There are many models of how society determines which act are criminal, but the two most common are consensus and conflict models. The consensus model argues that the majority of citizens will agree on which activities should be outlawed and punished as crimes. It rests on the assumption that a diverse group of people can have similar morals. In a diverse society dominant groups exercise power by codifying their value system into criminal laws (Changeless, Chapter 1 what is criminal Justice, 2011). The criminal Justice system insists of component agencies of police, courts, and correction.
Each component can be described by its functions and purpose. Fairness, professionalism, integrity, and impartiality are expected of all criminal Justice personnel at every stage of the criminal Justice process, and it is a special duty of the courts to ensure that these expectations are met. Agencies across the criminal Justice system work together to process and resolve criminal cases. The criminal Justice process has five major stages (CGI interactive). Stage one in the criminal Justice process is investigation and rest.
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This stage of the process begins with an investigation. Evidence is collected at the scene and attempts are made to reconstruct the events of the crime. Also, during this stage warrants are issued by Judicial officer and the accused is taken thru the booking process. This concludes the investigation and arrest stage (CGI interactive). Stage two consists of the pretrial activities. The pretrial activities include four major events which are the first appearance, the preliminary hearing, information or indictment, and arraignment (CGI interactive).
The first appearance is usually with in the first 48 hours of the arrest. The purpose of the preliminary hearing is to establish whether sufficient evidence exist against the accused person to continue the Judicial process. Information or indictment is a form filled when the prosecutor wants to continue a case against the accused. The arraignment is the first appearance of the accused before the court that holds the authority to conduct a trial (CGI interactive). Stage three of the process is the trial.
In a criminal proceeding The Criminal Justice System: Component Agencies of Police, Courts, and Correction By sweetie’s relevant laws relating to case for the purpose of convicting or acquitting the accused. Stage four is sentencing; once an offender is found guilty the sentencing phase of the process begins. Usually an offender can be sentenced by a Judge to pay a fine, placed on probation, or incarcerated. Offenders accused and found guilty of multiple charges may be ordered to serve either consecutive or concurrent sentences.
A consecutive sentence means that the individual must serve multiple sentences the est. starting after the previous sentence is over. A concurrent sentence is when you serve the time at the same time rather than one after the other (CGI interactive). Stage five the last stage of the process is corrections. Once an offender has been sentenced the correctional stage begins. Some offenders are sentenced to prison. Once in the correctional system they are classified according to local procedures and assigned to confinement facilities and treatment programs (CGI interactive).
All of these stages work together to build a unique process. There are five criminal Justice goals. They are not mutually exclusive, they are really rather like philosophical perspectives from which a community or agency responds to criminal behavior. Deterrence is a criminal Justice goal that seeks to inhabit criminal behavior through the fear of punishment. Next, incapacitation involves removing the offender’s ability commit crime. After that, is retribution which involves the act of taking revenge on a criminal perpetrator.
Some examples of retribution include: incarceration, victim imposition, fines paid to public agencies, and community service. Another goal of criminal Justice is rehabilitation. Rehabilitation involves the attempt to reform a criminal offender. Last but not least is restoration. Restoration involves the attempt to make the victim “whole again”. The goal of the restorative Justice system is to repair the harm crime has done to the relationship between the offender and the victim and the offender and the community (CGI interactive). Choice theories are based on the assumption that individuals make decisions.
Rational choice is the recess of determining what options are available and then choosing the most preferred one according to some consistent criterion (CGI interactive). In today’s society the criminal Justice system is built to help get criminals off the street but to also restore them. Whether it is state, local, or federal each agency works together to make this system flow. References IQ interactive Schumacher, F. (2011). Criminal Justice today. An introductory test for the 21st century (1 lath deed. ). Retrieved from The University of Phoenix eBook collection database.