Assignments – Marks Allocation Breakdown | | Setting the scene | |Introduction and issue analysis | |Exposition | |Directly addresses the question | |Uses a wide range of information drawn from course material to address the issues | |Uses a wide range of information drawn from other sources (journals, articles, etc) to address | |the issues | |Contextualises the learning to the workplace | |Quality of conclusions and recommendations implemented | |Data collection and qualitative analysis/literature review | |Originality | |Attempts original research and analysis, creative and challenging insights to balanced | |perception | |Structure and presentation | |Logical sequence with sections well linked | |Good flow and clarity of presentation | |Balance between text, use of charts, diagrams, headings, sub-headings, etc | |Professional business-like style | |Compliance | |Word count | |Submission on time | My topic of choice is Verbal and Non-verbal Interpersonal Communication I will assess each below 8 A) Verbal InterpersonalCommunication Verbal Interpersonal Communication uses language as means of communication between cultures. In languages, there are set of rules about the use of words in the creation of messages. The usage of language in interpersonalcommunication can be either spoken or written. Below are some features of a language or connected with language: a) Phonology – sounds of language ) phoneme – smallest unit of sound, example; cat, tdk – why is cat correct but not tdk, English has 45 phonemes (ch, th) c) Morphology -smallest units of meaning, example, morpheme, happy, happiness, unhappiness d) Semantics -study of meaning of words, the understanding of vocabulary in order to function in a language. There are two types of meanings in languages: i) denotative meanings – public, objective, legal meanings of words ii) connotative meanings – personal, emotionally charged meanings For example, What does test mean to you? e) Syntactics -relationships of words to one another, word order f) Pragmatics – effect of language on human perceptions and behaviors ) Translation – transfer of written verbal codes between language, has time h) Interpretation – oral process of moving from one code to another Examples of Language Language follows culturally determined patterns which influence thinking. Some examples: – English is linear, Arabic combines ideas through conjunctions, hard to discover main idea when translating into English. – England, Ireland, Canada, USA – all speak English, is it the same? – Arabic “inshallah”, intonation, Arabic uses exaggeration, overassertion, repetition, elaboration, 10 words for English, 100 words for Arabic. – Writers Shakespeare used 34,000 words, today a good writer 15,000-20,000. Eskimos have 30 words for snow. 9 B) Non Verbal InterpersonalCommunication Non-verbal InterpersonalCommunication uses non-verbal codes as means of communication between cultures. Non-verbal codes are as the following: • is a multichanneled process • spontaneously performed • possess nonlinguistic behaviors • enacted subconsciously • can be intentional or unintentional • is not taught, but learned through observation and experiences Characteristics of Nonverbal Codes Non-verbal codes function as a silent language and impart meanings in subtle and covert ways, continuous, natural, blur into another, less precise. Relationship of Verbal to Nonverbal: 1. accent the verbal 2. omplement the verbal (smiling, pointing) 3. contradict the verbal (nonverbals are opposite to spoken) 4. regulate the conversation (looking, gestures) 5. substitute, take the place of the verbal Cultural Universals in Nonverbal Communication 1. same body parts are used 2. convey similar meanings 3. accompany verbal 4. motives are the same 5. control and coordinate contexts and relationships that are the same Cultural Variations in Nonverbal Communication 1. repertoire of behaviors are different 2. display rules – when and where 3. interpretations of meanings. 4. random 5. idiosyncratic 6. shared meaning and significance Body Movements – Kinesics
Refers to gestures, head movements, facial expressions, eyes. 1. Emblems – nonverbals that have direct verbal counterpart 2. Illustrators – accompany the verbal, more easily understood 3. Affect – show feelings, emotions, body and face 4. Regulators – synchronize behavior, control the flow of conversation 5. Adapters – reaction to physical state, scratching, unintentional Space – Proxemics Refers to how people use physical space. Example: cold means having large physical distances and warm means having smaller physical distances. Touch Affects positive and negative feelings and may denote the following meanings: • playfulness • control • ritual purpose • task related Time – Chronemics
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Here, time is the main determinant of communication and is used in various: Example, past oriented means having a circular approach to life , present oriented means enjoying the spontaneity of the situation and future oriented means tomorrow. Voice Refers to the use of different tones of voices when communicating. Example, Through pitch, rate of talking, rhythm and volume Chemical codes Here, smell is used when communicating, for example wearing perfumes 10 Conclusion 1. Communication is a process when a sender transmits a message to a receiver using a particular medium. The medium used can either be verbal or non-verbal, which includes printed or electronic medias. 2.
Culture refers to a group of people or society that has the share the same norm (what is expected of an individual) and values (what is considered good or bad in that particular group or society). 3. A group or society that live in close proximity with one another is called a community. 4. Cultures can be distinguished based on certain dimensions like Low Context Culture, High Context Culture, Individualism, Collectivism, High Power Distance, Low Power Distance, Low Uncertainty Avoidance, High Uncertainty Avoidance, Masculine, Feminine, Monochronic, Polychronic, Acquired Status and Given Status. 5. For the people in a group or society to interact with one another, communication is necessary.