Moreover, the researchers are also heavily indebted to their parents and guardians for their unending support. Lastly, the group would also like to thank Almighty God for giving them the opportunity to complete this project. This report is submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the subject Environmental Engineering under Anger. Allele N. Ere. The report has been made solely by the authors; most of the text, however, is based on the research of others, and the researchers have done our their to provide references to these sources.
Environmental Engineering is a subject that deals tit the capacity of science and technology to study and improve the environment’s condition. This report about Air Pollution and Meteorology discusses how the planet receives and maintains energy, specifically from the sun. It also discusses the natural occurrences in the atmosphere that most of people are not aware of. It shows the effects of the natural phenomena and the effects when they are altered or disturbed. This report is hoped to provide insightful information not only to engineering students but also to the other people who will be able to read this.
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It will make them aware and expansible for what is happening to the atmosphere. Table of Contents Preface Co intents Apart Solar Radiation Lesson 1 Definition of Solar Radiation and its Branches 6 Earth’s Solar Budget Part II Labeled 8 Lesson 2 All About Labeled Part Ill Sea and Land Breezes 11 Lesson 3 The Presence of Sea and Land Breezes 18 Cause and Effect 21 Part IV Stability of the Atmosphere Lesson 4 Atmospheric Stability Part V Temperature Inversion Lesson 5 How does it Invert? 26 32 Part VI Plume types Lesson 6 Plumes GLOSSARY BIBLIOGRAPHY THE RESEARCHERS IN THE MAKING DATA DISC TOPIC 1
Solar Radiation 36 42 43 45 4 Reporter : Needing, Joanna Marie S. Seat No. : 17 Date Reported : Solar radiation is radiant energy emitted by the sun from a nuclear fusion reaction that creates electromagnetic energy. The spectrum of solar radiation is close to that of a black body with a temperature of about 5800 K. About half of the radiation is in the visible short-wave part of the electromagnetic spectrum. The other half is mostly in the near-infrared part, with some in the ultraviolet part Of the spectrum. The units of measure are Watts per square meter.
Earth’s Solar Budget If the Earth and the Earth’s atmosphere retains more solar energy than it radiates back to space, the Earth will warm. If the Earth and the Earth-system radiates more energy to space than it receives from the sun, the Earth will cool. Scientists think of the Radiation Budget in terms of a see-saw or balance. If the Earth retains more energy from the Sun, the Earth warms and emits more infrared energy. This brings the Earth’s Radiation Budget into balance. If the Earth emits more of this energy than it absorbs, the Earth cools.
As it cools, the Earth emits less energy. This change also brings the Radiation Budget back into balance. Absorbed sunlight raises the Earth’s temperature. Emitted radiation or heat lowers the temperature. When absorbed sunlight and emitted heat balance each other, the Earth’s temperature doesn’t change – the radiation budget is in balance. Basic Parts of the Radiation Budget * Solar Incident Energy * Solar Reflected Energy * Earth Emitted Energy Incoming solar radiation is absorbed by the Earth ‘s surface, water vapor, gases, and aerosols in the atmosphere.
This incoming solar radiation is also reflected by the Earth’s surface, by clouds, and by the atmosphere. Energy that is absorbed is emitted by the Earth-atmosphere system as elongate radiation. The component diagram has additional details. Energy from the Sun The energy that drives the climate system comes from the Sun. When the Sun’s energy reaches the Earth it is partially absorbed in different parts of the climate system. The absorbed energy is converted back to heat, which causes the Earth to warm up and makes it habitable.
Solar radiation absorption is uneven in both space and time and this gives rise to the intricate pattern and seasonal variation of our climate. To understand the complex patterns of Earth is irradiative heating we begin by exploring the relationship between Earth and the Sun throughout the year, learn about the physical laws governing irradiative heat transfer, develop the concept of irradiative balance, and explore the implications of all these for the Earth as a whole.
We examine the relationship between solar radiation and the Earth’s temperature, and study the role of the atmosphere and its constituents in that interaction, to develop an understanding of the topics such as the “seasonal cycle” and the greenhouse effect”. We complement this lecture by a set of two laboratory assignments that explore in much more detail the spatially and seasonally varying elements Of the Earth radiation budget as they are revealed through satellite observations of the Earth. The Sun and its energy.
The Sun is the star located at the center of our planetary system. It is composed mainly of hydrogen and helium. In the Sun’s interior, a thermonuclear fusion reaction converts the hydrogen into helium releasing huge amounts of energy. The energy created by the fusion reaction is inverted into thermal energy (heat) and raises the temperature of the Sun to levels that are about twenty times larger that of the Earth’s surface. The solar heat energy travels through space in the form of electromagnetic waves enabling the transfer of heat through a process known as radiation.
Solar radiation occurs over a wide range of wavelengths. However, the energy of solar radiation is not divided evenly over all wavelengths but, as Figure 1 shows, is rather sharply centered on the wavelength band of 0. 2-2 micrometers (whom=one millionth of a meter). As can be seen from Figure 2, the main range of solar radiation includes ultraviolet radiation (XIV, 0. 001-0. 4 pm), visible radiation (light, 0. 4-0. 7 pm), and infrared radiation (IR, 0. 7-100 pm). The physics of irradiative heat transfer.
Before proceeding to investigate the effect of solar radiation on Earth we should take a moment to review the physical laws governing the transfer of energy through radiation. In particular We should understand the following points: * The irradiative heat transfer process is independent of the presence of matter. It can move heat even through empty space. * All bodies emit addition and the wavelength (or frequency) and energy characteristics (or spectrum) of that radiation are determined solely by the body’s temperature. The energy flux drops as the square of distance from the radiating body. Radiation goes through a transformation when it encounters other objects (solid, gas or liquid). That transformation depends on the physical properties of that object and it is through this transformation that radiation can transfer heat from the emitting body to the other objects. Solar radiation on Earth: As the Sun’s energy spreads through space its spectral characteristics do not hang because space contains almost no interfering matter.