The Minoans are Bronze Age the civilization that arose In Crete In third and second millennia BCC. There called after their legendary King Minis. Their reign is divided into 3 main periods: Early, Middle and Late Minoans. Their art and architecture was very distinctive and glorious showing scenes of peace and melancholy, however they didn’t have strong walls which were built for defense. Excavation on these sites have revealed some clay tablets that were written on, on some even in a writing that is considered as an early Greek language.
The Mycenaean are people who used metal, built houses and traded with Crete and other Islands. These people lived on the Creek mainland. It Is not known where they came from, they did not even speak a language that was Indo-European. Excavators show signs of later invasions of Greeks. The Mycenaean were warriors ruled by powerful kings and had fortresses built on hills with sorting defensive walls. Unlike Minoans’, their murals are showing scenes of wars and hunting. They are mentioned in the archives of the Hitter Kings of Asia Minor and in Egyptian records.
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They probably destroyed Troy, which later was a basis for Homer’s Iliad and the Eyes. Around 1200 BCC, this civilization shows signs of struggle and they disappeared. After their disappearance, which Is considered the fault of the Dorian, Greece entered the dark middle ages, about which is not much known. Homer’s poems provide the best insight into these dark ages. They are based upon oral poetry and tradition that has come from that very time. Polls in the Expanding Greek World It Is the most characteristic Greek Institution representing a city-state.
All of polices were initially villages or towns with flourishing agriculture. A polis was a community of relatives: the citizens have come from one coaster, so they all present subgroups which were brotherhoods, clans or tribes. Later on, agar – a marketplace and CIVIC – center appeared In polls, It became a place of social interaction and major conversations. The hoppled phalanx has become an invitational war technique. From 8th to 6th century BCC, Greek period of colonization began – they successfully placed polis all the way from Span to the Black Sea.
They Inhabited Macedonia, and had many colonies In Sicily and Italy later called Magna Grackle. Colonization gave them sense of belonging, of having a culture (phenylalanine). It also encouraged trade and industry. Many of the new wealth citizens were not of aristocratic blood, they were not politically Included, so they rebelled and many of those conflicts resulted In tyranny. Tyrants (700-500 BCC) were monarchs who gained power unorthodoxly and ruled 1 org only to gain more power and be more popular among the citizens. They cultivated arts, literature and technology. The last of them are remembered as oppressive and aggressive.
Archaic Greece Aristocrats lead privileged lives, the others farmed the land. The religion played important role in those times. Like most ancient nations, the Greeks were polytheists. The art and literature and general life of polis were tightly connected with religion. The 12 deities that lived on Mount Olympus were considered to behave like humans. The early Greek traders learnt many techniques in Syria. They borrowed the writing system from a Semitic script and added vowel to create the first real alphabet ever, which was easy to learn. Due to that, the Greece became a widely literate society.
During the 6th century, the lyric has become a new genre of poetry. The poets wrote about personal issues that can be implied in life, like love and political state and opinions. Polis and Persian Wars Each polis developed in a unique way. Athens and Sparta have become the most powerful city-states with unusual histories. The wars with Persia have ended the lambasting freedom of polis. Spartan conquered Messiah due to population increase and hunger. The Helots of Messiah now had to work for the Spartan, so they rebelled. To keep them DOD, Spartan turned the state to a military camp.
In that way they turned the center of Helots’ devotion from family to polis. Athens was governed by a council of nobles. Due to degenerating crisis and socioeconomic change, the Athenians elected Solon. He cancelled debts, forbade bet slavery and brought Athenians who were enslaved abroad. He forbade the export of some major goods, but encouraged the production of olive oil and wine for sale. He changed the way of government by improving the economy of Athens. In 6th century BCC, some of the coastline polis in Asia Minor fell under the control of King Crosses of Lydia and the powerful Persian Empire.
The situation was calm enough, no one rebelled until a tyrant Aristocrat of Milieus ended the calm. Persians conquered island Nanas. Later Aristocrat tried to raise a rebellion in Ionian and turned to the mainland polios. Athenians burned Saris, the seat of Persian governor. Persia countered by destroying Milieus and ending the rebellion in Ionian. In 490 BCC, Persian king Diaries decided to punish Athens. The Persians were defeated at Marathon. In 481 BCC, Xeroxes gathered an army of 150, 000 men and Ana of 600 ships and attacked Athens, which defeated the Persians again with only 200 ships.
