How can students demonstrate awareness Of POP? The readers of AP European History Db’s look for POP in five distinct ways. 1 . Attribution. This is the minimal approach to POP. When students cite the authors of the documents by name or position, they are indicating that they understand that this is a particular person’s expression rather than a statement of fact. Students need to provide consistent attribution throughout their essays, meaning all or most documents should be attributed.
Attribution means using the name of the author of a document or something about the author given in the document. Examples of attribution are: ; John Taylor, an English writer, said… ; A Dominican monk in Florence described… 2. Authorial point of view. Students show awareness that the gender, occupation, class, religion, nationality, political position, or ethnic identity of the author may well have influenced the views that are expressed. For example: ; Ballista Russo, as a Lutheran pastor, was naturally upset by the elaboration of saint’s Day since Lutheran don’t venerate saints. . Reliability and accuracy of source. Students critically examine a source for its reliability and accuracy by questioning whether the author of the document would be in a position to be accurate and ‘or would likely be telling the truth. The student can also evaluate the type of source, e. G. A letter or official report, showing an understanding that different types of sources vary in their probable reliability. An outside observer may understand a religious festival if he is Catholic and sitting a Catholic country.
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As a woman author she would be aware of how women were treated in society at that time. 4. Tone or intent of the author. Student is examining the text of a document to deter mine its tone (e. G. , satire, irony, indirect political commentary) or the intent of the author. This may be particularly useful for visual documents. ; Burgher painted The Battle be;men Carnival and Lent to warn the people that their love of celebrating was overwhelming their religious observance of Lent. 5. Grouping Of documents by author.
When students group the documents y type of author, they are showing awareness that certain types of authors, by the very nature of being that type, will express similar views or consider events in a similar light. In the DB there were three such groups of authors: government officials, clergy, and writers. Is this stress on POP new? No. Every DB has required students to address POP, and for many years this instruction has been emphasized in the directions for the DB. But its importance is more obvious now, because showing awareness of POP in an essay is required at least 3 times in the six basic core points.