As a result, Mistakes and Madras’s came into existence. These institutions used to receive royal patronage. A chain of madras’s, opened at several places, followed a set curriculum. The two brothers, Sheikh Abdullah and Sheikh Quizzical, who were specialists in rational science, headed the madras’s at Sambas and Agar. Apart from the talent available locally in the country, learned men from Arabia, Persia and Central Asia were also invited to take charge of education in madras’s. Do you know that the Muslim rulers attempted to reform the curriculum of primary schools.
Some important subjects like Arithmetic, Menstruation, Geometry, Astronomy, Accountancy, Public Administration and Agriculture were included in the courses of studies for primary education. Though special efforts were made by the ruler to carry out reforms in education, yet sciences did not make much headway. Efforts were made to seek a kind of synthesis between the Indian traditional scientific culture and the prevalent medieval approach to science in other countries. Let us now see what developments took place in various fields during this period.
Don’t waste your time!
Order your assignment!
Large workshops called Krishna were maintained to supply provision, stores and equipments to royal household and government departments. The Krishna not only worked as manufacturing agencies, but also served as centers for technical and vocational training to young people. The Krishna trained and turned out artisans and craftsperson in different branches, who later on set up their own independent Krishna Mathematics Several works in the field of Mathematics were produced during this period. Marinara Bandit, son of Marsha Divan was well known for his works in Mathematics – Sanitarium and Vegetarianism’s.
Kandahar, in Gujarat, wrote Alluvial Kirkpatrick, Standardization , and Alluvial Washy. These were famous treatises which gave rules for trigonometrically terms like sine, cosine tangent and cotangent. Inhalant Cosmonauts produced Administrators, which also contains rules of trigonometrically functions. Ganges Divan produced Vaudevillians – a commentary on alluvial – containing a number of illustrations. Krishna of the Valhalla family brought out Unvaried on the Vigilant of Babushka-al and elaboration of the rules of indeterminate equations of he first and second orders.
Inhalant Activated compiled Tacit, introducing a large number of Persian technical terms. Fizz, at the behest of Kafka, translated Babushka’s Vigilant. Kafka ordered to make Mathematics as a subject of study, among others in the education system . Insignia’s -din-at -Tutsis, was another scholar of Mathematics. Biology Similarly, there were advancements in the field of Biology. Hammerheads compiled a work in the field of Biology entitled Mrs.-packs-star in the thirteenth century. This gives a general, though not always scientific, account of some animals and birds of hunting.
This gives a general, though not always scientific, account of some animals and birds of hunting. The Muslim kings, who were warriors and hunters, maintained a fleet of animals such as horses, dogs, cheetahs and falcons for hunting. Animals, both domesticated as well as wild, have been described. Both Baber and Kafka, in spite of being busy in their political preoccupations and war, found time to study the work. Kafka had a special interest in producing good breeds of domestic animals like elephants and horses. Shanghai, in his work recorded his observations and experiments on breeding and habitation..
He described about 36 species of animals. His court artists, specially, Mansard, produced elegant and accurate portraiture’s of animals. Some of these are still preserved in several museums and private collections. As a naturalist, Shanghai was also interested in the study of plants. His court artists have drawn around 57 plants in their floral portraiture’s. Chemistry Do you know that in the medieval period, use of paper had begun? An important application of Chemistry was in the production of paper. Kashmir, Shallot, Scabbard, Patina, Marshaled, Mohammedan, Arranged and Moser became well known entrees of paper production.
The paper making technique was more or less the same throughout the country differing only in preparation of the pulp from different raw materials. The Mussels knew the technique of production of gunpowder and its use in gunnery, another application of Chemistry. The Indian craftsperson learnt the technique in evolved suitable explosive composition. The work Ukraine attributed to Accuracy contains a description of how gunpowder can be prepared using saltwater, sulfur and charcoal in different ratios for use in different types of guns..
The principal type of fire works included those which pierce through air, produce sparks of fire, blaze with various colors and end with explosion. The work Main -l- kabuki speaks of the regulation of the Perfume office of Kafka. The attar (perfume) of roses was a popular perfume, which is supposed to have been discovered by Marijuana. Astronomy Astronomy was another field that flourished during this period. In astronomy, a number of commentaries dealing with the already established astronomical notions appeared. Menhaden Sure, a court astronomer of Emperor Frizz Shah, developed an astronomical, instrument Honorary’.
Parameters and Ambassadorial, both in Kraal, were famous families of astronomers and almanac-makers. Inhalant Cosmonauts produced commentary of Arability. Kamala studied the Islamic astronomical ideas. He was an authority on Islamic knowledge. Maharaja Assai Jag Sings-II of Jasper was a patron of Astronomy. He set up the five astronomical observatories in Delhi, Jinni, Variants, Mature and Jasper. Medicine The Arrived system of medicine did not progress as vigorously as it did in the ancient period because of lack of royal patronage.
However, some important treatises on Arrived like the Granddads Sashimi and Straightjacket’s by Vanessa, the Yesteryear and the Paraphrase of Vampires were compiled. The Granddads Sashimi, written in the thirteenth century, includes use of opium in its material medical and urine examination for diagnostic purpose. The drugs mentioned include metallic preparation of the racialists system and even imported drugs. The Racialists system, dealt principally with a host of mineral medicines, both mercurial and non-mercurial.
The Shade system mostly prevalent in Tamil Nadia was attributed to the reputed Shades, who were supposed to have evolved many life- prolonging compositions, rich in mineral medicines. Agriculture In the medieval period, the pattern of agricultural practices was more or less the same as that in early India. Some important changes occurred in the introduction of new crops, trees as well as horticultural plants by foreign traders. The principal crops were wheat, rice, barley, millet’s, pulses, oilseeds, cotton, sugar-cane and indigo.
The Western Ghats continued to yield black pepper of good quality and Kashmir maintained its tradition for saffron and fruits. Ginger and cinnamon from Tamil Nadia, cardamom, sandalwood and coconut from Kraal, were becoming increasingly popular. Tobacco, chilies, potato, guava, custard apple, cashew and pineapple were the important plants which were introduced to India during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. It was during this period that the production of opium from poppy plants began in Malta and Briar regions. Improved horticultural methods were adopted with great success.
The systematic mango-grafting was introduced by he Jesuits of Ago in the middle of sixteenth century. Imperial McHugh Gardens were suitable areas where extensive cultivation of fruit trees came up. For irrigation, wells, tanks, canals, rata, chars and denial chars (a sort of a bucket made of leather used to lift water with the help of yoked oxen) were used. Persian wheel was used in the Agar region. In the medieval period, agriculture was placed on a solid foundation by the State by introducing a system of land measurement and land classification, beneficial both to the rulers as well as the tillers.