What is meant by the culture of a society, and why is it important the international managers understand it? Do you notice cultural differences among your classmates? How do those differences affect the class environment? How do they affect your group projects? Cultures are different around the world maybe we can see differences, it is important that managers know it because in their enterprise 2. Describe the four dimensions of culture proposed by Hefted.
What are the managerial implications of these dimensions? Compare the findings with those of Trampers and the GLOBE project team The four dimensions are power distance: This refers to the degree of inequality that exists and is accepted – among people with and without power. Individualism: This refers to the strength of the ties people have to others within the community. A high DIVIDE score indicates loose connections Masculinity: This refers to how much a society sticks with, and values, traditional male and female roles.
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Uncertainty/Avoidance Index: This relates to the degree of anxiety that society members feel when in uncertain or unknown situations. High Jail-scoring nations try to avoid ambiguous situations whenever possible 3. Discuss the types of operational conflicts that could occur in an international context because of different attitudes toward time, change material factors and individualism There need to be some standards to follow in the international context, an enterprise need to know the culture of every place where they have a company. The company need to respect customs, attitudes etc. . Discuss how internet and culture interact. Which most affect the other and how? Give some examples. In fact internet is a connection for the cultures, the internet allow us to be connected around the world, for example we can have a chat with any person of the world only using a social network. 5. Discuss collectivism as it applies to the Japanese workplace. What managerial functions does it affect? The collectivism would affect the performance of each person, because no all of them work in a team, some depend of others and the work does not go in the best way. . Discuss the role of Islam in cross-cultural relations and business operations The Islam makes the function of unifying cultures via kind of customs, traditions, it gives peace and a comfortable environment to work in a better way. Case Questions Australia and New Zealand: Doing Business with Indonesia Foamy 1 . Using this case and the cultural dimensions explored in this chapter, discuss some of the ways in which citizens of Australia and New Zealand are members of cultures very different from any other in Asia.
Based on the things I read on this text I see that Asian people is more sensitive, they focused on the feelings and all things, for example they try to make their employees to feel good, in a good behavior, with a psychology assortment to have them in good statement 2. In what respects is the Indonesian archipelago unique in Asia? Yes, it is unique but only in terms of extension and diversity 3. What characteristics in Indonesian workplaces are referred in this profile?
The characteristics are that the Indonesian people needs are covered immediately, is a management area for the problems that Indonesian employees can have depression, stress, and sadness. Companies understand and help the employees; with this they are more efficient, with more productivity. 4. How does population appear to be socially stratified? Western managers should make clear that they want and expect subordinates to come to come to them with questions or problems and that the response will be non- judgmental and self-controlled. 5.
What are some business opportunities in Indonesia for foreign direct investment? Everything that has something to see with assembling and production, cars, clothes, etc.. Indonesian people work for Just a little of money, but it is very important to have them happy, with the attention that they need, covering all the needs that them and their families can have. Communicating Across Cultures Chapter 4 1 . How does culture affect the process of attribution in communication? Can you relate this to some experiences you have had with your classmates? A sender’s message contains the meaning intended by the encoder.
When the message reaches the receiver, it undergoes a transformation which is influenced by the receiver’s culture. Culture is affects communication by language, religion or customs because every single person has different culture or subculture also if they grew up in the same country; every part of the country has different customs and religions. For example, one day, on a team activity, one of the team members does not talk Spanish, we have to explain all the activity on his language, of course he does not understand certain part of which part he is going to do but, all the team members explain him slowly and his language. . What is stereotyping? Give some examples. How might people stereotype you? How does a society differ from a stereotype? Stereotyping occurs when a person assumes that every member of a society or subculture has the characteristics or traits. Students might be stereotyped based on their race, gender, appearance, affiliations, major area of study, ethnic heritage, religion or other attribute. A society is a means of accurately describing members of a group by their traits, which is useful to provide some initial basis for understanding people in a new encounter.
Stereotyping is a fixed idea or image that many people have of a particular type of person or thing, but which is often not true in reality. Any time you grouping races or individuals together and make a Judgment about them without knowing them. For example, in cultures… All white Americans are obese, lazy, and dim-witted. Homer Simpson of the TV series The Simpson is the personification of this stereotype. Mexican stereotypes suggest that all Mexicans are lazy and came into America illegally. All Arabs and Muslims are terrorists.
All people who live in England have bad teeth. Italian or French people are the best lovers. All Irish people are drunks and eat potatoes. All Americans are generally considered to be friendly, generous, and tolerant, but also arrogant, impatient, and domineering. 3. What is the relationship of language and culture? How is it that people of the same language may still miscommunication? Language conveys culture, technologies and priorities. Language is inseparable from culture; language cannot be interpreted without an understanding of culture.
Within a given language group are many subcultures that have their own interpretations of certain words or phrases, or who may have their own idioms or regional expressions. 4. Give some examples of cultural differences in the interpretation of body language. What is the role of such nonverbal communication in business relationships? Americans look straight at you when communicating, whereas the British keep your attention by looking away. Arabs refer to touch and stand very close when communicating. Koreans speak more loudly to emphasize a point; Americans speak loudly when they are angry.
Improper nonverbal communication can add a significant level of noise to the communication process. The listener may attribute meaning to the noise that might damage the business relationship. 5. Explain the differences between monochromatic and polyphonic time systems. Use some examples to illustrate their differences and the role of time in intercultural communication. Monochromatic time systems have a linear system of time with past, present and future. People in monochromatic systems generally concentrate on one thing at a time.
Polyphonic time systems are nonlinear system of time where people tolerate the simultaneous occurrence of many events. 6. Explain the differences between high and low context cultures, giving some examples. What are the differential effects on the communication process? In high context cultures, the context in which the communication takes place is vital to the communication of the message, an implicit message. In low context cultures, the context in which the communication takes place is secondary to the communication, n explicit message. . Discuss the role of information systems in a company, how and why it varies from country to country and the effects of these variations. Communication in organizations varies according to where and how information originates and the channels and speed at which information flows internally and externally. One example of how cultures vary is on the importance of the source of information. Some cultures prefer important information to originate only from the top of the hierarchy. Elizabeth Visits Spec’s French Subsidiary 1.
What can Elizabeth Moreno do to establish a position of power in front in French managers to help her accomplish her assignment in five days? Explain. The French tend to regard authority as residing in the role and not the person; Elizabeth will need to find subtle ways to accentuate her expertise, her advanced degree in Chemistry, and her role as Vice President. Further, she will need to demonstrate an intellectual flexibility while allowing the French to show their ability to grasp complex issues and evaluate solutions. 2. What should Elizabeth know about “high-context” vs.. Owe-context” cultures in Europe? Explain. Countries in Europe do not share the same cultural context; Finance is more high-context than Germany. As a result, Elizabeth should pay especially close attention to the cultural context of the communication including: the medium, the source, the setting, proteomics, Paraguayan and object language. 3. What should Elizabeth include in her report so that future executives and scientists avoid communication pitfalls? Elizabeth could help her peers by noting communications processes that worked and noting which processes failed.
She would provide as much information about the communication context as possible. 4. How can technical language differ from everyday language in corporate communications? Technical language is often shared across cultures (the Arabic word for computer is computer). Technical language is communicated through its own communications channels. Papers, proceedings and Journals. These Journals are often, though not always, prepared in English. While technical Jargon creates a common or share language on some levels, it does not eliminate the problems associated with cross-cultural communication.