I. Paper-pencil Strategy A. Definition: •Is an assessment in which the student is to identify the one correct answer; •Is a commonly used procedure for gathering formal evidences about student learning specifically in memory, recall, and comprehension; B. Purpose: •Test student learning of subject content knowledge (facts, concepts, principles or generalizations, procedures); •Assess prerequisite knowledge (e. g. when communicating in a second language , student can be assessed on vocabulary prior to a conservation in that language); C. Characteristics: •Can be administered to a large number of student at the same time; •Can be scored very quickly; •Is stated in clear, simple language. D. Teachers Role: •Identifies the format(e. g. , multiple choice, true or false); •Select the content to be covered; •Design the questions; E. Consideration: Is always influenced by the students ability to read and understand the items; •Can utilize computer and optical scanning technology to save time and effort with time development, item storage and retrieval, test printing and optical scan scoring; •Can make it more difficult to determine how the student arrived at answer with the true or false and multiple choice; F. Guidelines/Steps: •Listing topic areas/tasks For each knowledge/ability qualification that will be assessed by the test, list the topic areas/tasks to be covered. Specifying the response format, number of questions, the time limit and difficulty level. With a multiple-choice response format, a large number of different topic areas/tasks can be covered within the same test and the questions are easy to score. •Writing the questions and developing the scoring guide The scoring guide for multiple-choice questions must include a scoring key indicating the correct answer and it may also include a rationale for or explanation of the correct answer.
If marks are to be deducted for guessing, this must be determined and stated in the instructions to candidates •Reviewing the questions and scoring guide II. Performance Based Strategy A. Definition: •Is an assessment which requires student to demonstrate a skill or proficiency by asking them to produce or perform; •May be an observation of a student or a group of student performing a specific task to demonstrate skills and knowledge through open-ended “hands-on” activities; B. Purpose: Provide an efficient means of assessment where the skill cannot be demonstrated with a pencil-paper test; •Enable learners to demonstrate abilities, skills, attitudes and behavior; •Provide information about the learners to organize draw on prior knowledge and experience, improvise, chose from a range of strategies, represent learning and make a decision to make a complete task; •Test skills in the affective, cognition, psychomotor and perceptual domains; C. Characteristics: •Can be diagnostic, formative or summative assessment; •Uses ongoing feedback; Allows most learners to participate successfully in varying degrees; •Provide opportunities for learners to work individually as well as in small groups; •Focuses on the process as well as the product; •Provide context that have relevance to the student ; •Provide the most realistic assessment of job-related competencies; •Include task such as painting, speeches, musical presentation, research papers, investigation, athletic performance, project, exhibition and other product that requires student to construct a unique response to a task; D. Teachers Role: Observes a student or a group of student performing a specific task; •Shares with a student the responsibility of developing and organizing the performance task and assessment criteria; •Assigns a level of proficiency based on the performance; E. Consideration: •Provide an excellent way to assess reasoning skills; •Must have clearly defined criteria for the assessment; F. Guidelines/Steps: •Determine the purpose for the assessment: to place students at right levels or to diagnose the instructional needs of individual students. •Select the objectives of the assessment: to test one skill or several skills at the same time. Design the task that provides opportunities for students to show their attainment of the skill(s). Therefore, the task should be authentic and accessible to the full range of students in the classroom. The skills or knowledge to be tested should be familiar to students and there is room for them to make inferences. •Manage the assessment by choosing right materials, scales (individual, or group) time, and ways to collect responses. •Establish the scoring criteria based on the learning objectives for assessing student achievement. It’s possible to have self-and / or peer-assessment as part of the overall assessment. Determine point values or grading scales for your scoring criteria. •Interpret the results of the assessment activity according the purpose of the assessment. Breaking down assessment by different criteria would help students identify