In this assignment, I am going to talk about the study that Shannon – Weaver, David Beryl, Wilbur Ashrams, Bernard and Robert T. Caring have done on communication, how they saw communication and the theories of them. Communication gives us a conceptual framework with which to study and improve our own communication skills and those of others. Communication is central in our lives, in school, at work, and in our personal activities and relationships. The study of communication helps to analyze written, oral, visual, and electronic messages from historical, critical, and social science perspectives.
They also learn to produce such messages as a means of artistic and functional expression. Shannon – Weaver The most well-known and influential formal model of communication, developed in 1949 by Claude Shannon and Warren Weaver. It is a transmission model consisting of five elements: an information source, which produces a message; a transmitter, which encodes the message into signals; a channel, to which signals are adapted for transmission; a receiver, which decodes (reconstructs) the message from the signal; a destination, where the message arrives.
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A sixth element, noise, is a dysfunctional factor ( Shannon – Weaver, 1949, p 7). Communication was conceived as a linear model of transmission of a message from a source to a receiver via a signal producing transmitter. Communication as linear process: It is a simple model and the message is decide by the source transmitted into a signal (encode) which is sent through a channel to the receiver. David Beryl The Beryl’s model of communication takes into account the emotional aspect of the message. Beryl’s model of communication operates on the SMART model.
David Beryl’s model explains the basic elements of communication process. These elements are Source, message, Channel and receiver. This model is basically descried as the model of ingredients in communication. The elements are vital to the communication process. According to Beryl, the skills, the attitude and values of source and receiver must match to some extent for successful communication (Sonoma, 2010, n. D. ). Wilbur Ashrams Ashrams was a forefather in the development of a basic model of communication. His model is a derivation of Shannon-Weaver transmission del of communication with certain modifications.
The Shannon-Weaver model is more mathematical and technological with six proposed elements of communication: source, encoder, message, channel decoder and receiver. Wilbur Ashram’s 1954 model magnifies on this thinking by highlighting the process of encoding and decoding the message. Ashrams proposed this process as a reciprocal circular communication between the sender and receiver (Musketeer, 2014, n. D. ). Circular Model, this model breaks the sender and receiver model it seems communication in a practical way. It is not a traditional model.
Ashrams believed that in order for communication to be effective it should be understood; therefore communication is not complete until feedback is given (Musketeer, 2014, n. D. ). Berglund Berglund (2008) proposed a transactional model of communication. The way the Berglund communication model works is by both the sender and receiver simultaneously receive and send message. The premise of the Berglund model is for both the sender and receiver to simultaneously engage in sending and receiving messages. In a complex model, forth the sender and receiver are linked reciprocally (Daniel, 2013, n. . ). This second attitude of communication, referred to as the constitutive model or constructionist view, focuses on how an individual communicates as the determining factor of the way the message will be interpreted. Robert T. Caring According to (Caring, 2008) the constitutive model of communication as a Meta model and theory as meta discursive practice. The essay argues that all communication theories are mutually relevant when addressed to a practical life world in which “communication” is already a richly meaningful term.
Each tradition of communication theory derives from and appeals rhetorically to retain commonplace beliefs about communication while challenging other beliefs. In a tentative scheme of the field, rhetorical, semiotic, phenomenological, cybernetic, socio-psychological, socio cultural, and critical traditions of communication theory are distinguished by characteristic ways of defining communication and problems of communication, meta discursive vocabularies, and meta discursive commonplaces that they appeal to and challenge (Caring, 2008).
Linear Model. It is a one way model to communicate with others. It consists of the sender encoding a message and channeling it to the receiver in the residence of noise. Draw backs – the linear model assumes that there is a clear cut beginning and end to communication. It also displays no feedback from the receiver. Transactional Model. It assumes that people are connected through communication; they engage in transaction. Firstly, it recognizes that each of us is a sender-receiver, not merely a sender or a receiver.
Secondly, it recognizes that communication affects all parties involved. So communication is fluid / simultaneous (Daniel, 2013, n. D. ). Linear model is very basic, whereas, transactional model of communication builds upon it. In the linear model, the sender communicates to the receiver. It is a one way channel. In the transactional model also sender communicates to the receiver, but there are two people communicating to one another simultaneously.
The linear model views communication as a thing, like an information packet, that is sent from one place to another. From this view, communication is defined as sending and receiving messages. The transaction model views communication as integrated into our social realities in such a way that it helps us not only understand them but also create and change them. Linear model involves only one way communication that is messages are sent and the receiver only receives. It is one dimensional.
Where as in transactional model besides sending messages and giving a feedback we also have non verbal message The transactional model, unlike the linear, recognizes that communication is a simultaneous process and therefore switched both the terms “sendoff and “received to “communicator. ” Conclusion The Transactional Model becomes more sophisticated yet. This model depicts face-to-face interaction, or “trans-action” as a dynamic and changeable process hat is not limited to simple definition.
In the Transactional Model, receiver and sender can play the same roles simultaneously, as sometimes happens, as messages can be sent back and forth simultaneously. It appears chaotic and ineffective, but sometimes communication is just that. Throw in some noise, and it would be a wonder whether any message is conveyed successfully in this environment.