Verbal communication is again divided into two types and they are oral and written communication. Oral communication is a process whereby the speaker interacts verbally with one or more listeners in order to influence the listener’s behavior in some way or the other . Verbal communication includes written and oral communication whereas the non-verbal communication includes body language, facial expressions and visuals diagrams or pictures used for communication. Verbal communication is further divided into written and oral communication.
The oral communication refers to the spoken words in the communication process. Oral communication can either be face-to-face communication or a conversation over the phone or on he voice chat over the Internet. Spoken conversations or dialogs are influenced by voice modulation, pitch, volume and even the speed and clarity of speaking. The other type of verbal communication is written communication. Written communication can be either via snail mail, or email. The effectiveness of written communication depends on the style of writing, vocabulary used, grammar, clarity and precision of language.
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Non-verbal Communication Non-verbal communication includes the overall body language of the person who is speaking, which will include the body posture, the hand gestures, and overall body movements. The facial expressions also play a major role while communication since the expressions on a person’s face say a lot about his/ her mood. On the other hand gestures like a handshake, a smile or a hug can independently convey emotions. Non verbal communication can also be in the form of pictorial representations, signboards, or even photographs, sketches and paintings.
Types of Communication in Non Verbal communication are: 1 -Kinesics: Perceptions of people are affected by the way they sit, walk, stand up, or hold their head. The way we move and carry ourselves communicates a wealth of information to the world. This type of nonverbal communication includes posture, bearing, stance, and subtle movements. The body language tells us about our nature and can express the inner states of our emotion. The facial expressions for happiness, sadness, anger, surprise, fear, and disgust are the same across cultures. When we speak, other people “read” our voices in addition to listening to our words.
Things they pay attention to include are timing and pace, how loud we speak, tone and inflection, and sounds that convey understanding, tone of voice, for example, can indicate sarcasm, anger, affection, or confidence. 2. Proteomics: It refers to the closeness and is the term for personal space and distance. The space and distance that we choose is also a part of non verbal communication. Our innermost circle is where generally admit only our closed ones such as the family that is intimate space and next is personal space which may include friends ,colleagues, co workers .
The space that we prefer between the social and public space includes the official or workplace relationship where the communication is more likely to be formal. The space used in office also may indicate the power or determines the leadership, for example, A round table eating, conveys that idea of equality among all personals and it gives an idea of equality. Space therefore should be used carefully in a work environment so as to convey the right impression. 3. Time language: This refers to the importance of time and varies between different people.
A person may value time more than other. Similarly the time language also varies across cultures. Example in western country punctuality is considered to be very important. In other culture it is more relaxed and time is not given that much importance. Time conveys the message to others through the time that we spend n work related activity or by the importance that we give to time. Arriving early to work in a job interview shows our seriousness and dedication and interest towards work. 4. Paraguayan: Para means like or similar to and therefore means the same language.
Paraguayan is the kind of non verbal communication which is more similar to verbal communication. It refers to the tone of voice with which something is said and what is said. It includes the factors such as the pitch of voice, the pace at what t is said, the volume they all convey the mood and the emotions of the Sayers. 5. Physical Context: This refers to the physical environment or surroundings within which we communicate and includes two aspects they are color and design. Colors are known for the symbolic meaning and have association with different feelings.
For example black represents death, sorrow and negative feelings whereas yellow and green are associated with the positive feelings. 2. What is the general principle of writing especially business writing. NAS: The process of good writing involves three basic steps – preparing, writing, and editing. Practicing the following 16 principles will help you be a more effective writer. 1. Know your objective Think before you write. What’s your goal? Make sure you fully understand the assignment. Are you writing a one-paragraph executive summary or a five-page report?
Try answering this question: What specifically do I want the reader to know, think, or do? 2. Make a list Write down the ideas or points you want to cover. Why? This helps you get started in identifying the key ideas you want to discuss. If you have trouble getting started, try discussing your ideas with someone else. “Kicking an idea around” often helps clarify our objective and fine-tune what you are trying to accomplish. 3. Organize your ideas Just as it’s difficult to find what we want in a messy, disorganized desk drawer, it’s hard to find important ideas in a poorly organized message.
Here are a few ways in which we can organize the ideas of letter writing: Importance – Begin with the most important piece of information and then move on to the next most important. Chronological order – Describe what happened first, second, third. Problem-Solution – Define the problem, and then describe possible alternatives or the solution you recommend. Question-Answer – State a question and then provide the answer. Organize the ideas so the reader an easily follow the argument or the point which we are trying to get across. 4.
Back it up Have an opinion but back it up – support with data. There are a number of ways by which we can support our ideas, including explanations, examples, facts, personal experiences, stories, statistics, and quotations. It’s best to use a combination of approaches to develop and support our ideas. 5. Separate main ideas Each paragraph should have one main point or idea captured in a topic sentence. The topic sentence is normally the first sentence in the paragraph. Each paragraph should be started by an indentation or by skipping a line. Use bullets or numbers If we are listing or discussing a number of items, use of bullets or number or points is good 7. Write complete sentences A sentence is about someone doing something – taking action. This someone may be a manager, employee, customer, etc. The “doing something – taking action” can include mental processes such as thinking, evaluating, and deciding, or physical actions such as writing and talking. A good rule to practice is to have subjects closely followed by their verbs. 8. Use short sentences Sentences should be a maximum of 12 to 15 words in length.