which parts they need to improve III. Observational Strategy A. Definition: •Is a process of systematically viewing and recording student behavior to the purpse of making programming decisions; •Permeates the entire teaching process by assisting the teacher in making the decision required in effective teaching; B. Purpose: •Provide systematic, ongoing information about students in relation to areas f streght and weaknesses preferred learning styles, unique interest, learning needs, skill, attitudes, behavior and performance related expectation; C. Characteristics: •Can be used every day to assess students of different ages, across subject areas in different settings; •Is structured with a clear purpose and focus; •Includes a written record which should be as close to time of the event as possible. The record should be objective; D. Teachers Role: •Watches the student respond to question, student complete assigned task; •Listen to student as they speak and discuss with others; •Observe non-verbal form of communication; Outline the purpose of the observation by using the following questions as guidelines: Who will make the observation? Who or what is observed? Why will the observation take place? When will the observation take place? When will the observation occur? How will the observation be recorded? •Observe the student in the variety of observation settings; •Draws inferences on the basis of the observation gathered; •Observed the student performance, then record observation on recording devices which outline the frame work and criteria for observation; E. Consideration: Are made using a checklist, a set of question and or a journal as a guide to ensure focused, systematic observation; •Are often the only assessment tool, used for demonstration; •Can be collected by audio tape or videotape; •Can limit students ability to act naturally if audio tape or video tape is used; •Can influenced by bias in the interpretation of an observation •Can be considered subjective, where the meaning of the observation is derived only by the professional judgment of what is observed; •Should not interface with the natural learning environment F.
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Guidelines/Steps: •be descriptive •relate feedback to goals and strategies discussed •balance areas of strength with areas needing development •check for understanding •keep amount of feedback to a manageable level •do not be evaluative IV. Personal Communication A. Definition: •Is a formal or informal meeting between student and a teacher or parent; •Has a clear focus on learning of discussion; B. Purpose: •Exchange information or share ideas between among the individual at the conference; •Explore the student thinking and to suggest next steps; Assess the student to move ahead more successfully on a particular piece of work; •Enable student to move ahead more successfully on a particular piece of work; •Review, clarify, an extend what the student has already completed; •Help student internalize criteria for good work; C. Characteristics: •Provide a clear focus for discussion; •Requires the responsibility for the success of the conference is shared by all participants; •May take place as the learner is exploring a new concepts or topic, or be a goal-setting session or a report on progress; •Is brief, informal and occurs routinely; Can be effective for both diagnostic and formative assessment; D. Teachers Role: •Comes to the conference prepared with specific question to be answered; •Gives individual feedback and clarifies misconceptions; •Put students at ease and support student progress. In the case of a writing conference for example a mini-lesson may given by the teacher; •Focuses on the process of reasoning followed by the student; •Records information during or immediately following the communication; E. Consideration: •Is assisted by prepared questions; Can be extremely useful formative assessment strategies for student involved in major projects or independent studies; F. Guidelines/Steps: •Be clear. •Get to the point. •Be personal •Listen V. Oral Strategy A. Definition: Question •Are posed by the teacher to determine if students understand what is being presented to extend thinking, generate ideas or problem-solve; Answer •Provide opportunities for oral assessment when the student responds to a question by speaking rather than by writing; B. Purpose: Provide mechanism which provide the student understanding while assessing student progress; •Gathered information about a student learning needs; C. Characteristics: •Help teacher and student clarify their purpose for learning and link previous information with new understanding; D. Teachers Role: •Notes how the student answer question during instruction to know if the student understand what was being presented or are able to perform skills; •Should ensure that all student participate not just those individual who typically respond with answer; E.
