Assessment-1 1. Definition of Human Resource Management: Human Resource Management is the function within an organisation that focuses on recruitment, management and providing direction for the people who work in the organisation. Human resource management can also be performed by line managers. According to the Michael Armstrong “Human resource management is defined as a strategic and coherent approach to the management of an organisation most valued assets the people working there who individually and collectively contribute to the achievement of its object.
We can say that Human Resource Management view people as an important source or asset to be used for the benefit of the organisation and its employees with mutual benefit to the achievement of both organisational and individual goals. 2. How human resource management differs from personal management: Differences between HRM and PM are given below- * According to the Torrington and hall “Personnel management is a series of activities which first enable working people and the businesses which use their skills to agree about the nature of their working relationship, and secondly, ensures that the agreement in fulfilled”. The main difference between Human Resources Management and Personal Management is that Human Resource Management and Personal Management are seen as synonymous in today’s working environments as they tend to sit along side others. * Personal Management can include administrative tasks that are both traditional and routine. It can be described as reactive, providing a response to demands and concerns as they are presented. On the other hand, Human resources involves on going strategies to manage and develop an organization’s workforce. Personal Management is more administrative such as dealing with payroll, complying with employment law, and handling related tasks. By contrast, Human Resources is responsible for managing a workforce as one of the primary resources that contributes to the success of an organization. * While Personnel management is often not considered to be influenced by the organization, HR is generally considered as an integral part of the organizational functions. 3. In the evolution of personnel and human resource management, four major changes can de discerned- (a)Social justice:(19th century-20th century) * Aimed to improve the lot of works. Patemalistic approach which led to a focus on welfare. * Schemes such as unemployment benefit, sick pay, and subsidies housing. * Supported by a business and ethical case. Social reformers: Robert Owen(19th century) Robert Owen was a pioneer of social justice. A keen businessman who made good profits, he developed ideas and plans to use money into improving the welfare and education of his workers. Robert Owen was aware of how owners of factories in the 1800s treated their workers. He wanted to improve the working and living conditions for his employees and so advocated a fair wage for a fair days work. Robert Owen paid better wages and provided better working conditions for his workers than many other employers of his time. In 1806, during a four week stoppage because of an American cotton embargo, Owen paid his employees full pay. From this moment on, Owen gained the trust of his employees and eventually their loyalty and affection. Today, we live in a consumer society, demanding products at low prices. Some products we buy are produced by children and adults in developing countries, working long hours in terrible conditions, and who are forced to live in poverty as they are not paid properly.
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In recent years, consumer awareness and consumer pressure has obliged companies to look at their business practices and some are actively trying to act more ethically. It has led to an alternative movement outside of normal trading practices to grow up around fair trade. In addition at a time when men were hostile to women’s rights, Robert Owen caused controversy in the 1840s by suggesting marriage is a form of slavery for women. Over the last 150 years, inspired by the legacy of Robert Owen, co-operation has spread internationally and contributes significantly to both emerging and established economies.
Co-operatives can be small-scale or multi-million pound businesses. Human Bureaucracy: * Increased focus on other organizational objectives. * Responsibilities included staffing training and organization design. * Led to focus on social relationship in the workplace and employee morale. Negotiated consent: * Growth in trade unions post Second World War. * Personal managers managed the new collective institutions. * Many negotiated with trade unions. * Establishment of ACAS Organisation and integration of HR activities: * Development of career paths. * Development of techniques of workforce planning.