Autism and Autism Spectrum Disorders Assignment

Autism and Autism Spectrum Disorders Assignment Words: 1165

Dry. Kristin Broadloom Autism or autism spectrum disorders (Cads), are a family of increasingly prevalent disabilities that qualify a child for special education services in the school under PILL-142, now called the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). According to the U. S. Center for Disease Control and Prevention, about one in 88 American children have been Identified as being on the autism spectrum- a ten-fold Increase over the last 40 years (Autism Speaks Inc. 2012). With this type of growth, school unsolder are sure to support these types of students often in their careers. Cads include Autistic Disorder (also called “classic autism”), Aspirer Syndrome, and Pervasive Developmental Disorder – Not Otherwise Specified (PAD-NOSE; also called “atypical autism”). Autism spectrum disorders are a group of developmental disabilities characterized by impairments in social interaction and communication, and by restricted, repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior (PAP, 2002).

They are called “spectrum disorders” because they affect each person in different ways, and the symptoms can range from very mild to severe. The autism spectrum ranges from highly verbal, high-functioning individuals with superior intelligence, to non- verbal persons with low IQ (Stone, 2006). Almost five times as many boys as girls are diagnosed with Cads, and these disorders occur In all racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic groups (CDC, 2012).

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Although ranges of symptoms vary widely, characteristics of a child with an SAD malign Include: Delayed speech and language skills Talking in a flat, robot-like, or sing-song voice Not playing “pretend” games ; Having trouble making friends with peers ; Having trouble understanding other people’s feelings Having flat facial expressions Having obsessive interests Lining up toys or other objects Getting upset by minor changes Flapping hands, rocking body, or spinning self in circles ; Having an unusual reaction to the way things sound, smell, taste, look, or feel ; Having an intellectual disability (CDC, 2010) Autistic disorder is the most severe of the autism spectrum disorders. Only 20% of people on the spectrum have this form, with the vast majority falling in the milder ranges (Smith, Seal, & Hetman, 2012). Aspirer Syndrome, sometimes called high- functioning autism, is less severe than classic autism. These people might have social challenges and unusual behaviors and interests, but they typically don’t have problems with language or intellectual disability. People who are diagnosed with PAD-NOSE have some but not all of the symptoms of autistic disorder or Aspirer Syndrome. They might display only social and communication challenges.

Diagnosing autism spectrum disorders can be difficult since there is no medical test. Autism generally is diagnosed when the child is between the ages of two and three, although symptoms may be identified earlier (Valence, 2004). Sometimes diagnosis takes longer, even into adolescence or adulthood, especially if the child is sigh functioning as with Aspirer Syndrome or has fewer symptoms as with PAD- NOSE. Usually a parent first notices differences in their child, and the child’s pediatrician is the first professional to make an assessment. The first step in diagnosing an autism spectrum disorder would be a developmental screening by the child’s doctor.

All children should be screened for developmental delays and disabilities during their regular well-child visits at nine months, 18 months, and 24 or 30 months, but they should specifically be screened for Cads during the month and 24 month visits (CDC, 2010). If the child’s doctor sees any signs of autism, the next step would be a comprehensive diagnostic evaluation by a specialist in autism or team of specialists. These specialists might include: child psychologists, child psychiatrists, speech pathologists, developmental pediatricians, pediatric neurologists, audiologists, physical therapists, or special education teachers (Smith, Seal,& Hetman, 2012).

This thorough review will begin with interviewing the parents, who will detail the child’s medical, developmental, and behavioral history, and also the family’s medical and mental health history. A medical evaluation will be given including a neurological exam, genetic testing, and a hearing and vision screening. Also, a developmental specialist will observe the child in a variety of settings to see how he or she socializes, communicates, and behaves. Totaling assessments malign Include speech, Intelligence, sensory processing, Ana motor skills testing (Smith, Seal, & Hetman, 2012). The physician will then use the latest version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (ADSM) for Mental Disorders, the ADSM -IV-TRY, to determine whether the child has an autism spectrum disorder.

Once a diagnosis of an autism spectrum disorder has been made, accommodations for a child in school must be made under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). This legislation addresses the need for providing appropriate education and related services to children with disabilities (Stutter, 2005). This education must meet the child’s particular needs, so an individualized education program (PIPE) is developed. The PIPE includes a statement of the child’s present levels of performance, goals and short-term objectives, specification of responsible parties for service delivery, location and length of services, and ethos for assessment of progress (Stutter, 2005).

The PIPE team will include the child’s parents, a regular education and special education teacher, a school psychologist, an administrator, and anyone else who has any additional knowledge about the child (Stutter, 2005). The school counselor may also be a part of this team. Since each child with an SAD has a unique set of symptoms, the accommodations made for that child in the school setting will also be unique. The educator must tailor the accommodations to the child’s specific social, communication, and academic needs. Some types of instructional accommodations received by students with autism include: extended time for test taking and completing assignments, slower paced instructions, curriculum modification of shorter or different assignments, modified tests, and modified grading.

Many students are supported by a teacher’s aide or peer tutor, or are allowed to use a calculator, computer, or books on tape. Many also have related services like case management or speech language pathology services (Mores- Abode, 2010). Many strategies for teaching autistic kids are offered in many educational publications and on education based websites. Some of these strategies include: keeping to routines and warning well in advance of changes, placing the child’s desk where distractions will be kept to a minimum, having a quiet place of retreat for the child, finding ways to minimize noises, using visual schedules and graphic organizers, and using visual or written instructions (DO- IT, 2011).

Other strategies will help build the child’s social skills, such as: setting up social Skills groups, allowing students to role play social situations, and using social stories to help students learn how to make friends (SEC, 2011). More and more kids are being diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders than ever before. These kids have symptoms that vary greatly and their disabilities can range from mild, to moderate, to severe. If educators can thoughtfully assess each child’s individual needs and tailor the child’s individual education plan to appropriately accommodate the student’s disability, that child will be better served, directly due to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. References Autism Speaks Inc. (2012). What is Autism?

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