Business activities must be dewed and examined from the perspective of morality/ethical perspective. As long as people have needs and business there will always be business. Society will not exist without business. Reason for examining the activities of business from moral perspective: 1 . Promotion of common good 2. Protection of individual interest 3. Preservation of human society Without ethics morality will be subjective, people sets their own standards. Ethics- as a science does not only evaluate the morality of our human conduct but also provides us common understanding of universal, objective and irreversible moral principles.
Use of Quantitative techniques to measure variability and profitability (amazing things in business today) CT- not applicable in evaluating moral and ethical issues, but philosophical analysis and moral reasoning can. Study of business ethics will enhance the human and interpersonal skills of manager. Myth #1: Ethics is a personal affair and not a public debatable matter (wrong) (other way around) Myth #2: Ethics and business do not mix (wrong) – without ethics business will only justify illegal acts.
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Myth #3: Ethics in business is relative (wrong) Myth Good business means Good Ethics (wrong) – the end does not justify he means. Myth# 5: Business is a war (mongo) – business must promote healthy competition Ethics is not a study of positive laws Ethics as a philosophical science concerns to discover that there are unwritten laws written in the hearts of men that should govern our human conduct where positive law is not clear. What is legal may not necessarily be moral. Laws are insufficient. Peter Trucker- business enterprise is an organ of society and its actions have a decisive impact in society.
Moral Reasoning- a process in which ethical issues and problems are benchmark against a moral standard so that a moral judgment is possible. Ethical Issues- Reality check- Moral Standard- Moral Judgment Situation Analysis- Problem Analysis- Decision Analysis- Resolution Graft- Gravity of offence- codes of conduct- moral or immoral/legal or illegal Characteristics Of Good Moral Standard: 1 . Seriousness 2. Grounded on good moral argument Good argument- always tell the truth Solid argument – leaves no room for loopholes 3.
Objective and not subjective 4. Brings guilt and conscience when violated Requirements for Good Moral Judgment: 1. Logical 2. Factual 3. Sound and defensible Profit motive- the most important aspect of business. Milton Friedman- the only responsibility of business is to make profit so as the business operates without deception or fraud. Peter Trucker- primary responsibility of business is to look and satisfy customers of their needs and wants. Factors towards understanding the nature and morality of profit motive: 1.
Perspective of Morality 2. Operates within freedom and structure of business Freedom- businessmen have the right to decide on the amount of profit they Want to earn Structure- guideline that governs business activities including profit making. The Good Side of Profit-Motive: 1. Motivation 2. Ingenuity and cleverness . Productivity 4. Generates Capital The gad Side of profit-Motive: 1. Rivalry 2. Money-making only 3. Narrow view of existence 4. Self-interest Ethical Considerations for Profit-Motive: 1. Ethical discernment 2.
Making excessive profit is totally wrong 3. Not the “be-all and end-all”, there are other things to be considered 4. Pope Pips XSL, in Quadriplegia Ann. (1931) ?? profit is good as long as one respects the laws of God, does not prejudice the rights of others, and works according to faith and good reason The Concept of Moral Responsibility Genesis 3:1-13- reflects man’s propensity to avoid accountability and accessibility. Man is supposed to be responsible and accountable of his actions because: 1 . Man is a rational being capable of moral judgment 2.
Man is a free being that has the capacity to exercise his choice These reasons provides basis for giving praises and blame for his actions. Moral Responsibility according to William H. Shaw: 1 . Morally Accountable- Assigning people blame or praises for his actions 2. Moral responsibility implies duty- care, welfare, treatment 3. Morally independent- Making moral decisions on his own Chapter 2: The Philosophical Background of Business Ethics Business Ethics as applied branch of General Ethics must be studied from the view of Philosophy.
Philosophy (metaphysical science) Greek word Philips (love) and Sophia (wisdom) Pythagoras out of humility call himself “lover of wisdom” Science that seeks to explain the ultimate cause of everything by use of human reason Gives one an opportunity to reflect and analyze the content of his thoughts Plato: highest form or inquiry William James: questions that have not been answered Persons philosophic view of the universe or reality (with great power comes great responsibility) Finding the meaning and worth of reality including unman experience Divisions of philosophy 1 . Theoretical or Speculative- studies the truth to be known a.
Cosmology- origin and destiny of universe, evolution and ultimate fate. (cosmos or universe) b. Ontology- nature of existence of things and Status of reality, branch of C (Onto or being) c. Metaphysics- nature of mind, self and consciousness, time, space, time (beyond nature) d. Psychology coined by Aristotle, nature of soul, human and animal behavior (psyche or soul) e. Theistic- nature and attributes of God not based on bible and divine revelation but logic and reasoning (thee or God, dike or justice) f. Epistemology- concerned with knowledge and related concepts (epistemic or knowledge) 2.
