This is where one takes the action that achieves the higher or greater value. This of course assumes that values can be put in rank order and understand the consequences of various courses of action. Pretty far away from the Golden Rule, Hugh? EXAMPLE: in critical situation rather categorizing action in ethical or unethical you should categories or rank them into more unethical to less unethical. For example keeping track of very email of every citizen might harm privacy of people so it is unethical but it is useful to avoid any terrorist activity so tracking email of every citizen of country is less unethical 5.
Risk Aversion Principle- The principle that one take the action that creates the least harm or incurs the least cost. This assumes that all actions have some harm, and our job is to take the action with the least amount of harm. EXAMPLE: hacking is considered as unethical practice but in war-situation through hacking if you can get access to warehouse of firearm manufacturing company then it is useful to save your country by using that firearms thus in this case we are selecting an action which harm a firearm manufacturing company but saving whole country. . No Free Lunch Rule- This states that there is no such thing as a free lunch. If something someone else has created is useful to you, It has value and you should assume the creator wants compensation for this work. EXAMPLE: In India lots of people are using pirated windows 8 operating system thus they are not paying any compensation to Microsoft so this action is unethical.
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