Our families whilst we have been focused on these deliverables. The many participants in answering our survey. 2. ABSTRACT This research paper looks to explore the various types of leadership styles that have been studied and implemented over the years and how these relate to Project Management, particularly looking for any consistencies between the leadership style being demonstrated and the relative success of the project.
Does a leader fit into one style or do they adapt to the situation or project at hand (different situations and dealing with different people require changes in leadership approach, especially here culture/national differences are present)? The main questions we will look to explore and build on are 1 . What do we mean by leadership, is a leader different from simply being a manager? 2. Identify key leadership styles, their attributes and the benefits of each style. 3. Specify what defines project success and how different leadership styles can improve the chances of success.
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The literature review firstly focused on the difference between managers and leaders, Yuk (2002) states that a person can be a good leader without being a manager and a person can be a manager without leading. Roost (1991) also describes management as an authority relationship that exists between a manager and subordinates to produce and sell goods and services. Roost also describes leadership as a multidimensional influence relationship between a leader and followers with the mutual purpose of accomplishing real change.
These initial findings suggested you could be one without being the other. However the findings of the literature review suggested that to be a Successful Project Manager you should have leadership skills (Yuk, 2002) but they do not assume that leaders and managers are different types of people. It can be considered that to be a successful project manager that the individual is also a good leader. The review then moved on to leadership where we various definitions of Leadership and various types of styles.
MAMBO guide describes leadership as “The ability to establish vision and direction, to influence and align others towards a common purpose, and to empower and inspire people to achieve project success. It enables the project to proceed in an environment of change and uncertainty’ Mayer and Salvoes identified 4 key skills that a leader should master to gain success which were: selfsameness, self-management, social awareness and relationship management Coleman expanded these skills to capture the following: emotional self-awareness, self-management, social awareness and social skills.
Blanchard and Heresy identified 4 key behavior types of a Situational Leader: directing or telling’ leadership, coaching or ‘selling’ leadership, supporting leadership and delegating leadership we found that Situational Leadership style can be related back to the Daniel Coleman Emotional Intelligence style theory, consultants Hay McCabe, surveyed executives worldwide and found six extinct leadership styles, The Coercive Leader, The Authoritative Leader, The Affiliated Leader, The Democratic Leader, The Pace-setting Leader and The Coaching Leader each which can be related to the elements of Salesman’s Emotional Intelligence.
By looking at these 3 theories we can 5 quickly see how these can be intertwined. This paper then moves on to look in detail at Transformational and Transactional styles. James MacGregor Burns proposed that transformational leadership “is a relationship of mutual stimulation and elevation that converts followers into leaders and may convert leaders into moral agents”. Transactional leadership is a “give and take’ working relationship – rapport between leader and follower is established through exchange, such as a rewards system for meeting particular objectives” (Alai 2011).
The literature review then looks at Project Success and if Leadership contributes to success. The findings demonstrate that there is a strong belief that leadership styles (Hay/McCabe 6 Leadership Styles and Burns Transformational and Transactional Styles) do impact project success and the best leaders also adapt their style to situation types. With this linkage we wanted to further explore the Transactional and Transformational leadership styles and how people within our organizations view a relationship, if at all, between the leadership styles and project success.
A questionnaire was developed which was based on the Multifunctional Leadership Questionnaire (ML). The collated questionnaires showed a strong dominance between the Transformational and Transactional Styles in both the Organizations Leaders and the Organizations in themselves, the results of the Survey support the literature review carried out (Mueller and Turner), both the Transformational and Transactional Styles appear to be as dominant.
The findings of the Literature review and the questionnaire demonstrate there is a strong belief that leadership styles Styles) do impact project success, the best leaders also adapt their style to situation types. In conclusion there are many leadership styles that are demonstrated by leaders, that the style does depend on the leader and the situation they are working within, and that although there are a number of authors and styles that there are common themes across them.
This has been generated as a team effort comprising of the following members: Bonanza, Iraqis – IT Industry Hobbs, Karen – Oil and Gas Upstream Industry Irvine, Thomas – Construction Industry Lambert, Gary – Oil and Gas EPIC Industry Meadows, Claire – Aerospace Industry 6 3. LIST OF TABLES/FIGURES/GRAPHS Table 1 Transformational elements vs. Transactional elements Table 2 Summary of Selected Practices in Leadership Development Table 3 Summary of Differences between Leader Development and Leadership Development Figure 1 Heresy Blanchard Behaviors – Situational leadership Graphs Survey results graphs 4.