Consideration: •Can help to ensure that all student are involved if tracking is done to ensure that all student participate; •Is used with consideration that some individuals are not comfortable or fluent expressing themselves orally; F. Guidelines/Steps: •Always ask questions in a clarifying manner, then have the students with learning disabilities describe his or her understanding of the questions. •Assist the student, if necessary, in borrowing classmates discussion notes. •Encourage questions during or after class to ensure that materials re understood by students with learning disabilities. •Give individual conferences to guide students with learning disabilities to monitor progress and understanding of the assignment and of the course content. •Give plenty of reinforcement when it is evident that the student with a learning disability is trying things that are made difficult by the disability. •Have frequent question-and-answer sessions for students with learning disabilities. VI. Reflective Strategy A. Definition: Is the process of gathering information and reflecting on one’s own learning; •Is the student own assessment of personal progress in knowledge, skill, process or attitudes; •Leads a student to a greater awareness and understanding of himself as a learner; B. Purpose: •Assist student to take more responsibility and ownership of their learning; •Provide insight and information that enable student to make decision about their learning and to set personal learning goals; •Use assessment as a means of learning; Focus on both the process and product of learning; •Help student critique their own work; •Help student internalize the characteristic/criteria of quality student work; C. Characteristics: •Promotes the development of metacognitive ability; •Amy involve an introspective observation, a product assessment or a test; •May include attitudes surveys, interest inventories and personal journal; •Involves question such as “How do I learn best? “. “What are my areas for growth? “. “Where do I need to improve? •Is used to determine if the student belief about his performance correspond to the actual performance observed by the teacher; D. Teachers Role: •Guides the student by helping them to understand how to reflect on learning; •Provide time and opportunities for self-assessment; •Design the question or select the self-assessment tool; •Can use student self-assessment to determine change or growth in the student attitudes, understanding, and achievements; •Completes the assessment based on personal reflection about achievement or performance; E. Consideration: Is use to compare whether the student and the teacher have similar views of expected performance and criteria for evaluation; •Develops gradually as student begin to use the process in daily activities; •Can help student to witness personal growth through comparison with their own previous work, regardless of ability; F. Guidelines/Steps: Educators who teach reflectively use one or several of the following strategies – •keep a teaching journal or diary •collaborative journal writing •create and utilize self assessment forms •video tape their work in the classroom written reports on projects/experience in the classroom •ask to review their work •read and utilize student assessments VII. Combination of Strategy A. Definition: •Is a purposeful collection of samples of a student work that is selective, reflective and collaborative; •Demonstrate the range and depth of a student achievements, knowledge, and skills over time and across a variety of context; •Has student involvement in selection of portfolio materials as part of the process; •Is a visual presentation of a student accomplishment, capabilities, strength, weaknesses and progress over a specified time; B.
Purpose: •Document typical student work and progress; •Provide comprehensive view or the student progress, effort and achievements; •Reflect growth and progress but may different purposes during the year; •Provide a focus of a student reflection o their own learning; •Build a student sense of responsibility for his own learning; •Builds student confidence in his abilities as a learner; •Promote an ongoing process where student demonstrate, assess and revise in order to improve and produce quality work; C. Characteristics: Track student progress on a variety of assessment over a period of time; •Promote the skills of student self-assessment ad goal setting; •Has a stated purpose and intended audience which are important to the entire process; •May include entries that the student and teacher consider as important representation of learning; •Can provide a focus for a conference or an interview involving the student the teacher ad parents; •Provide the opportunity for the student to practice , assess, and select their own work; D. Teachers Role: Makes regular formative assessment during the portfolio process to determine individual needs and progress toward specified learning expectation in order to provide further instruction; •Provide regular feedback to student regarding their performance related to pre-stated criteria in order to help the student to improve; •Determine or negotiate with the student the purpose for the portfolios, the criteria for selection and the time frame for use; •Reads the reflection and comments on the student assessment of personal learning; E.
Consideration: •Is develop collaboratively by the teacher and student , including shared development of the purpose of the portfolio and criteria for selecting samples for inclusion; •Requires standardization regarding what is included if the portfolio is used for evaluative purpose; F. Guidelines/Steps: Understand the Problem •reread and restate the problem •identify the information given and the information that needs to be determined Make a Plan relate the problem to similar problems solved in the past •consider possible strategies •select a strategy or a combination of strategies Carry Out the Plan •execute the chosen strategy •do the necessary calculations •monitor success •revise or apply different strategies as necessary Look Back at the Solution •check the reasonableness of the answer •review the method used. Is there a better way to approach the problem? •consider extensions or variations