The United Nations provided a venue for factories debate between he two sides in the Cold War. The United Nations was established in 1945 with a General Assembly, Security Council, a fulfillment bureaucracy headed by the Crestfallenness, and various specialized agencies. All signatories of the Lignite Nations Charter renounced war and territorial conquest, but in practice, the United Nations was seldom able t o forestall or quell international conflicts.
The decentralization of Africa and Asia greatly swelled the size of the General Assembly, which became an arena for expressing opinions and whose resolute Ions carried great weight in the early years of the United Nations. The influx Of en members made the General Assembly more concerned with poverty, racial discrimination, and the struggle against imperialism than with the Cold War, a ND so the western powers increasingly ignored the General Assembly. B.
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Capitalism and Communism Between 1 944 and 1946, the western capitalist countries created a new intern atonal monetary system in which supply and demand determined prices and that in clued a system Of exchange rates, the International Monetary Fund, and the World Baa ink. The Soviet Union, suspicious of western intentions, established a closed monetary system n which the state allocated goods and set prices for itself and for the comma NIST states of eastern Europe. Copyright @ Coinage Learning. All rights reserved. C. D. 2 The U. S. Economy recovered and prospered during and after World War II.
The economy of western Europe, heavily damaged during World War II, recovered in the postwar period with the help of the American Marshall Plan. 3. Western European governments sought to increase their role in economic management during this period. In 1948, Europeans initiated a process of echo noncom cooperation and integration with the creation of the Organization of European Economic Cooperation, which expanded its membership as it developed into t he European Economic Community, or Common Market (1957), and then into the e European Community (1970).
The Soviet Union and eastern European states relied on the government to d determine the production, distribution, and price of goods. In the communist states, the recovery from World War II was rapid at first, but in the long run, the Soviet a eastern European economies were unable to match those of the west in the production of consumer goods, housing, and food. West Versus East in Europe and Korea The rapid establishment Of communist regimes in eastern Europe led the unit De States to perceive the Soviet Union as a worldwide enemy.
American percepts ones led to the Truman Doctrine (1947) and to the establishment of NATO (1 949). The S Viet union organized a similar institution-??the Warsaw Pact (1955)-??after western powers decided to allow West Germany to rearm within limits set by NATO. A third great war did not break out in Europe, but the Soviet Union and the W est. did test each others resolve in incidents such as the Soviet blockade of West Berlin n (1948-1949), the construction Of the Berlin Wall (1961), and the West’s encouragement of the rift between Yugoslavia and the Soviet Union.
Soviet p rower was used to ensure the obedience of eastern European nations such as Hung array and Czechoslovakia. 3. In Korea, Soviet and American occupation of zones north and south of the thirtieth parallel led to the establishment, in 1948, of a communist North K area and a miscounts South Korea. North Koreans invasion of South Korea in 1 950 marked the beginning of the Korean War, in which the United States came to t he aid of South Korea, while China sent troops to assist the north. A truce in 1 953 fix De the order again at the thirtieth parallel, but no peace treaty was concluded.
U. S. Defeat in Vietnam After winning independence from France, communist North Vietnam support De a communist guerilla movement-??the Viet Congo-??against the sits government of South Vietnam. John F. Kennedy decided to send American mil Atari advisers to assist South Vietnam, and President Lyndon Johnson gained congressional support for unlimited expansion of U. S. Military deployment. Unable to stop the Viet Congo and their North Vietnamese allies, the United Star test ended its involvement in Vietnam in 1973.
The Vietnam War brought sign efficient casualties to both sides and gave rise to serious economic problems and to an antiwar movement in the United States. The Race for Nuclear Supremacy The existence of weapons of mass destruction affected all aspects of the Cold Wa r confrontation, causing paranoia in the United States and spreading fear of nu clear destruction throughout the world. Fear of nuclear war seemed about to be re legalized when the Soviet Union deployed nuclear missiles to Cuba, but Khrushchev back d down and withdrew the missiles from Cuba. Copyright C Coinage Learning. All rights reserved.
Chapter 32: The Cold War and Decentralization, 1945-1975 3 The number, means of delivery, and destructive force of nuclear weapons incur eased enormously, but at the same time, the Soviet Union, the Ignited States, and to her countries made some progress on arms limitations. After 1972, the superpowers errs began the slow, arduous process of negotiating weapons limits. 3. Rather than attempting to keep up with the expensive Covariance’s arms r ace, the European nations sought to relax tensions between east and west through us chi organizations as the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe, which led to the signing of the Helsinki Accords.