Practical Philosophy- studies truths to be acted upon a. Semantics- meaning of words and linguistic forms (seem or sign/mark, semantics or sign if. ) b. Axiology- studies values, its origin, types and characteristics (axis or worthy) c. Aesthetics- establish the principles of art and beauty (aesthetics or perception of things through sensation, feeling and intuitions) d. Logic- nature of thinking and reasoning with empirical support, if premises are true, conclusion must be try_Jew. Deductive- universal truth to particular Inductive- particular truth to universal e.
Ethics: Greek: ethos or characteristic way of acting Latin: ethos or mores Sometimes called moral science or moral philosophy Goal: Investigate the nature of human conduct Studies the morality of human acts As a science: Analysis of nature of human conduct from point of view of morality As normative science: studies human conduct and provide norms for its natural integrity and honesty As practical science: guides us in our actions that we may live rightly and well Scientific inquiry into the principles of morality Morality- quality of goodness or badness in human act, conformity to the ales of right conduct Morality implies judgment which refers to moral standard while Ethics is used to refer to the formal study of those moral standards. E. Baber argues that while Ethics provides principle or bases for right or wrong, morality actualities the theory. Morality is doing of Ethics.
General Ethics: 1 . Descriptive- studying and describing morality of people, culture or society. Makes comparison and contrast of different values. Foundation of Normative Ethics. Closely related to Sociology, Anthropology and Psychology (SAP). Does not assess soundness of ethical system but describe the values and beliefs. A. Psychological Egoism- study of human motivation, says nothing about what is good or right, describes only results based on scientific studies. B. Cultural Relativism- does not prescribe how people should act but described how people when grouped and observed differ in their behavior. What is good or bad is relative to ovum’s culture. 2.
Normative – moral judgment based on ethical norm or theory The three tasks of normative ethics: a. TO form into related whole various norms b. To find the basic principle the particular norm can be derived c. To justify an ethical norm 3. Mathematics- branch of Normative Ethics, analysis of meaning of words & he logic of reasoning. Does not describe moral beliefs and does not evaluate the process of moral reasoning but simply analyzes the usage and meaning of words. Ethical Relativism- when any two cultures or people hold different moral values of an action, both can be right. Emphasizes differences of moral beliefs and practices from point of view of culture.
Situational Ethics or Moral Subjectivism- emphasizes moral differences based on personal beliefs. Approaches to Moral Differences: a. There is no moral truth (Moral nihilism) – no ultimate right or wrong. Moral Skepticism- we cannot know whether there are moral truth Moral Subjectivism- moral views differ from one person to another b. There is no universal Moral Truth (Ethical Relativism) – each culture has its own set of rules that are valid for that culture and we have no right to interfere. C. Deep Down, we can find Basic Moral Truths (Soft universalism) – despite differences, people of different culture could still agree on certain moral basics. D.
There is One Universal Moral Truth (Hard Universalism/Moral Absolutism) – there is only one universal moral code that everybody must follow. Deontological Ethics (non-scones mentalist) – if the motive or intention f act is good, regardless of consequences, the action is good. The motive is good if it is an expression of person’s sense of duty. A. Kantian Ethics or Kantian or Categorical Imperative Approach – one should always base his actions on maxims or rules that are believed to be Universal. B. Divine Command Theory- standard of right or wrong is the will or law of God. Teleological Ethics (consequentiality theory) – measures the morality of action based on consequences and not on motive or intention. A.
Hedonism- pleasure is the only good as an end b. Utilitarianism- the greatest good is the greatest happiness or pleasure of he greatest number. Traditional Ethics – believes that man has a natural insight that is native in all persons (moral sense). 1. Synergies of Man according to SST. Thomas Aquinas Italian philosopher, theologian and priest (Prince of Scholastics) Synergies is the starting point of man’s moral reasoning which takes place when a person reaches “age of reason” or when he know the difference of right and wrong. The moral sense in man is manifested in: a. Ability to distinguish b. Obligated to do good or bad c. Knowing that he is accountable for his actions 2.
Sigmund Schools Fraud’s theory of id, Ego and Superego Founding father f psychoanalysis Human mind has three important components (preconscious, conscious, unconscious) Founded psychoanalysis Theory, that views man and woman as constantly torn of forces Man must learn to control his desires Man must achieve fulfillment in harmonious ways Fraud’s Theory of Psyche and (Plat’s Three Parts of Soul): a. Superego (Will) reflects social rules and values of society, known as conscience. Has elements in common with will and reason. B. Ego (Part reason, part will) – rational self or conscious self, known as reality principle. Fight off the seeking pleasure of d, and pressured by reality forces and dictates of superego. C. Id – irrational part or unconscious instinct, known as pleasure principle. Does not know the meaning of postponement. It craves for instant satisfaction. Healthy Personality- man who has an ego that does an effective job for coping with the urges of id and is not pressured by restrictions of superego. 3.
