Argument- set of statements consisting of premises and a conclusion. When we have an argument we should make sure that the argument Is valid or the conclusion follows logically the premise. Moral Philosophy or ethics is to reason about the ultimate questions of morality. Morality- intentions, decisions, values a person has whether they’re bad or not. Mathematics- is the study of nature and methodology of moral Judgments.
Types: Cultural Relativism, Subjectivism, and Supernaturalism. Normative ethics studies principles about how we ought to live. Ex: What is right or wrong? What makes someone a good person? Two Types of Normative Ethics: Normative ethical theory and Applied ethics Normative ethical theory focuses on general moral principles such as we ought to always do what’s good for everyone. Applied ethics focuses on specific moral issues such as abortion or lying Why study ethics? 1) It can keep us thinking about the ultimate questions of life 2) Studying different kinds of approaches to morality can help us build our own moral choices 3) It can sharpen our general talking Human needs A human being is an embodied intelligent freedom A body is organized matter Organized means structured and matter means has mass and occupies space Freedom- Is the capacity to will or love Love Is the act of union, treating another as one’s own self A person Is one who has he need and capacity for intelligent freedom, that is knowing and loving Personality- the expression of ones intelligent freedom Community- is essential to the humanness Every human act or event has four dimensions and each one needed more in certain cases Hierarchy of values needs 1) Biological- physiological needs and functions of body; maintain oneself homosexually In dynamic relation with environment, grow and reproduce 2) Psychological; good sensations, images and feelings 3) Social/ethical- self control and social relations in and beyond the family.
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Expressing ultimate love by treating other as self 4) Spiritual- commitment to ultimate end(love in community), creativity, and transcendence at which persons not only live within a culture, but criticizes it, transcend It, and contribute Tit “Good” means socially approved Pick your moral principles by following what your society approves. Uses the relative term meaning that something can be different from a different view or perspective. Ex: Give example with hands. Training children to become suicide bombers is accepted in “X” country but isn’t accepted in country. Doesn’t mean that “X” is rang. Cultural relativist’s see actions are good depending on what society says and that no society is wrong. We need to understand and accept other cultures morals even though they do not coincide with ours. Martin Luther King went against the accepted norm of segregation.
Cultural Relativism would hold him wrong. Objective view (moral realism)- claims that some things are objectively right or wrong, independently of what anyone may think or feel. Cultural Relativist three arguments against objective values : 1) Morality is a product of culture 2) Cultures disagree widely about morality ) There’s no clear way to resolve moral differences Subjectivism Picking moral principles by following what a person feels “x” is good means “l like Follow your feelings Ex: I like to steal cars. Stealing cars is good. Subjectivism gives people the freedom to form our own moral Judgments instead of following what society says. Give example about drinking and driving.
People can follow there morals that can hurt people which doesn’t make it good for the victim There is no good or bad in subjectivism since good comes from what people like It can make people more tolerant of others differing moral beliefs Ideal- Observer View “x” is good means “we’d desire x if we were fully informed and had impartial concern for everyone” Combine feelings with reason. If we do whatever we like then we wont like what we become Following feelings can lead to destruction if they aren’t trained Eat whatever you like and whenever. Consequences = overweight 1) Be informed: base your feelings and decisions on a correct assessment of the situation 2) Be impartial: make your moral judgments from an impartial standpoint that shows concern for everyone Problems with 10: What does impartial mean?