Two or more values you hold dear, or Personal value conflicts with organizational value Prescriptive (Normative) Principles Focus on consequences (teleological ethics): Practical and already underlines business thinking. But difficult to evaluate all consequences, right of minorities can be sacrificed. /Focus on duties, obligations, principles (deontological ethics): The means matter more than the ends, Decisions based on abstract universal principles such as honesty, fairness, rights.
One person’s rights lead to another’s duty, Natural rights are inherent, universal, ND inalienable/Focus on virtue (retail ethics): The assumption is that the actions Of a virtuous person will be virtuous (honesty, promise keeping, integrity, fairness, loyalty, respect for others). Focus on integrity of moral actor rather than the act. They can come from community standards but not necessarily and IRS a minor point. The real issue is that it is about character – the kind Of person you want to be as opposed to which action to take.
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And you can use the disclosure rule preventive Medicine: pay attention to your gut/Ask for time/Find out about organizational policy/Ask manager or peers or advice/Use New York Times test (disclosure rule) Servant leaders: Listening/ Empathy/Healing/Awareness/Persuasion/Conceptualization/ Foresight/Stewardship/Commitment to the growth Of people/Build inning community Consequential theory: Utilitarianism -Always act in a way that creates the greatest good for the greatest number/The ends justifies the means (with some exceptions), Bottom line = action that produces the greatest good for the greatest number of people, for society overall! Dictatorial imperative: this rule asks you to consider whether the rationale or your action is suitable to become a universal law or principle for everyone to follow. Veil of ignorance – for deciding what’s fair Ethic of Reciprocity (Golden Rule): Virtue involves finding a balance between two extremes Excess (too much Of something) and Deficiency (too little Of something)/ Virtue is a habit that can be learned through practice/True virtue is like the fulcrum of a seesaw Ethical Decision Making Steps: 1 . Gather the facts 2. Define the ethical issues 3. Identify the affected parties 4. Identify the consequences 5. Identify the obligations 6.
Consider your character and integrity 7. Think creatively about potential actions 8. Check your gut Ethical Egoism: Selfishness is a virtue when coupled with integrity, Not only is it okay to be selfish, it is wrong not to be selfish, Integrity is critical. All actions are inherently selfish. Even altruism. It works in sports, we want to win but we want our opponents to try as hard as they can Triple Bottom Line: people (social)/Planet (Environmental)/Profit (Economic) Type of corporate social responsibilities: Philanthropic Responsibilities/Ethical Responsibilities/Legal Responsibilities/Economic Responsibilities [Compliance: 1.
Focuses on what employees should and shouldn’t do in a policy end regulatory framework 2. Can measure mandatory behavior as it relates to laws/regulations 3. Expected to advise on business processes and escalate problems 4. Monitoring and oversight Ethics: 1 . Provides a framework for behavior 2. Focuses on why employees do what they do 3. Can measure behavior related to organizational values 4. Available to advise on ethical decisions 5. Does not "police” ethics] U. S.
Sentencing Guidelines: Established in 1991 for companies being sentenced or reaching settlements/Apply to all companies/ Can be triggered by the activities of one employee/Give judges latitude to impose additional fines/Death Penalty is also an option: government forces company to divest all assets and be liquidated/These do not apply to Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) violations/Such as discrimination, sexual harassment, etc. /EEOC has its own penalties 2004 version 1 . Reddening of the purpose of an effective program to include developing an ethical organization culture 2. Specific requirement to design a program around identified risks and regular program evaluation 3. Recognition of a disincentive to having an effective program 4. Attention to the challenges of the small organization Reward systems: What gets rewarded, gets done (for better or worse) people Follow Group Norms: Rationalizing unethical behavior/Pressure to go along Identification ?? People Fulfill Assigned Roles: Roles at work Conflicting roles can lead to unethical behavior (e. . , professors)/Roses can support ethical behavior People Do What They’re Told: Obedience to authority at work Diffused Responsibility: Workers encouraged to turn over responsibility to those in higher levels/Ensure that alternative views are aired/Specialization/Create psychological distant once Goldberg – Cognitive Moral Development: 1 .