INTRODUCTION – section 6. 3 A Project manager must meet certain goals in their projects, they should be on time, on budget, quality aspects met and safety targets maintained. The MAMBO Guide describes three characteristics of an effective Project Manager – 1) Knowledge 2) Performance and 3) Personal. 1 . Knowledge about Project Management, for example writing a project plan or developing a schedule. 2. Performance – what can the project manager actually accomplish? Can they keep the project moving forward? 3.
Personal – The Project Manager’s attitude, personality and leadership, how does the Project Manager interact with stakeholders? The MAMBO Guide describes eight interpersonal skills that good Project Managers possess. Leadership, team building, motivation, communication, influencing, decision asking, political and cultural awareness, and negotiation, many of these interpersonal skills relate directly to influencing others to do what is required for the project to be delivered on time, on budget and to the required quality.
Project Managers do not always have the formal authority over people so their ability to influence is very important. It is easier to manage via authority than through leadership, but leadership is far more effective as it builds trust and respect. The Project Manager needs to consider various styles of leadership available throughout the project life cycle and set the scene accordingly. MAMBO guide describes leadership as “The ability to establish vision and direction, to influence and align others towards a common purpose, and to empower and inspire people to achieve project success.
It enables the project to proceed in an environment of change and uncertainty’ The role of leadership in a project is to maintain and promote the project vision, reinforce positive relationships, build an environment that supports effective team work, raise moral and empower and inspire the individual. A leader ensures that exceptional events during the project life cycle are properly addressed and resolved. Projects do not always go well, and a leader who can see an opportunity rather than a threat will help to motivate the team through a challenging period.
A leader represents and provides a service to those that they lead. Sensing what people need in order for them to perform most effectively is key to selecting which leadership style and activity is most appropriate. Leadership is important for various reasons, Leadership can transform potential into reality, and with the correct leader in place it could lead employees/organizations towards great accomplishments. Leadership can organize a group of thoughts in retain directions. If one person can stand up and lead a group of people, they will become better organized and inspired to get things done.
It is clear from the MAMBO guide that having the correct Leadership styles will help towards Project Managers becoming successful and eventually this should lead to Project Success. This was something that needed to be understood further and as part of a Group Project for MASC. project 8 Management Module, the group undertook the challenge to answer the question “How does leadership style impact on project success” and can these leadership Tyler be narrowed down to a particular style and do different industries display different traits.
To answer this question we firstly conducted research into what is Leadership, what are the types of leadership styles that have been studied and compared, then looking at how this relates to project management. Have these leadership styles been related to project management and project success. There are many leadership styles that have been researched, documented and updated over the years so we focused our research on some of the most prominent leadership styles and those which appeared to feature with our respective industries.
However in conducting this research we identified that there are apparent gaps in the research that links Leadership Style to project management and project success, we therefore set about gathering our own research across the companies and industries we work within to see which leadership styles were demonstrated and if there is belief that these leadership styles relate to project management. This research lead us to adapt the question “How does leadership style impact on project success, in particular Transformational and Transactional styles and do different industries display varying traits” 9 5.
LITERATURE REVIEW 5. 1 Leadership and Management The MAMBO (2000) defines leadership as ‘developing a vision and strategy, and motivating people to achieve that vision and strategy Where as the MAMBOS (2006) defines leadership as the ability to establish vision and direction, to influence and align others towards a common purpose, and to empower and inspire people to achieve project success. It enables the project to proceed in an environment of change and uncertainty.
These two examples clearly demonstrate that leadership involves relaying the vision to the people and working with them to achieve the purpose, in this case to deliver the project. Therefore it could be said that to be a successful project manager one must effectively direct and lead people meet the required project outcomes. AMP clearly link the leadership to achieving project success. The MAMBOS goes on to address how the leader is there throughout the project lifestyle to manage events, ‘sensing what people need in order for them to perform most effectively is key to selecting which leadership style and activity is most appropriate. There is a wide range of research on leadership, leaders and leaders vs. managers, particularly since the sass’s of which we will explore, one of the common threads in he research is that there is no single style, and no one way to lead over another, that the leadership style needs to be adapted to the situation and that a Project Manager can be a leader, as can members of the project team. Interlope Consulting identifies that ‘Project Managers manage projects and people.