Space exploration was another offshoot of the nuclear arms race because the ability to launch satellites and to send manned rockets into space was understood t o signify equivalent achievements in the military sphere. Decentralization and Nation Building A. New Nations in South and Southeast Asia After partition in 1947, the independent states of India and Pakistan were strip kingly dissimilar. Pakistan defined itself in terms Of religion, fell under the control Of military lea deer, and saw its Painstakingly eastern section secede to become the independent NT action of Bangladesh in 1971.
India, a secular republic with a 90 percent Hind population, inherited a larger share of industrial and educational resources a ND was able to maintain unity despite its linguistic heterogeneity. 3. In Southeast Asia, the defeats that the Japanese inflicted on the British, French h, and Dutch forces in World War II set an example of an Asian people standing up to European colonizers. In the postwar period, nationalist movements led to the independence of Indonesia (1949), Burma and the Malay Federation (1948), a ND the Philippines (1946. B. The Struggle for Independence in Africa The postwar French government granted independence to Tunisia and Morocco between 1952 and 1 956 but was determined to hold on to Algeria, which had substantial French settler population, vineyards, and oil and gas fields. An Alga inane revolt that broke out in 1954 was pursued with great brutality by both sides, b UT ended with French withdrawal and Algerian independence in 1962. 2. None of the several wars for independence in suburban Africa matched the Algerian struggle in scale.
But even without war, the new states suffered from variety of problems, including arbitrarily drawn borders, overconfidence on export rope, lack Of national road and railroad networks, and overpopulation. 3. Some of the politicians who led the nationalist movements devoted their lives to ridding their homelands of foreign occupation. Two examples are Shame Nor amah, the independence leader and later president of Ghana, and Com Kenya, w ho negotiated the independence and became first president of the Republic of K any. 4.
The African leaders in the suburban French colonies were reluctant to call f independence because they realized that some Of the colonies had bleak echo anomic prospects and because they were aware of the importance of the billions of d Lars of French public investment. Nevertheless, the French colonies achieved indeed indecent between 1 958 and 1960. 5. Decentralization in Africa often involved struggles because people of European descent fought against indigenous Africans in an attempt to retain their peers privileges, control of resources, and political power.
Race conflict was particular a rely severe in the southern part of Africa, including the Portuguese colonies of An goal Copyright O Coinage Learning. All rights reserved. 4 and Macaque, the British colony of Southern Rhodesia (Zanzibar), and in South and Southwest Africa. C. The Quest for Economic Freedom in Latin America In Latin America, independence from European rule was achieved earlier, but American and European economic domination increased. In Mexico, the revolutionary rhetoric of the ruling Institutional Revolutionary P a arty was accompanied by a large and persistent disparity between the rich and the e poor, the urban and the rural.
In Guatemala, President Jacob Urbane Gunman’s ATT empty to expropriate the property of large landowners, including the United Fruit Com pa NY, prompted the U. S. Central Intelligence Agency to assist in a military coup that moved Urbane from power and condemned Guatemala to decades of polite cal instability and violence. In the 1 9505, the Cuban leader Effulgence Batista presided over a corrupt, rep sieve regime, while the United States and a small class of wealthy Cubans dominate d the economy.
In 1 959, Fidel Castro led a popular revolution that forced Batista to I eave the country, redistributed land, lowered urban rents, raised wages, and seize d the property of U. S. And Cuban corporations. There is little evidence that Castro undertook his revolution to install a com insist government, but faced with a IS. S. Blockade, he turned to the Soviet Union for economic aid, thereby committing his nation to economic stagnation and deep ended on the Soviet Union.
In April 1961 , some fifteen hundred Cuban exiles whom t CA had trained landed at the Bay of Pigs in Cuba in an effort to overthrow Ca strop, but the attempt failed partly because the United States did not supply all the air support that the plan had called for. D. Challenges of Nation Building Decentralization occurred on a vast scale and led to the establishment of doze ins of new nations between 1945 and 1965. Each of these new nations had to estate some form of government, and most of them had to do so while facing severe economic challenges.
The new nations also had to address serious educational concerns, including questions such as which language to teach, how to inculcate a sense of nation al unity in places where it had not previously existed, and how to provide satisfying jog BBS for graduates. The new nations were rarely able to surmount these hurdles, and many nations, even those as successful as South Korea, opted for authoritarian rule . Ill. Beyond a Bipolar World A. The Third World In 1 955, Indonesian President Saguaro hosted a meeting of twenties Africa n and Asian countries at Banding, Indonesia.