Lawrence Kohlrabi’s Theory of Moral Development Contracted a tropical disease and rumored to have committed suicide Known for his Theory of Moral Development His work was based on Jean Piglet’s general cognitive developmental approach. Kohlrabies Classification of Person’s Moral Development: a. Pre- conventional – found in young children and older. There are two stages: Stage 1- Reaction to punishment – following commands and avoiding being punished Stage 2- Desire for the right behavior- individual instrumental purpose and exchange Promotes “I’ll scratch your back and you scratch my back” mentality b. Conventional ??found in ideal civilized society Stage 3 – Mutual, Interpersonal Expectations, Relationships and Conformity, seeks to do what will gain the approval of others.
Good boy and girl orientation stage, “Putting oneself in other person’s shoe” Conformity or non- uniformity to norms of environment or community Stage 4 – Social System and Conscience Maintenance, abiding law and responding to obligations of duty. Individuals adapt social rules without considering underlying principles. Emphasizes obedience to the law and respect to authority. Conformity or non-conformity to law set by state c. Post-conventional – not reached by majority Stage 5 – Prior rights and Social Contract or Utility, gives the person a sense of democracy Stage 6 – Universal Ethical Principles, action is controlled by internalized Ideas that demand pressure to act accordingly regardless of action of others.
People do good because they are convinced that there are universal teeth cal principles that govern and justify their actions. No skipping of stage. No revising of order and only few people progress through all stages. Goldberg and Pigged believed that most moral developments occur through social interactions. Transcendental Morality – last stage of Moral development stage. Believes that people can transcend their concepts of good and evil by integrating them with their religious convictions. Two Ethical Systems: 1 . Atheistic System- only matter exist, there is no God. Matter is the only reality Man does not have spiritual dimensions Man is free and must exercise freedom to promote welfare of society No life after death Man is accountable only to State 2.
Theistic Ethics – God is the Supreme Lawgiver God is the supreme Creator and Lawgiver Man is free and must use that freedom to promote his personal and social interest with his fellowmen Man has an immortal soul Man is accountable for his actions both good and bad Technical Writing: Analyzing your Readers “Write for your reader, not for yourself’ Obstacles for Readers: 1 . Readers are always interrupted 2. Readers are impatient 3. Readers lack your technical knowledge . Most documents have more than one reader Ways to Understand Readers/Audience Analysis: 1 . Write down what you know about your Reader 2. Talk with colleagues who have written to the same reader 3.
Find out who makes decisions 4. Remember that all readers prefer simplicity Types of Readers: 1. Managers 2. Experts 3. Operators 4. General readers Decision-Making Levels First Level Audience: Decision Makers Second Level Audience: Advisers Third Level Audience: Receivers Collecting Information: 1. Decide what kind of Information you need 2. Devise a research strategy 3. Record notes carefully 4. Acknowledge your sources . Keep a bibliography for future use Completing an Outline: 1. Record your random ideas quickly 2. Show relationships 3. Draft final outline 4. Consider where to use graphics Writing Initial Drafts: 1 . Schedule at least One-Hour Block of Drafting 2.
Do not stop to edit 3. Begin with the easiest section 4. Write summaries last Revising Drafts: 1 . Adjust content Expand sections that deserve more attention Shorten sections that deserve less Change the location of sentences, paragraphs, or sections. 2. Edit for style Shorten Paragraphs Place the main point first Change passive voices to active Shorten sentences Define technical terms Add headings, list, or graphics 3. Edit for grammar 4. Edit for mechanics Depend on another set of eyes beside your own Remember the importance of completing each step separately Writing in Groups (Guidelines): 1. Get to know your group 2. Set clear goals and Ground rules 3. SE brainstorming techniques for planning Brainstorming- to pool ideas in a non-judgmental fashion Strategies for Communicating Internationally Guidelines for Cross Cultural Fluency: 1. Be flexible 2. Be non-judgmental about the business at hand 3. Be tolerant of ambiguity 4. Be respectful 5. Be non-judgmental about personal beliefs . Be empathetic 7. Be able to take turns Guidelines for Writing: 1. Remove ambiguity 2. Define technical terms 3. Use many headings and subheadings 4. Use much white space 5. Include visuals 6. Avoid slang terms and idioms Ethics on the Job Ethical guidelines for work: 1. Be honest 2. Do no harm 3. Keep your commitments 4.
Be independent Ethics and legal issues in writing a. Ethics question in Mecums Writing: READ b. Legal Issues in Writing 1 . Acknowledge sources for information other than common knowledge 2. Ask written permission before borrowing extensive text 3. Seek written permission before borrowing graphics . Seek legal advice when you cannot resolve complex questions Three Principles of Organization: 1 . Write different parts for different readers Readers “Speed Read” a. Quick scan b. Focused search c. Short follow-ups 2. Emphasize beginnings and endings Readers first choice of locations a. Beginning of entire document b. Beginning of report sections c. Beginning of paragraphs 3.