On mainland, the Spartan tried to sop the Persian invasion, but failed. The war was won by Greece, due to their great fight on the sea. Classical Greece After the Persians retreated, Greece be+entered its classical period, which has aridly ever been surpassed in cultural achievement by any other civilization. It is also 150 years of conflict between the polis, which resulted in them being weakened and vulnerable. As the strongest and best equipped polis in Greece. Common, the leader of Athens wanted to aggressively attack Persia and stay in friendly relations with Spartan.
Prices however, wanted to change that state. They eventually all arranged Common’s exile, and formed an ally with Argos, Sprat’s enemy. A conflict emerged between Sprat’s and Athens allies known as the First Polynesian War. The Athenians remained undefeated during the early years of the war. In 454 BCC, Athenian fleet was destroyed and the revolts broke inside the Delia League. Sparta and Athens agreed on 30 years of peace in Greece, at that time, divided into 2 parts. The peace only lasted for 10 years. This war was long and sit destroyed the foundation of whole civilization.
After years of fighting and ruining, no one won. The Athenian Empire lost its power and collapsed. Through the years, the Spartan intervened in many conflicts with Persia and won, later even controlling the Mesopotamia. They became very aggressive and lawless, which, in their future battles caused them to ruin themselves. Greece has once again come to the pre-wars period of disorientation. Hellenic Culture A period of 3 centuries in which Greek culture had spread itself to Egypt and into the far eastern Asia. The Hellenic civilization was combination of Asian and Greek elements.
It arose with the rise of power of Macedonia, which conquered Greece and Persia in two generations. Macedon Kingdom was in the between Greece and barbaric tribes of the North. For Greeks, Macedonian were semicircular. Philip II of Macedon unified Macedon in 359 BCC he created his people as a strong fighting force. In 338 BCC, he defeated Athens and Thebes. Phillip was murdered, but his son, Alexander the Great, succeeded in his father’s plans to conquer Persia. His battles were quick and short, he wanted them like that decisively because he needed supplies of minor Persian strongholds.
He fought intelligently, marching straight through Syria and defeating the Persian army, causing king Diaries Ill to flee. He easily conquered Egypt and was met with ovations and considered the Son of God Re, savior and pharaoh. Diaries Ill offered him alliance to end the invasion. He refused. In Mesopotamia, he again tactically defeated the Persians, Diaries fled again. He entered Babylon and was declared a king and a savior one more. He burned Prolepsis, after taking all the money he needed to circulate in his empire, as a symbol of final destruction of Persia.
He later found Diaries dead, so he captured Diaries’ replacement, Busses, and headed to India. Near Samaritan, in one of towns named after him, he married a Bacteria princess. He conquered Pakistan, going even further to see the river Ocean for which Greeks thought was the end of the world. His tired men refused to go further, so they went back to Persian Gulf. He had great plan for future, but in his 33rd year, he died. Overall, the Hellenic heritage provided us an insurmountable quantity of culture and teachings, from medicine, mathematics and astronomy to arts, literature an philosophies.
Chapter 11 The Byzantine Empire and Western Europe The Fall of Western Roman Empire In fifth century CE Italy and Rome endured several sieges and attacks by barbarian fragmented Western Empire fell in hands of the barbarians. Rome officially fell in 457; emperor Divorce declared Zone, the Eastern Roman emperor, as the only emperor of the whole Roman Empire. The barbarians culturally separated Europe from its Classical Age. Rupee’s development was stagnating due to the political and economical fragmentation, while other civilizations were improving their assets.
China was securing its borders from foreign invasions between 8th and 10th century. They were more cosmopolitan and politically and technologically unified than Europe at the time. They even had movable type printing machines in 10th century, which the West became knowledge with in 1 5th century. The rulers’ authority was extended greatly upon the people, while in Europe the power the rulers had was mainly inside the government centers. India was blossoming under the reign of Guavas in 4th and 5th centuries, until the Arab expansion to Spain and India in 8th century.
Japan was fragmented in similar means Just like Europe. The Byzantine Empire In the 4th century, the imperial power shifted to the eastern part of empire. Emperor Justinian reign for the greatest period of Constantinople glory. The strength of the empire could be seen in the tight central control of over 1,500 powerful cities all around the Byzantine, some of which had about 50,000 citizens, while Constantinople had about 350,000 inhabitants – the most populated city of the oral at the time. Let has been a crossroads between Europe and Asia.
