The Nature of Morality Lesson Objectives 0 Illumination: What is ethics? What is Ethics? 0 Ethics is a study of how we conduct ourselves morally in so that the 0 “Ethics is a study of morality and the application of to elucidate specific that determine right and wrong” (Crane & Matter 2010, p. 8). 4 0 “Ethics is a systematic attempt to make sense of our individual and social moral experience, in such a way as to determine the rules that ought to govern human conduct, the values worth pursuing, and the character traits deserving development life” (Disgorge 2010, p. 3). 5 Some questions of interests in ethics Individual character 0 Moral rules that govern us 0 Questions of right and wrong 0 Fairness and unfairness 0 Good and bad 0 Justice and injustice 0 Moral responsibility 6 0 Introduction: What is ethics? DHOW do we know that a conduct, act, behavior is ethical? Moral Standards 0 There are standards in fashion, in grammar, in food, in movies, etc. Standards allow us to evaluate whether something is “good” or “bad”. How do we know whether our conduct, act, behavior is ethical (morally right) / unethical (immoral)? A ethical question / moral question needs to be evaluated using Moral standards differ from other kinds of standards because they concern behavior that is of serious consequence to human welfare. 9 0 Other characteristics: 8 a) standards, including self interest b) Not established / changed by authoritative bodies BUT based on standards are based on c) Moral considerations (Reaches, cited in Velasquez, M.
G. 2012, p. 12); everyone’s interests are equally important 10 Moral Reasoning O IS the conduct, act, behavior ethical / unethical? O YOU NEED MORAL STANDARDS . You will have to go through a MORAL MORAL Moral Judgments process to make a Moral Judgments should be logically reasoned; not . Be based on . 0 Be based on moral standards which are compared against our “considered moral beliefs”. 12 0 Introduction: What is ethics? 0 How do we know that a conduct, act, behavior is ethical / unethical?
Don’t waste your time!
Order your assignment!
Differentiating morality from etiquette, law and religion Morality and Law O LEGAL = MORALLY RIGHT / ETHICAL? O ILLEGAL = IMMORAL / UNETHICAL? Can we rely solely on law to determine Justify) whether a conduct, act or behavior is ethical? 14 0 An action can be illegal but morally right 0 An action that is legal can be morally wrong 5 Can we rely solely on law to determine Justify) whether a conduct is ethical? Not ideal because the law 0 May take time to be established 0 Can be changed 16 Morality and Religion 0 Religions do provide certain moral instructions. Variations of the Golden Rule ‘Do unto others as you would have them do unto you’ can be found in major religions of the world. No one of you is a believer until he loves for his brother what he loves for himself. (Islam) 17 0 Can we rely solely on religion to determine Justify) whether a conduct is ethical? ANSWER: No 0 Religious principles are accepted 18 ; moral principles 0 Atheists – need not make a moral Judgment, need not be ethical? 0 Moral instructions of the great religions are general and imprecise. Divine command theory ethical / unethical? 0 Differentiating morality from etiquette, law and religion Los ethical conduct relative? Ethical Relativism 0 Right is defined by the society / culture. 0 A conduct that is morally right in one society may be wrong in another and yet both societies are EQUALLY RIGHT! 0 Ethical relativism avoids making moral Judgments on the conduct of other societies cause no society can prove that it is more superior. 21 This view has been criticized a) Are different opinions equivalent to all equally correct opinions? ) Moral standards need not be established, moral reasoning and ethical progress no longer take place. C) Ethical relativism is suggesting that morally right is determined by the majority. Is this a good argument? D) Ethical relativism claims that there is no universal moral rules but AT THE SAME TIME, people within each society are expected to obey the rules of their society (which implicitly suggest hat there is a conduct more ethical than others). 22 Relativism and the ‘game’ of business 0 Albert Carr (cited in Shaw W.
H. 2009, p. 17) argues that business, as practiced by individuals as well as corporations, has the impersonal character of a game 0 Poker game analogy 0 ‘Business has its own moral standards, and it should only be Judged by those standards. ‘ Counter argument: 24 Stages of acquiring moral principles Acquiring moral principles 26 0 Differentiating morality from etiquette, law and religion 0 Stages of acquiring moral reminisces Can moral principles and self-interest go hand-in-hand?
Moral principles and self interest Areas for discussion: 0 Different people’s self interests often conflict one another; when conflict arises, for one party to gain, is companies companies. Possible to same time. Evidence that . 0 There are among the most Therefore, some writers argued that it is act morally and pursue self interest at the 28 Areas for discussion: 0 Paradox of selfishness / paradox of hedonism. 0 People have reasons not interested. Self-interested to be self- 29