynamic ; Develop over time ; Shaped by cultural and social context The golden mean and prisoners Prisoners Golden Mean Recklessness Vice Courage Virtue Cowardice Virtuous Agency: A person acts virtuously when she does the right thing (acts in a way called for by the virtue) for the right reasons (out of virtuous motivations), feels the right way about it (I. E. , is not overly tempted to act badly), and knows what she is owing Implication for businesses: To reduce the risk of ‘cynical greed’ in business, it is necessary to build organizational cultures designed to develop individual dispositions to act virtuously Virtue ethics and banking: What can corporations and public policy makers do to create virtues in the banking sector, which conditions employees to act for the greater good of society? Assignment: In the article, For-profit Business as Civic Virtue, Brenna (2012) argues that one can exercise civic virtue through running a tort-profit business.
First, describe the main tenets to virtue ethics ND explain Brakeman’s argument. Second, discuss if you find the argument to be convincing. Justify your views. Brakeman’s argument: It follows from 4 uncontroversial premises that running a business or being an employee may be an excellent way to exercise civic virtue and thereby contribute to the greater good of society This conclusion is controversial, for at least two reasons: ; Civic virtue is normally thought of as being exercised via engagement in political, charitable or community activities ; Anti-capitalists claim that working for/running a commercial business undermines the greater good of society