EXCESS Assignment: Theory Summary Directions: Using the concept summary in Chapter 2 of our text, fill in the blanks for each of the developmental theories. Provide examples from your own experience or the textbook in the last column. Next describe your ideal theory of child development, combining the elements that you believe would encapsulate your own beliefs and experiences Approach Theorist Underlying Model Theoretical Beliefs/Assumptions Key Terms Example Humanistic Moscow Organism/ Contextual All individuals are unique and whole, and strive toward the fullest development of their potential.
Meta- and basic needs, self-actualization, peak experiences Behaviorist’s Pavlov, Watson Skinner Bandeau Mechanistic Mechanistic/ Organism Contextual/ Organism Child learns through conditioning of reflexive behaviors. Changes in behavior are a function of reinforcement and punishment. Observational learning leads to developmental change; our ability to anticipate the consequences of our behavior is fundamental. Reflex, conditioned stimulus and response Reinforcement, punishment, shaping Imitation, self-efficacy, social/cognitive, reciprocal determinism Little Albert Skinner box. ” Boob doll experiment
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Cognitive Piglet Information Processing Organism Mechanistic/ organism/ Contextual Child develops cognitive skills through active interaction with the environment. Development is a process of learning to represent, process, store, and retrieve information. Stages, assimilation, accommodation, equilibration Memory, perception, thinking, symbolic representation, computer models Biological Ecological Approaches Bowl Boycotts Frontbencher Organism/ Contextual Social behaviors have a biological basis understandable in evolutionary terms. Human development is highly dependent on culture and language.
Development results from a complex series of interactions and accommodations between a person and the systems in which the person is embedded. Attachment bonds, imprinting, sensitive period Culture, language, zone of proximal growth, scaffolding Micro-, mess-, ex.-, macro-, and chronometers Dynamic Systems Thiele A change in any part of the system (mind, body, environment) leads to disequilibrium, readjustment, and growth Integrated systems, interactions, dynamism Stability/instability Psychoanalytic Freud Erikson Individual is motivated by instinctual urges that are primarily sexual and aggressive.
Child progresses through stages by adapting to the coloratura environment. Id, ego, superego, psychosocial, fixation, regression Competence, developmental tasks, psychosocial Your Ideal Theory Karen Morrow Observational learning leads to developmental change; Social behaviors have a biological basis Child develops cognitive skills through active interaction with the environment Imitate behavior observe from those around them. Imitation, Attachment bonds interactions, Culture conditioned stimulus and response modeling Child watches parent/caregiver and imitates their behavior. Parents model the behavior they want their children to have.