Students who have not been diagnosed with ADD are performing below average because of constant classroom disruptions by students with ADD. Students with ADD act impulsively and have trouble concentrating, which prevents them from staying focused and attentive (Reid, Trout, & Schwartz, 2005). Because of difficulties with controlling impulsively, children are interrupting the teacher, calling out, leaving their seats, talking incessantly, playing in their desks, and disturbing other students. Staying on task is difficult for students with ADD so class work, homework assignments, activities, and projects are often incomplete.
Organization can be problematic for students who have an attention deficit, so study guides, worksheets, library books, agendas, and school supplies are regularly misplaced or unaccounted for. Test scores, assignment grades, and conduct marks have plummeted as a result of the behavior issues that are plaguing the students with ADD. Another population being affected by the problem is the group of students in the class who do not have ADD. These children are, in a sense, victims of their resistances. They are members of a third grade classroom that is not running smoothly or efficiently.
Don’t waste your time!
Order your assignment!
The disturbances that are caused by students who lack self-control and social skills are interfering with the opportunities to learn and engage in classroom discussions and activities. Some students are following the negative example being set by the students with ADD and are acting out in ways that are inappropriate and counterproductive. Test and quiz scores have dropped among the regular student populace because the children are unfocused and missing out on important instructional details due to the negative classroom dynamics.
Lastly, the constant disruptions are interfering with the teacher’s ability to teach the materials in accordance with the lesson plans. Much of the teachers’ time is spent redirecting students, reprimanding inappropriate behavior, and providing remediation. Teachers are not trained in behavior management and modification strategies; therefore, the rudimentary behavior management and modification strategies presently being used in the classrooms are ineffective. Morale and self-confidence have plunged as the teachers become increasingly discouraged by the lack of discipline and productivity in their classrooms.
Problem Documentation Structured observation of the classroom environment has been used for two documentation purposes. First, the setting has been observed to assess the behavioral tendencies of the children in question. Findings have confirmed that students with ADD are disorganized, behaving impulsively, distracting classmates, and exhibiting little self-control or academic diligence. Second, the teachers have been observed to determine their effectiveness in instructing and interacting with students who have ADD.
Repeat observations have confirmed that teachers are ineffectively using the time- UT concept, which reinforces negative behavior. Students are instructed to move their name clip down a color-coded classroom behavior stick after breaking class rules or behaving inappropriately. The requests for clip moves occur inconsistently and after repeated warnings and reprimands; attached consequences for clip moves are not strictly enforced. A log is kept by the teacher to document the amount of times per day that the students with ADD are disrupting the class and moving their clips.
See Appendix AY for a graph which illustrates the number of disruptions occurring in Class A impaired to the amount found on the log in the control class. Examination of the situation has also revealed that, in addition to being inconsistent with consequences for inappropriate actions, the teachers do not offer up praise or reward for students who are on task and having a good day. Angry tones ii voice, unpleasant facial expressions, and aversive conditioning were observed as well.
The classroom setting is cluttered and unrecognized, perhaps contributing to the organizational problems that some students appear to be experiencing. Questionnaires given to the teachers to measure their understanding of behavior management strategies for children with ADD have shown that teachers are lacking knowledge and training in this area. They recognize the impact that children with ADD have on their classrooms but are unfamiliar with the criteria for diagnosis and the complexities that accompany the disorder.
Most teachers do not understand the triggers which lead to disruptions or how to intervene in order to stop, or even avoid, the disturbances. Teachers appear to lack the classroom and anger management skills required to deal appropriately with troublesome behavior and inattentive students. A limited understanding of the importance of classroom accommodations, behavior modification, external reinforces, and the establishment of a predictable routine appears to be a detriment, particularly among inexperienced teachers.
An additional form of documentation used etc measure this problem is the periodic review of the teacher’s lesson plans. State educational standards and school district pacing guides dictate the curriculum and the pace of instruction. Investigation has confirmed that the teachers have fallen behind in presenting the material that must be covered and tested during the course of the school year. The class is not able to cover material and perform tasks within an efficient time frame because the students and teacher are distracted.
A large amount of time is wasted on addressing inappropriate behavior, searching for lost books and supplies, and repeating instructions. An important form of documentation used to measure this problem is the review of the students’ academic performance. Most of the third graders in the class in question, regardless of whether or not they are diagnosed with ADD, are receiving lower grades than the students in the control class in the core academic subjects of language arts, math, science, ND social studies (see Appendix AY).
When comparing the students’ grades with their grades from the previous school year, a marked decrease in academic performance is evident (see Appendix AY). Literature Review Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is a growing disorder which affects 3-5 percent of school-aged children presenting with symptoms such as inattention, hyperactivity, and disorientation in the classroom (Cook, 2005). Frequently, children with ADD have accompanying disorders including learning disabilities, Oppositional Defiant Disorder, and depression which may cause additional problems at school (Cook, 2005).
When examining available literature about ADD, the topic of the most effective treatment method is the focus of many published articles. Treatment methods suggested for ADD include “medical treatment, behavioral treatment, psychological treatment, social skill training, sensory integration treatment, and parenting training (Hong, 1998)” (Change, Change, & Shih, 2007, p. 148). Currently, literature leans to the prescribing of stimulants, behavior modification, or a combination of the two treatments as being the most effective methods of treatment (Coles, Pelham, Nagy, Burrows-Mclean, Fabian, Chock, et al. , 2005).