This role requires management and leadership skills where the emphasis lies on managing the project data and leading the project team members’. Loafer, A notes that ‘Distinguishing between management and leadership is helpful when you first begin shaping your attitude and developing your skills, but these roles re intertwined and indistinguishable once you become a successful project manager. What you actually become is a project leader’. Where a leader directs, provides guidance, a vision and a path for people to follow Management looks at how this will get auctioned.
What plans are required, what resources are required. A manager will focus on systems, controls, the financial and short term goals, often related to their project, a leader will be looking at the longer term objective and will innovate, develop and focus on the people; a leader is a mentor and develops individuals in order to sustain the organization going forward. A good leader is someone who can manage both of these, the role of a manager and the role of a leader.
They can manage the task in hand, but they can also influence all levels within the organization. 10 In today’s business landscape, with the increase in pressure on organizations to become more competitive in the face of competition, the emphasis has changed in respect of the skills required by a project manager. Project managers are required to have leadership qualities to inspire, positively influence, lead by example and help them manage change in all aspects of the project, including people, the way they hind and the outcomes they influence.
This is in addition to the more traditional role of the project manager to concentrate on project delivery on time, within budget and to an acceptable quality. Gone are the days when project management was seen only as a technical competence area using a range of tools and techniques, regardless of the project manager’s leadership style. What makes a good leader and what makes a good manager and does a good leader make a good manager? Yuk (2002) states that a person can be a good leader without being a manager and a person can be a manager without leading.
He suggests that the two roles are equivalent, with overlaps and offers the argument that leadership and management are “qualitatively different and mutually exclusive” stating that in extreme cases both cannot exist in the same person. However in Turner’s “People In Project Management” (2003), Barrington offers that the titles of ‘project leader’ and ‘project manager’ are synonymous, and that many people in organizations view leadership and management as indistinguishable. To explore this further it is first important to establish how ‘managing’ is different from ‘leading.
Barrington (2003) describes management as getting things done through people and states that project management now recognizes the need to manage people. Barrington also defines leadership as the ability to influence the activities of a group of followers in their efforts to set and achieve goals. Roost (1991) also describes management as an authority relationship that exists between a manager and subordinates to produce and sell goods and services. Roost also describes leadership as a multidimensional influence relationship between a leader and followers with the mutual purpose of accomplishing real change.
Both definitions by Barrington and Roost demonstrate that management can be considered a transactional function to provide results and that leadership is a transformational function. Project management requires a combination of both styles to achieve results and therefore it is important that project managers reflect both styles in their approach to their work. Leading and managing are viewed as distinct processes by a number of scholars (Yuk, 2002) but they do not assume that leaders and managers are different types of people. It can be considered that to be a successful project manager that the individual is also a good leader.
Often the toughest task of being a leader is effecting change, by embroiling their resource, the people, through the organization to be adaptive. Adaptive work is usually required when deeply held beliefs need to be challenged. It is critical to get an organization to adapt its behaviors in order to succeed within new business environments, without change in today’s markets companies would fail. Getting people to be 1 1 adaptive is driven through leadership, however providing leadership and not Just Ewing authoritative fugue is difficult. Dear identifies that Management contains 4 key elements: 1 .
A process comprised of interrelated social and technical functions and activities 2. That accomplishes organizational objectives 3. Achieves these objectives through use of people and other resources 4. Does so in a formal organizational setting Heifers and Laurie 1997 developed six principles to ensure that management and employees embrace the challenges of what is captured as adaptive work. 1 . ‘Get on the balcony – Don’t get swept up in the field of play. Instead move back and forth twine the action and the balcony. You will spot emerging patterns, such as power struggles or work avoidance.
This high level perspective helps you mobile people to do adaptive work. ‘ 2. ‘Identify your adaptive challenge’ – Example: When the passengers of the airline British Airways nicknamed it “Bloody Awful”. CEO Colic Marshall knew he had to infuse the company with a dedication to customers. He identified the ‘adaptive challenge’ as “creating trust throughout British Airways”. To fully understand the issues hen then deployed his team with employees and customers in baggage areas, serration centre, and planes asking which beliefs values, and behaviors needed overhauling. They exposed value-based conflicts underlying surface-level disputes, and resolved the team’s own dysfunctional conflicts that impaired accompanied collaboration. By understanding themselves, their people, and the company’s conflicts, the team strengthened British Airways bid to become the world’s favorite airline’. 3. ‘Regulate distress’ – To inspire change, without disabling people, pace adaptive work, 0 First, let employee’s debate issues and clarify their assumptions.