According to hammering Press Institute, sentences with 15 or fewer words are understood 90% of the time. Sentences with eight or fewer words are understood 100% of the time. 9. Be precise and accurate Words like “large,” “small,” “as soon as possible,” “they,” “people,” “team work,” and “customer focus” are vague and imprecise. The reader may interpret these words to mean something different than what you intended. Reduce communication breakdowns by being specific and precise. Define terms as needed.
The reader may not understand certain acronyms and abbreviations. 10. Use commas appropriately Use a comma to separate the elements in a series of three or more items: His favorite colors are red, white, and blue. Use a comma to set off introductory elements: After coffee and donuts, the meeting will begin. Use a comma to separate adjectives: That tall, distinguished, good-looking professor teaches history. 3. How did you prepare yourself for an oral business presentation? NAS: Delivering a formal presentation can be either fairly stress-free or nerve- wrecking.
The level of comfort can depend on the size of your audience, the critical spectators attending the presentation, or the feedback that we may anticipate. Whatever we may find as a cause for concerns about speaking before a group, With thorough and effective research about the subject, you will discover that you are already halfway prepared to address the listeners. The following steps can complete our preparation. 1 Study the subject: we may have already been provided great information from which you could pull. But if there are other sources, such as the Internet or experts, use them to enhance our own insight.
Doing so can also help develop more confidence in our speech. 2 In the comfort of your own study lab: (wherever that may be), anticipate all types of responding questions from people in the audience: challenging questions, critical questions, crazy questions, and simple questions (the ones which are so simple that we forget to prepare an answer for). For enlightenment on people’s views, if the presentation is non-interactive, do not take that for granted. We can still be approached with questions after our speech or after the event where we gave it. Organize the notes: From which we will speak. Whether typed or handwritten we must be able to comprehend them in order to convey them to an audience. Also, bind the notes – paper or cards – that you plan to use during our presentation. Dropping loose papers or cards during the speech should not distract an attentive listener, but it can certainly distract us, the speaker. 4 Visual presentations: If we decide to speak with the aid of a Power Point presentation, bear in mind how we will insert information to be displayed.
We should not expect an audience to read lengthy sentences or any paragraph – no matter how much time they are given. They don’t need to hear our voice drift into a state of monotony, which is what can happen if we read word-for-word from our notes. 5 Practice your presentation : In private and be willing to be your own biggest critic. Take a tape recorder or any cording device to listen to your own speech. 6. Focus: You need to focus. If eye contact with any of those listeners intimidates you, then look just past of people to land your sight on either some empty seats or the wall.
There are corners of walls and other inanimate objects where we can place our focus until to find our self comfortable enough to make brief eye contact with a few friendly or neutral faces. 7. Be audible: Remember that the last row of listeners needs to hear our voice 8. Do not overestimate your listeners’ attention spans. Keep their interest. Give the tone some range (logical range, that is). And wherever our subject and the points from which we speak will allow, engage the audience with illustrations which they can relate to. 9.
Do not impose neither overly technical terminologies nor acronyms on audience: While these expressions of intelligence seem effective, they actually reflect a lazy effort to communicate detailed and comprehensible information to listeners. 10 Be confident: At this point, there should be no reason to lose confidence. If we have studied our subject, grasped a clear understanding of it, and followed the tips above, then we can present a good oral presentation. 4. You are a team manager having 15 members in your team. Two of your team members are on 3 week leave. You have to call for a monthly team meeting within a week.
How effectively you would plan and carry out this meeting? Q. 5 Distinguish between circulars and notices along with formats? NAS: Notice – A message / information’s bringing to all which will be put up in common place Circular- A message / information’s bringing to certain group of people belonging to the information’s. Like memos, circulars and notices are also written forms of communication within the organization. The difference between a circular and a notice is that Circulars are announcements that are distributed to small or selective groups of people within the organization, whereas notices are meant for a larger group of people.
Example – If a manager wants to call a meeting of heads of departments, he will pass around a circular only to the heads, requesting them to attend that meeting. On the other hand, notices generally contain information or announcements that are meant for all the employees of an organization. Example A list of declared holidays for a calendar year is a notice, since the information is relevant to all employees A notice is therefore a legal document that has to be UT up on an official notice or bulletin board. Let us examine another example of a circular and a notice.
Imagine that Mr.. Ashes is the President of the Student Committee in a management college and wish to hold a meeting to plan for the Annual Management Fest of the college. He will have to send some information to those whom he wants to involve in organizing the Fest. He may not want all the students to be involved initially, since it may take a lot of time and there may be too many suggestions. Instead, he may choose to invite only the committee members to discuss details such as the date, venue, duration, how o get sponsors and so on.
For this purpose, he may send a circular only to the student committee members, requesting them to attend the meeting. During the meeting, the date and venue may be finalized and various smaller committees may be formed, such as a reception committee, stage committee and so on. He may also decide to get each student to contribute a nominal amount for the Fest. 6. You are a sales manager for a particular brand of mixer &blender. Frame a sample bad news letter telling a customer about her claim for the product replacement is rejected on the grounds that the product didn’t have any defect during the sale.