Justinian policy was to centralize governments by imposing legal and doctrinal conformity – codification of existing Roman Law – Corpus Jurist Civil (studied and used even today). At the time, church and rulers were closely tied, in the means that the ruler had power over the church. Barbarian Invasions of Western Roman Empire The Germanic tribes had coexisted peacefully with the Romans for several centuries, until appearance of Hung. Therefore, the Germanic fled westward to the Roman Empire and there were faced with famine, disease, high taxes and poor litany – they’ve easily gained control over the land.
Justinian tried to regain Western Roman Empire, but only partially succeeded for some time. Avers, Slavs and Bulgaria invaded North and West lands around Constantinople in 6th and 7th centuries. Slavs covered to Eastern Orthodoxy (Byzantine Christianity) by two saints, Cyril and Methodism, who invented the Greek-based alphabet of Slavic language. It was later revise by Bulbar influence and today is known as Cyclic. Heraclites was the first emperor who spoke only Greek, not Latin. He spent his life resisting Persian and Islamic invasions.
Eventually, in 7th century, Islamic armies overran the empire and they steadily progressed, until emperor Leo Ill who repelled Arabs. He succeeded to take back most of Asia Minor, but the Mediterranean was forever lost. Constantinople was of great importance and very interesting to non-Christians as the centre of the world. In time, there were not only Fresh, Paisa and Venetian quarters, but Muslim and Jewish ones as well. The period of strong imperial rule was in 10th century. Former military reforms (7th and oh centuries) allowed better resistance to the enemy invasions.
Macedonian Bulgaria were halted by Basil II, the fiercest emperor of the dynasty. All in all, Macedonian reign was age of art, literature and culture – a revival period. It was a period of state-controlled growth and military peace. The peace was broken in 1071, first with the loss of the last stronghold of Byzantine Empire in the West: Barb, a town in Italy; it fell to the Norman kings of France, and second with the coming of Muslim Seller Turks. They destroyed the imperial army in the battle of Amazement and overran Anatolia, from where the Byzantine Empire recruited its soldiers.
Empire had to fight the enemies on two fronts, all the while it served a purpose of religious and cultural heritage center of he West. After more than 20 years of steady Turkish advances, emperor Alexis I called for help from the West. The Pope launched the first Crusade. In 1204, the 4th Crusade was stopped in Constantinople on their way to Jerusalem. Even though their purpose should have been the rescuing of the Byzantine capital, they inflicted more damage upon Jerusalem than all the previous invaders of other religions. Religious Diversity Religious belief was of great servitude to political unity.
In 391 the officially declared faith of Eastern Empire was Christianity, while other religions and sects were forbidden and proclaimed as heresy. Patriarchs were those who crowned the emperors and they were highly respected and generously endowed. A lot of Jews lived in the empire and they were protected by Roman Law. Some emperors tried to convert them to Christianity boot forcefully and indirectly, but those methods proven themselves unsuccessful. In 4th century, the Nice Creed was concluded, claiming that the Holy Spirit proceeded from Father only, not from the Son.
Some scholars believe that the Creed has been of political concern: by protecting the majesty of Father, they were actually protecting the position of the emperor, for whom was believed to have all et power of he worlds. In 8th century, Leo Ill forbade the use of icons in worship, iconoclasm. That served to furtherer divide the East and West parts of the empire by shocking the Roman Popes who allied with Freakish kings. Eastern church also denied the existence of Purgatory, allowed marriage to the priests and allowed liturgies to be held in other languages, not only in Greek or Latin.
This all lead to the great schism in 1054. These privileges the Western Christians didn’t gain until the Protestant Reformation in 16th century. Impact of Islam on East and West Unlike other invaders, Arabs imposed their culture and religion whatever land hey conquered. In 8th century, they gained access to Spain – that was the beginning of 700-year reign of today’s Andalusia. South and East Mediterranean coastline were also under their control. On the other side, other Muslim armies, Seller and Ottoman Turks, proceeded over Mesopotamia and Persia toward Byzantine.
The Muslims tolerated Christians and Jews – they made no efforts to convert them to Islam, however they made sure the conquered people pay special taxes which itself encouraged the conversion to Islam. Leo Ill stopped them at the time from developing further, until 1453. Franks stopped the Arabs from their expansion to the very center of Europe on Christians and Muslims continued in the means of trade. Caliphates of Islamic empire found the Byzantine as a perfect model, the courts and architecture were all having impact on the Islamic conquerors and the art became a foundation for later Arab illuminations.
