Conflict ???A process that begins when one party receives that another party has negatively affect, or is about to negatively affect, something that the first party carries out. ???It describes that point in any ongoing activity when interaction crosses over to become an inter-party conflict. ???Arises from a perception of incompatibility which means that conflict primarily stems from differences in beliefs, values, goals, reality, personalities, backgrounds, needs, interest and/or motives Controversy ???A situation in which opinion, ideas, information, theories and conclusions are perceived as incompatible with those of another person or group.
Sources of Conflicts: ???Incompatibility of goals ???Differences over interpretation of facts ???Disagreement based on behavioral expectations Transition in Conflict Thought ???One school of thought has argued that conflict must be avoided that it indicates malfunctioning within the group. This is called the traditional view. ???Another school of thought, the human relations view, argues that conflict is a natural and inevitable outcome in any group and that it need not be evil, but rather has the potential to be appositive force in determining group performance. The third and most recent perspective proposes not only that conflict can be a positive force in a group but explicitly argues that some conflict is absolutely necessary for a group to perform effectively. This is called the inter actionist approach. The Traditional View ???The early approach to conflict assumed that all conflict was bad. Conflict was viewed negatively and it was used synonymously with such terms as violence, destruction and irrationality to reinforce its negative connotation. Conflict, by definition, was harmful and was not to be avoided. Conflict was seen as a dysfunctional outcome resulting from poor communication, lack of openness and trust between people, and the failure of managers to be responsive to the needs and aspirations of their employees. The Human Relations View ???The human relations position argued that conflict was a natural occurrence in all groups and organizations, since conflict was inevitable, the human relations school advocated acceptance of conflict. Proponents rationalized its existence: it cannot be eliminated, and there are even times when conflict may benefit a group’s performance.
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The Interactionist View ???It encourages conflict on the grounds that a harmonious, peaceful, tranquil and cooperative group is prone to becoming static, apathetic, and non-responsive to needs for change and innovation. Its major contribution is encouraging group leaders to maintain an ongoing minimum level of conflict enough to keep the group viable, self-critical and creative. Functional vs. Dysfunctional Conflict ???The inter actionist view does not propose that all conflicts are good.
Rather, some conflicts support the goals of the group and improve its performance; these are functional, constructive e forms of conflicts. Additionally, there are conflicts that hinder group performance; these are dysfunctional or destructive forms of conflict. Potential Opposition or Incompatibility ???The first step in the conflict process is the presence of conditions that create opportunities for conflict to arise. These may be viewed as causes or sources of conflict. They need not lead directly to conflict, but one of these conditions is necessary if conflict is to arise.
Communication oA review of the research suggests that semantic difficulties, insufficient exchange of information, and noise in the communication channel are all barriers to communication and potential antecedent conditions to conflict Structure oThis includes variables such as size, degree of specialization in the task assigned to group members, member-goal compatibility, leadership styles, and degree of dependence between groups. oResearch indicates that size and specialization act as forces to stimulate conflict.
The larger the group and the more specialized the activities, the greater the likelihood of conflict. Personal variables oThis includes the individual value systems each person has the personality characteristics that account for individual idiosyncrasies and differences. oThe evidence indicates that certain personality types for example, individuals who are highly authoritarian and dogmatic, and who demonstrate low self-esteem lead to potential conflict. Most important, and probably the most overlooked variable in the study of social conflict, is differing value systems.