Language Related Assignment 1. The plane leaves at 10. 00 tomorrow a) The form is present simple Subject third person + verb present tense + time marker b) A future arrangement – a ‘timetable future’ as the plane has a daily schedule and it will depart accordingly. c) Students may be confused by the form of present simple when a future time is referred to. They may confuse the meaning with present continuous ‘is leaving’ which means the event is happening now rather than in the future.
The pronunciation of ‘v’, may not be clear, as the stress is on the end with the ‘s’ leaves d) Context – Planning a journey Target models The bus goes to Dewsbury from Leeds at 10. 57. It arrives in Dewsbury at 11. 47 The bus stops at the dentists at 11. 05 e) Has the journey taken place? No Do you need to go anywhere? Yes to my dentist appointment Have you planned your journey? Yes, for tomorrow Do you know when you will go? Yes I looked at the bus timetable 2a. The students had left when the bell rang. 2b. The students left when the bell rang 2c.
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The students were leaving when the bell rang a) Form 2a. Past perfect subject third person + had + past participle + when + past participle 2b. Past simple subject third person + verb past tense form + when + verb past tense form 2c. Past Continuous subject + third person + were/was + verb -ing form + when + past participle b) Function 2a. is a past action completed in a sequence of events, while 2b is a past event, and 2c then describes an event which began in the past and continues up to a particular point which could still be in progress.
The difference between past perfect and past simple is that in the past perfect the students leave then hear the bell, for past simple the students left on hearing the bell ring, the past continuous is then used to say the students start to leave, the bell rings in the middle, and then the bell continues to ring and the students continue to leave. Timeline for past perfect, past simple, and past continuous Past perfect The students had left when the bell rang i) .
First Second Finished Present Simple when the bell rang The students left ii) . Completed FirstSecond Finished Past continuous Bell rings The students continue leaving leaving The students start to leave . First starts and second happens in the middle of the first then both actions occur together b) Student difficulties Students may not understand for each tense if the bell has been heard before the students leave.
This means that the wrong meaning may be conveyed in each sentence. Students may not use had for the past perfect changing the meaning to the past simple. Students may use present continous instead of past continuous and then keep the past participle. e. g. Students are leaving when the bell rang. Students may not hear had or were as these words become schwa sounds with the intonation of the sentence. The emphasis is on when, and rang. c) Target models Context School 3 Pupils attending class. 2a. The teacher had s when I got to class. (1st class) 2a The class had s when the bell rang. 1st class) 2a They had when I opened the door. (1st class) 2b The teacher to the class when I walked in (2nd class) 2b The teacher to the class when I walked in. (2nd class) 2b The teacher to the class when I walked in. (2nd class) 2c The students -ing the book when I sat down. (3rd class) 2c The students -ing the book when I sat down . (3rd class) 2c The students were reading when I sat down. (3rd class) d) Checking understanding Has it already happened? Yes (Past simple, past perfect and past continuous) Did you hear any instructions from the teacher?
No. (Past simple, past perfect) /Yes I interrupted the first action. (Past continuous)) Did anything get interrupted? Yes the teacher was still speaking. (Past continuous)/ No the teacher had finished speaking (Past simple/ Past perfect) 3. I wish I’d known a) Form past perfect simple I wish + had + past participle b)This tense may be used to express present regret for not changing a past situation c) Students may not understand we are expressing a wish to change what has already happened. Students may not hear I’d form in speech, as it may become a schwa sound with intonation. Students may use the past simple and change the meaning I wish I knew which expresses lack of knowledge. Students may confuse the shortened form I’d by using could have or would have instead of had. This may be heard in regional speech, but students may be penalised for using this. d) Context – Talking about past events that student regrets I wish I hadn’t eaten so much. I wish I’d said that to him. I wish I’d gone to class today. e) Checking understanding Did the action happen in the past? Yesterday evening. Do you want to change the action? Yes Can you change the action? No it’s already done. . You should go to the doctor a) Form – modal verb third person singular + should + bare infinitive b) Function – to provide positive advice to another person. c) Students may not understand that it is positive advice. i. e it is the right thing to do. Students may not stress the should it may become secondary to go. This intonation changes the meaning for a listener to a command. Students may decide to use other modal words, could used for a request, or would for an offer and create different form and meaning. d) Context – Advice about going to a friends house You should not be late.
You should take some wine with you. You should be able to take the bus. You should ask for her phone number. e) Did you have to make arrangement? Yes Did you talk to someone? Yes spoke to my friend Do you want advice? Yes 5a. I’ll visit my grandmother tomorrow 5b I’m going to visit my grandmother tommorrow a) 5a Form present simple First person + will/won’t + bare infinitive + time marker 5b present continuous first person + am + verb- ing + to + bare infinitive + time marker b) 5a Function to express unplanned or promised future events 5b To express a planned or definite event
The difference is that for I’ll you can change you plans and with going to you do not intend to change your plans. c) Students may not understand the difference of possibility to change the plan if we use I will and definite plans which use going to. Students may use a modal word e. g. I would/might visit my grandma tomorrow. This may change the positive certainty in I will and means it is less possible the visit will happen. Students may not hear I’ll as it is not emphasised with intonation. This may change the meaning to a more definite plan for the listener.
Students may not understand the use of present continuous for a future plan. d) Context – What I can do tomorrow 5a) I’ll go and buy some vegetables. 5b) I am going to buy some vegetables 5a) I won’t have any fast food. 5b) I’m not going to have a burger. 5a) I’ll see my sister at lunchtime. 5b) I’m going to see my sister e) Have you decided it will happen? Yes When will it happen? Tomorrow Can you change your plans? Yes 6a. They stopped to talk to each other 6b. They stopped talking to each other a) 6a third person + (verb past form + to) + (infinitive) + pronoun 6b third person + verb past form + (verb – ing + to) + pronoun ) The difference is that 6a is used for reporting ???? between 2 people and 6b for reporting ???? c) Students may think that in 6b they have just finished a conversation and that in 6a the people have decided they are not talking to each other. Students may not understand the form uses ‘to’ as a way of linking the purpose to the action or that it is also part of the form after ‘ing’. Students may miss out ‘to’ or not hear it in pronunciation of either sentence, it becomes a schwa and the emphasis is on stopped, talk, and each other.
Students may not understand which verbs can be used, here only stopped is used. d) Context – Reporting an event from your day. 6a They stopped to listen to the music. 6b They stopped listening to the music. e) 6a and 6bHas the event finished? Yes it has. (6a and 6b) Are we describing an action? Yes ( 6a and 6b) Bibliography Parrott, M, Grammar for English Language Teachers, Cambridge 2nd Ed. 2010 p218-229, p258-259 Murphy, R English Grammar in Use, Cambridge 2nd Ed. 1994, Units 13, 14, 15, 33, 34 Swan, M & Walter, C How English Works OUP, 2000 p158-159, p188-190