Arab rulers wanted to see their faith in intellectual terms and associate themselves with an older powerful tradition. This wish influenced Muslim interest in Ancient Greek culture and learning, especially in medicine, astronomy, philosophy and logic. They translated all of the now studies from Greek. Arab scholars noted that Christian emperors suppressed the Greek studies on purpose due to political reasons. The Western civilization gained the most from Muslim teachings, the Greek famous works were thankless to Latin thanks to the Arabs in Spain, who allowed mixed communities.
Roman Church Development Through all of this, while the Western Empire was slowly crumbling, the church gained in power. On, the church became a great substitution of sometime emperors of the Western Romans. Church and the Pope gained the control over Rome and became a center of all that left in the empire. They gained strength, special privileges, great lands and wealth. The church had a religious message to help in the worst time and rituals that united people beyond the barriers, all the while acting as a central administrations power.
The Monastic culture was widely spread, resulting in the appearance of monks, who later became willing to serve the needs of the infirm and poor people by caring for them. As the problems for Eastern Roman Empire continued, the Pope took the opportunity and declared himself as a Christ visceral on Earth hiving him absolute power in secular and other sectors of the Empire, too. The Kingdom of the Franks Their territory include the land of today’s France, western Germany, Belgium and the Netherlands. Innervations’ counts had become territorial rulers for their own benefit, which resulted in the weakening of the Innervations.
Later on, the Carolingian gained power and took the crown of Freakish kings after their strong army of counts who held the lands defeated the Arabs on the west frontier. The Carolingian used the power of church to pacify the tribes – Bars, Frisian and Saxons, who were the greatest enemies of the Franks. The church helped them to take the title of the crown dynasty. Together, they formed an alliance after the Nice Creed against the Eastern emperor. The Franks protected the church and king Pepping was declared as a father-protector of the Roman, which was , by that time, only emperor’s title.
Franks defeated the Lombardi and gave the lands to the church around Rome. This land are known as the Papal States. Throughout the time, peasants were classified as free on unfreeze bob their lord considering their heritage and property. Many of them escaped in search of better places. The Carolingian empire was divided in three parts and became fragmented due to the war between three brothers who owned the parts. The empire as itself would not be whole again until the 16th century. Feudalism It is the social, political and economic system that emerged from rich freemen who ruled the smaller, poorer freemen.
This conditions prevailed due to constant threats people require firm assurance that others can be depended on in time of dire need. It is a system of mutual rights and responsibilities. The rich freemen, the masters had their own lands, own armies and courts, and the smaller ones were their vassals. The origins of the feudal society can be found in conflicts inside the Moravian dynasty and it lasted through the Carolingian, as well. Chapter 20 The Last Great Islamic Empires, 1500-1800 The Islamic vitality from 1450 to 1800 was proven by three great states of Ottomans, Savvied and Musicals.
They built great militaries and civil states and revived Islamic culture and social life. Ottoman Empire Ottomans were a Turkish dynasty who originated from one of the groups of western Chough Turks in Central Asia. They came to Anatolia as Muslims. In the time, the first Turks that were residents of Byzantine were Useless. They had reign over dome parts of modern-day Turkey. He Ottoman power shifted to Dire on the Balkan Peninsula, slowly extending toward Anatolia. Constantinople finally fell Eden Ottoman control in 1453. By the reign of Sultan Mohamed II, The Conqueror. It became Ottoman capital after it was renamed to Istanbul.
Ottomans allowed Christian patriarch to remain there and rule the Eastern church. The Ottoman expansions continued toward the center of Europe, often Justified in the name of Islam. Sultan Sells I conquered the lands of southeastern Europe, north of the Black Sea and majority of Ukraine, Egypt, annexed Syria and Palestine, as well as Mecca and Medina. Furthermore, Sultan Salesman ћthe Magnificent” expanded the empire over Sardinian, Georgia, Mesopotamia, Iraq and more of eastern Europe, as well as big part of Hungary and nearly Vienna. The entire empire was organized as a military institution.
All member had ranks and positions, no matter their function. Grand Mufti or Sheikh of Islam, was a single religious authority who ruled the llama as a significant part of government. It was supposed to be only for Muslim men and had an entire system of courts and Judges and it held the supremacy of Shari’s, Muslim law Which was recognized by the Sultan himself. However, the empire had its strictly organized administrative law, Quean. After Salesman’s death, his son Sells II gained control over the empire. It was weakened by military corruption, government decentralization and various other setbacks.
