Secondly, it is proposed that the focus of neurosurgeon’s on brain dysfunction and the role of neurotransmitters on cognition suggests two ways in which the functioning of the brain can impair rational decision-making. 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Keywords: Neurosurgeon’s Cognitive dissonance Brain dysfunction classical view of humans as rational decommissioned can be modified to bring in irrational elements.
To take Just two of the many possible examples, Taverns and Keenan (1981) examined how the phrasing of the decision affects the exponent’s choice, while Simon (1982) introduced the concept of bounded rationality, asserting that individuals were limited in their information about alternatives and in their computational power. The present paper presents two new ways in which irrationality can affect economic decision-making: cognitive dissonance and neurosurgeon’s. (Aaron’s, 1979).
Don’t waste your time!
Order your assignment!
They noted three postulates: (1) people have preferences over their beliefs about the state of the world, (2) people have some control over their beliefs, and (3) beliefs once chosen persist over time. They also note particular beliefs that people hold, such as that people “view themselves as ‘smart, nice people (Croaker and Dickens, 1982, p. 308). This version of cognitive dissonance theory would come as a great surprise to Leon Festering who proposed cognitive dissonance theory back in 1957 (Festering, 1957). . Cognitive dissonance The basic elements in Fastening’s theory of cognitive dissonance are cognitions, that is, knowledge of the things that you know about yourself, your behavior and your surroundings. Cognitions include opinions, beliefs, attitudes, and values. Your elements of cognition map reality for you. Two cognitions may be irrelevant to each other. You may be aware that it takes 4 weeks for mail to get from New York to Paris by sea and that a dry, hot July is good for crops in Iowa.
These two cognitions seem to be irrelevant. However, it is often difficult to be quite sure that they are irrelevant. For example, what if an Iowa farmer is on vacation in Paris? Two cognitions may also be relevant to each other. Two cognitive elements are consonant if one implies the other. Two cognitive elements are dissonant if one implies the opposite of the other.
For example, dissonance may have a logical basis you may believe that man will reach the stars soon, but you may also be aware that it will take too long for the Journey), a cultural/mores basis (it is improper to pick up a pork-chop bone in a restaurant, but your particular bone Croaker and Dickens (1982) explored the consequences of cognitive dissonance theory for the economic conceptualization of human decision-making. The classic notion of “economic man” was that he (or she) is a fully rational individual who makes, therefore, fully rational decisions.
Cognitive dissonance theory suggests that people do not always make such rational decisions. Unfortunately, Croaker and Dickens had an erroneous understanding of cognitive dissonance theory. The present paper corrects their conceptualization and explores, briefly, the implications of the true dissonance theory for irrational choice behavior. Dissonance theory on Elliott Ransom’s book “The Social Animal” Corresponding author. Tell. : +1 609 652 4512. E-mail address: David. [email protected] Due (D. Lester). 1053-5357/$ – see front matter 2009 Elsevier Inc.