Economically, inflation and agricultural failures have been sufficient to endure, but intellectual, the empire was vitality by cultural accomplishments. Savvied of Iran took control over Sardinian and Mesopotamia in 1603. The military was weakened from fighting on two fronts, with the addition of Rupee’s progress in technology. In 17th century, the Janissaries became corrupt, meddling into politics and dynastic issues. Later on, Maraud IV from 1623 to 1640 tried to revivalist the reign, but he died leaving weakly centralized authority with taxes rising, paying the Janissaries, weakened all aspects of government to his successors. Epitomized majestically, ant the cultural exchange flourished, but at the same time, the llama became increasingly corrupt. There are some notable writers and historians such as Katie Chilled, Evilly Chilled, Minima the traveler, and greatest Ottoman poet, Ended. The greatest was the architect Asian. The empire had become influenced highly by Europeans and Jews and progressed as a multivalent, literature and multitudinous state. After the failure in 1683 to take Vienna, they came back from Hungary and Belgrade and never threatened Europe again.
From 17th to 18th century, the empire was increasingly becoming dependent on international markets, in contrast to its self-sufficient growth and control of conquered lands. The European economics- based system was going toward industrialization and capitalism and the empire collapsed under their growing interest in 1918. The Safaris Empire and the West Asian World The Savvied originate from Turkish spiritual leaders of a Sunnis Suffix order in Azerbaijan. They officially appeared in 14th century. Soon, their order evolved Shiite ideology.
Throughout the years they had many conflicts and battles with neighboring nations and empires. A strong central rule of Shiite conformity was applied by Shah Somali, which caused even greater tensions with the neighbors. Ottoman sultan Sells I defeated the Safaris army in 1514, which caused wars on the Safaris- Ottoman border for about two centuries. Thanks to their religious feelings, the Savvied endured the constant attacks ender Somalia’s successor, Thomas l. The next and the most able Safaris ruler, Shah Bass brought a first real type of leadership to Iran.
He regained the provincial lands and used the men force in order to support Iranian troops as a counterweight to other problematic lands. He pushed the Ottomans out of Azerbaijan and Iraq and sought alliances with Ottoman’s western enemies. This is the tactic that eventually caused many fatal divisions in both politics and economics in the assumed unity of Islamic world. Bass broke down the monopoly of the Portuguese in trade on Persian shores and made deals with Dutch and English commerce in India. The grandeur capital he brought to Iran could best be seen at Safaris.
However, the Savvied’ power had a lambasting after-effect: the central faith of majority, Sunnis Islam, was replaced for Shiite Islam. The llama, society+TTY of scholars leaned the legitimacy to government and they discouraged the pilgrimage to Mecca, instead they encouraged visits to Kraal and the shrine of Hussar. By the 17th century, llama withdrew from any political participation. After Shah Bass, the empire didn’t see able reign again. Pressure on two fronts, economics weakening and the increasing power of llama were the reasons the empire increasingly corrupted and eventually declined.
Afghan leader forced Hussar I to abdicate. The lands of the empire were shared among the neighbors, only kept reign over western Iran. In 1747, the reign of Nadir Shah ended brutally. The Musicals The name is a Persian variation of the Mongols. They were Chatty Turks and they invaded India from the northwest starting a new era for India, by reuniting the fragmented states. The founder of the dynasty, Baber, marched to India, replaced However, the greatest ruler of India, since Osaka, was Kafka “the Great”. He gained his success with impressive military force, adding great lands to the empire.
More important were his government reforms, his handling of cultural and religious differences. He organized the government and the tax system. Hindu-Muslims tensions were eased at the time when he married the Ragout princess. He also organized debates between various spiritual leaders, showing tolerance for all religions. Saba’s successors had great achievements,too, but the problem in sustaining an Indian empire gradually became too much. Janitor and Shah Johan were rulers who accomplished most when it’s about culture, particularly in architecture and painting.
Shah Johan was strained with economic problems, though. His building projects were too expensive, like Tax Mall, which he built for his beloved Mutual. Rearrange, Khan’s son, was religiously conservative in more an more internally conflicted India. He persecuted non-Muslims, destroyed Hindu temples, reimbursed the poll tax and estranged the Ragout leaders. He denied and ruined everything Kafka ever fought for. Arranger’s reign and methods were helping a lot to various movements, which include nationalism as well, and religions to culminate and eventually divide India religiously and nationally even more.